Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers, MyLabSchool Edition

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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Unlike many texts in this field, "Reading, Writing and Learning In ESL (K-12)" takes a unique approach by exploring contemporary language acquisition theory as it relates to instruction and providing suggestions and methods for motivating and involving ELL students. Oral language, reading, and writing development in English for K-12 students.

Author Biography

Suzanne F. Peregoy, Professor Emerita of Education, San Francisco State University Owen F. Boyle, Professor Emeritus of Education, San Jose State University

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
English Language Learners in Schoolp. 1
Who Are English Language Learners?p. 3
How Can I Get to Know My English Language Learners?p. 4
Getting Basic Information When a New Student Arrivesp. 4
Classroom Activities That Let You Get to Know Your Studentsp. 6
How Do Cultural Differences Affect Teaching and Learning?p. 8
Culture in the Classroom Contextp. 9
Definitions of Culture and Its Contentp. 9
Sociolinguistic Interactions in the Classroomp. 12
Culturally Related Responses to Classroom Organizationp. 13
Literacy Traditions from Home and Communityp. 14
How Can I Ease Newcomers into the Routines of My Classroom When They Know Little or No English?p. 15
First Things First: Safety and Securityp. 15
Creating a Sense of Belongingp. 16
Current Policy Trends Affecting the Education of English Learnersp. 18
Academic Standards and Assessmentp. 18
High-Stakes Testingp. 19
Education Policy Specific to English Learnersp. 21
What Kinds of Programs Exist to Meet the Needs of English Language Learners?p. 23
Bilingual Education Programsp. 24
English Language Instructional Programsp. 26
English Language Learners in the "General Education" Classroomp. 27
Quality Indicators to Look for in Programs Serving English Learnersp. 28
Summaryp. 28
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 30
Activitiesp. 31
Second Language Acquisitionp. 33
What Do You Know When You Know a Language? Defining Language Proficiency as Communicative Competencep. 34
Classroom Example of Language Use in Social Contextp. 35
Literal and Figurative Languagep. 37
Language, Power, Social Standing, and Identityp. 39
Language as an Instrument and Symbol of Powerp. 40
Language or Dialect?p. 41
Personal Identity and Ways of Speaking: The Case of Ebonicsp. 43
Languages in the Atticp. 44
Language Acquisition Theoriesp. 45
First Language Acquisition Theoriesp. 45
Second Language Acquisition Theoriesp. 52
Beyond Social Interaction in Second Language Acquisition Theoryp. 57
Learning a Second Language in School: Processes and Factorsp. 59
Second Language Acquisition Contexts: Formal Study versus Immersion in a Country Where the Language Is Spokenp. 59
Age and the Interplay of Sociocultural, Cognitive, and Personality Factorsp. 60
Differences in School Expectations of Younger and Older Learnersp. 62
Teacher Expectations for English Learner Achievementp. 63
Language Used for Social Interaction versus Language Used for Academic Learningp. 64
Learning to Use English in Socially and Culturally Appropriate Waysp. 66
Comprehensible Input and Social Interactionp. 66
What about Language Learning Errors?p. 68
Summaryp. 70
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 70
Activitiesp. 71
Classroom Practices for English Learner Instructionp. 73
Standards-Based Instruction and Assessmentp. 76
Sheltered Instruction or Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)p. 78
Planning and Organizing Sheltered Instruction or SDAIEp. 78
Sheltered Instruction or SDAIE: A Science Examplep. 81
Sheltered Instruction or SDAIE: A Literature Examplep. 84
Sheltered Instruction or SDAIE: A Secondary Social Science Examplep. 85
Group Workp. 86
Organizing Group Workp. 88
Cooperative Learning Methodsp. 88
Phases of Cooperative Group Developmentp. 90
Jigsawp. 91
Thematic Instructionp. 92
Distinguishing Theme Units from Theme Cyclesp. 94
Organizing Thematic Instructionp. 94
Functional Language and Literacy Uses in Thematic Instructionp. 97
Creating Variety in Language and Literacy Usesp. 98
Scaffoldingp. 99
Scaffolding: A Keep Examplep. 100
Scaffolding in First Language Acquisition Researchp. 103
Scaffolding Applied to Second Language Acquisitionp. 104
Scaffolds for First and Second Language Reading and Writingp. 105
Assessment of English Learnersp. 108
English Learner Assessment: Definition and Purposesp. 108
Identification and Placement of Students Needing Language Education Support Servicesp. 110
Limitations of Standardized Language Proficiency Testsp. 111
Redesignation to FEPp. 111
Program Evaluationp. 111
Assessment of Student Learning and Progressp. 112
Summaryp. 115
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 115
Activitiesp. 116
Oral Language Development in Second Language Acquisitionp. 118
Oral Language in Perspectivep. 119
Integration of Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writingp. 120
Relationships among Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writingp. 121
Form, Function, and Social Context in Oral Language Usep. 122
Describing Oral Language Performance of Beginning and Intermediate English Learnersp. 125
Second Language Oral Proficiency of Beginning English Learnersp. 125
