9780205491223

Reading and Responding in the Middle Grades Approaches for All Classrooms

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780205491223

  • ISBN10:

    0205491227

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-02-17
  • Publisher: Pearson

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

This book focuses on practical, research-based approaches middle-grade teachers can use to help their students hone their reading abilities, learn from what they read, and become increasingly motivated to read and competent in responding to the sophisticated narrative and expository texts they encounter in the middle grades and beyond. The authors, one a leading scholar in childrenrs"s and adolescent literature and the other a leading scholar in reading education, emphasize the relevance of giving equal attention to both cognitive and affective factors. Through a clear and friendly writing style Lee Galda and Mike Graves carefully analyze and describe the unique characteristics of middle-grade students and their learning, give equal attention to the cognitive-constructivist view of reading familiar to reading educators and the transactional theory and reader response theory familiar to literary scholars. This book is unique in that it encompasses learning to read (comprehension), reading to learn (across the curriculum), and adolescent literature and response. While these areas are entirely compatible, they are not often combined. Major topics, each of which is treated in a chapter, include the middle school learner, motivation and engagement, literature for adolescents, scaffolding students'comprehension, teaching comprehension and study strategies, teaching literature, higher-order thinking and deep understanding, vocabulary instruction, assessment, and classroom organization. Glowing Reviews! "I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. My knowledge base was definitely broadened and I found much merit and much to commend. In fact, I made notes in the margins filled with such statements as "easy to read," "terrific idea," and "important insight." shy;--Maria Ceprano, Buffalo State College "The inclusion of ELL issues in the deliberations about teaching are quite useful and appropriate. This book does an excellent job describing ELL studentsrs" instructional needs and offering alternative or modified instructional approaches." --Kurtis S. Meredith-University of Northern Iowa. Meet the Authors Lee Galdais Professor of Childrenrs"s and Adolescent Literature at the University of Minnesota. Her research and development interests focus on literature and its role in motivation and engagement, and reader response. Her recent books includeLiterature and the Child (6 th edition),with Bernice Cullinan, andLanguage Arts: Learning and Teaching, with Dorothy Strickland and Bernice Cullinan, both published by Wadsworth/Thomson. Michael F. Gravesis Professor of Literacy Education at the University of Minnesota. His research and development efforts focus on comprehension instruction and vocabulary learning and instruction. His recent books includeTeaching Reading in the 21st Century(4th edition in press, with Connie Juel and Bonnie Graves, Allyn & Bacon) andThe Vocabulary Book(2006, Teachers College Press, IRA, and NCTE).

Table of Contents

Preface ix
About the Authors xi
The Middle-School Learner: Theory and Research That Inform Practice
1(18)
What This Book Is About
2(1)
The Middle-Grade Learner
3(4)
The Cognitive--Constructivist View of Reading
7(6)
The Cognitive Orientation
7(4)
The Social--Constructivist Orientation
11(2)
Transactional Theory: Response to Literature
13(4)
Reading as Transactional
14(1)
Reading as Temporal
15(1)
Reading as Social and Cultural
16(1)
Reading as Transformational
17(1)
Concluding Remarks
17(1)
Extending Learning
18(1)
Motivation and Engagement
19(28)
Creating a Literate Environment
21(7)
Demonstration
21(1)
Time
22(1)
Materials
23(2)
Choice
25(2)
Classroom Climate
27(1)
The Importance of Positive Attributions
28(3)
Attribution Theory
29(1)
Learned Helplessness
29(2)
Concrete Approaches to Motivating Students
31(11)
Ensuring Student Success
31(1)
Providing Appropriate Challenges
32(3)
Grouping Students to Promote Learning and Positive Attitudes
35(2)
Promoting Academic Values and Goals
37(2)
Fostering Higher-Order Thinking and Deep Understanding
39(1)
Ensuring Active Participation, Using Cooperative Activities, and Including Variety
40(1)
Making Connections to Students' Cultures and Lives Outside of School
41(1)
Praising Students, Rewarding Them, and Helping Them Set Goals
42(1)
Concluding Remarks
42(2)
Motivational Strategies Gleaned from Brophy
43(1)
Motivational Strategies Gleaned from Pressley and His Colleagues
44(1)
Motivational Strategies Listed by the National Research Council
44(1)
Extending Learning
44(1)
Books for Middle-Grade Students
45(2)
Literature for Adolescents
47(30)
Defining Adolescent Literature
48(1)
Selecting Books for Adolescents
49(1)
Language
49(1)
Illustration
49(1)
Other Literary Considerations
50(1)
Understanding Narrative Fiction
50(12)
Setting
50(1)
Characterization
51(1)
Plot
51(1)
Theme
52(1)
Point of View
53(1)
Style
54(2)
Genres in Narrative Fiction
56(6)
Understanding Nonfiction
62(3)
Style
64(1)
Organization
64(1)
Accuracy
64(1)
Expository and Narrative Nonfiction
65(1)
Expository Nonfiction
65(1)
Authentic Biography
66(1)
Understanding Poetry
66(2)
Figurative Language/Imagery
67(1)
Sound
67(1)
Form
68(1)
Building a Classroom Collection
68(4)
Finding Good Books
69(2)
Selection versus Censorship
71(1)
Concluding Remarks
72(1)
Extending Learning
72(1)
Books for Middle-Grade Readers
73(4)
Scaffolding Students' Comprehension, Learning, and Engagement with Text
77(28)
The Purpose, the Selection, and the Students
79(3)
The Purpose
79(1)
The Selection
79(2)
The Students
81(1)
The Scaffolded Reading Experience
82(1)
Prereading Activities
83(6)
Motivating
84(1)
Relating the Reading to Students' Lives
84(1)
Activating or Building Background Knowledge
85(1)
Providing Text-Specific Knowledge
86(1)
Preteaching Vocabulary
86(1)
Preteaching Concepts
86(1)
Prequestioning, Predicting, and Direction Setting
87(1)
Using Students' Native Language
87(1)
Involving English-Language Learner Communities, Parents, and Siblings
88(1)
Suggesting Strategies
88(1)
Sample Prereading Activity: Prereading Questionnaire
89(1)
During-Reading Activities
89(4)
Silent Reading
91(1)
Reading to Students
91(1)
Supported Reading
91(1)
Oral Reading by Students
92(1)
Modifying the Text
93(1)
Sample During-Reading Activity: Supported Reading
93(1)
Postreading Activities
93(8)
Questioning
95(1)
Discussion
96(1)
Writing
96(1)
Drama
97(1)
Artistic and Nonverbal Activities
98(1)
Application and Outreach Activities
98(1)
Sample Postreading Activity
99(2)
A Comprehensive Scaffolded Reading Experience
101(1)
Concluding Remarks
101(2)
Extending Learning
103(1)
Books for Middle-Grade Readers
104(1)
Teaching Comprehension and Study Strategies
105(30)
Reading Comprehension and Study Strategies
106(11)
Characteristics of Comprehension and Study Strategies
107(1)
Key Comprehension and Study Strategies
108(7)
Concepts Underlying Our Approach to Teaching Strategies
115(2)
A Powerful Approach to Teaching Strategies
117(10)
Instruction for Determining What Is Important
119(6)
Overview of a Unit
125(1)
The Constructive Nature of Good Strategy Instruction
126(1)
Review and Followup Activities
126(1)
Widely Recommended Sequences of Strategies
127(5)
The K-W-L Procedure
128(1)
Reciprocal Teaching
129(1)
The SQ3R Method
130(1)
Teaching Sequences of Strategies
131(1)
Concluding Remarks
132(1)
Extending Learning
132(1)
Books for Middle-Grade Readers
133(2)
Teaching Literature
135(24)
Developing Engaged Readers
137(7)
Sharing Good Books
137(3)
Reading Good Books
140(1)
Reading Strategically
141(1)
Reading Responsively
142(2)
Developing a Community of Responsive Readers
144(5)
Talking About Books
145(3)
Drama, Choral Reading, and Other Oral Presentations
148(1)
Developing Literary Understanding
149(7)
Making Connections
150(1)
Other Ways to Learn about Literature
150(2)
Teaching Nonfiction
152(2)
Teaching Narrative Fiction
154(1)
Teaching Poetry
155(1)
Concluding Remarks
156(1)
Extending Learning
157(1)
Books for Middle-Grade Readers
157(2)
Fostering Higher-Order Thinking and Deep Understanding
159(28)
Fostering Higher-Order Thinking
160(5)
Just What Is Higher-Order Thinking?
161(1)
A Taxonomy of Higher-Order Questions
162(1)
An Additional Perspective for Considering Questions
163(2)
Teaching for Understanding
165(19)
Some Key Attributes of Teaching for Understanding
166(4)
Teaching for Understanding Units
170(4)
Jigsaw Cooperative Learning
174(3)
Knowledge as Design
177(7)
Concluding Remarks
184(1)
Extending Learning
184(1)
Books for Middle-Grade Readers
185(2)
Vocabulary Instruction
187(32)
Providing Frequent, Extensive, and Varied Language Experiences
189(2)
Teaching Individual Words
191(12)
The Word-Learning Tasks Students Face
191(2)
Identifying Vocabulary to Teach
193(1)
Methods of Teaching Individual Words
194(9)
Teaching Students Word-Learning Strategies
203(7)
Using Context Cues to Unlock the Meanings of Unknown Words
203(3)
Using Word Parts to Unlock the Meanings of Unknown Words
206(2)
Using the Dictionary to Identify or Clarify Word Meanings
208(2)
Fostering Word Consciousness
210(5)
Modeling, Recognizing, and Encouraging Adept Diction
211(2)
Promoting Word Play
213(1)
Providing Intensive and Expressive Instruction
214(1)
Concluding Remarks
215(1)
Extending Learning
216(1)
Books for Middle-Grade Readers
217(2)
Assessment
219(30)
Beyond Standardized Tests
220(6)
Norm-Referenced Standardized Tests
221(1)
Criterion-Referenced Standardized Tests
222(2)
Authentic Assessment
224(2)
Assessing Student Performance
226(14)
What Needs Assessing?
226(1)
Formal Observations
227(7)
Informal Observations
234(2)
Student Artifacts
236(2)
Talking with Students
238(2)
Combining Assessment Strategies
240(1)
Encouraging Student Self-Evaluation
240(3)
Talking with Students about Progress
241(1)
Student Collection of Self-Assessment Data
242(1)
Helping Students Understanding Their Own Needs
242(1)
Documenting Student Progress
243(1)
Portfolios
243(1)
Keeping Track of the Whole Class
244(1)
Assessing the Effectiveness of Your Teaching
244(2)
Concluding Remarks
246(1)
Extending Learning
247(1)
Books for Middle-Grade Readers
247(2)
Organizing Classrooms to Promote Reading and Responding
249(20)
Creative Effective Instruction
251(15)
Organizational Patterns
252(8)
Effective Instruction in Action
260(6)
Concluding Remarks
266(1)
Extending Learning
267(1)
Books for Middle-Grade Readers
267(2)
References 269(14)
Index 283

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