Second Language Oral Proficiency of Intermediate English Learnersp. 127
Promoting Oral Language Development in the Classroomp. 129
Using Games in Second Language Classroomsp. 130
Songsp. 131
Dramap. 132
Dramatizing Poetryp. 132
Show and Tellp. 134
One Looks, One Doesn'tp. 134
Tape-Recording Children's Re-Creations of Wordless Book Storiesp. 135
Taping and Dubbing a Television Showp. 136
Choral Readingp. 136
Riddles and Jokesp. 138
Oral Language Development through Content-Area Instructionp. 138
Oral English Development and Use in Mathematicsp. 138
Oral English Development and Use in Sciencep. 140
Oral English Development and Use in Social Studiesp. 141
Classroom Assessment of English Learners' Oral Language Developmentp. 142
The Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (SOLOM)p. 143
Checklists and Anecdotal Observationsp. 148
Summaryp. 152
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 153
Activitiesp. 154
Emergent Literacy: English Learners Beginning to Write and Readp. 156
What Does Research Tell Us about the Early Literacy Development of English Learners?p. 158
Contrasting the Emergent Literacy and Reading Readiness Perspectivesp. 160
Reading Readiness Perspectivep. 161
Emergent Literacy Perspectivep. 162
Differences between Oral and Written Language Developmentp. 164
Highlighting Literacy Functions in Your Classroomp. 165
Exploring the Visual Form of Written Languagep. 166
Development of Alphabetic Writing: Connecting Symbols and Soundsp. 167
Print Concepts That Emerge in Emergent Literacyp. 170
Invented or Temporary Spelling: Children Working Out Sound/Symbol Correspondencesp. 173
Emergent Literacy in English as a Non-native Languagep. 175
Home and School Environments That Nurture Emergent Literacyp. 176
How Do Home Environments Promote Early Literacy?p. 177
Family Literacy Programsp. 179
Promoting Parent Involvement in English Learners' Schoolingp. 180
Classroom Strategies to Promote Early Literacyp. 182
Early Literacy Goalsp. 182
Creating a Literacy-Rich Classroom Environmentp. 183
Books, Books, Booksp. 183
Using Daily Routines to Highlight the Forms and Functions of Printp. 184
Reading Aloud to Studentsp. 186
Shared Writing and Reading through the Language Experience Approachp. 188
Dialogue Journalsp. 188
Alphabet Booksp. 189
Helping Children Recognize and Spell Words Independentlyp. 190
Using Big Books to Teach Sight Words and Phonicsp. 190
Increasing Students' Sight Word Vocabularyp. 191
Phonicsp. 191
Word Familiesp. 192
Invented or Temporary Spelling and Word Recognitionp. 194
Developmental Levels in Student Spellingp. 194
Summary of Early Literacy Instructional Strategiesp. 199
Evaluating Emergent Literacy Developmentp. 199
Summaryp. 201
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 203
Activitiesp. 204
English Learners and Process Writingp. 206
Research on Second Language Writingp. 208
What Is Process Writing?p. 210
Experiencing Process Writing: "I Remember"p. 211
Students' Responses to "I Remember"p. 212
How Process Writing Helps English Learnersp. 214
Collaborative Contexts for Process Writingp. 215
Response Groupsp. 215
Peer Editing Groupsp. 220
Publishing Student Writingp. 221
Developmental Phases in Second Language Writingp. 223
Description of Beginning Writersp. 224
Strategies to Assist Beginning Writersp. 226
Oral Discussionp. 227
Partner Stories Using Pictures and Wordless Booksp. 227
Concept Books: Creating a Teaching Libraryp. 228
Peek-A-Boo Books for Younger Students and Riddle Books for Older Studentsp. 228
Pattern Poemsp. 229
From Personal Journals to Dialogue Journals to Buddy Journalsp. 230
Improvisational Sign Languagep. 232
Life Muralsp. 234
Clusteringp. 234
Freewritingp. 235
Description of Intermediate Writersp. 236
Strategies for Intermediate Writersp. 239
Show and Not Tellp. 239
Sentence Combiningp. 240
Sentence Shorteningp. 242
Sentence Modelsp. 242
Mappingp. 244
A Word about Writing with Computersp. 247
Assessing English Learners' Writing Progressp. 248
Portfolio Assessmentp. 249
Holistic Scoringp. 252
Working with Errors in Student Writingp. 257
Balancing Goals: Fluency, Form, Correctnessp. 257
Balancing Instruction: Scaffolds, Models, and Direct Instructionp. 258
Summaryp. 260
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 261
Activitiesp. 262
Reading and Literature Instruction for English Language Learnersp. 264
What Does Research Tell Us about Reading in a Second Language?p. 266
Second Language Readersp. 267
English Language Learners and Background Knowledgep. 267
Reading Processes of Proficient Readersp. 268
Elements of Reading Comprehension and Metacognition: A Cartoon Examplep. 270
Background Knowledge and Inferencesp. 271
Decoding and Vocabularyp. 271
Metacognition: "Thinking about Thinking"p. 272
Text Structurep. 272
Working in Literature Response Groupsp. 273
Steps That Prepare Students to Work in Response Groupsp. 274
How Response to Literature Assists English Language Learnersp. 276
Extensive Reading: The Foundation of Every Reading Programp. 276
Developmental Phases in Second Language Readingp. 277
Beginning Readers: Characteristics and Strategiesp. 278
Language-Experience Approachp. 278
Providing Quality Literature for Beginnersp. 281
Pattern Booksp. 282
Illustrating Stories and Poemsp. 284
Shared Reading with Big Booksp. 284
Directed Listening-Thinking Activity (DL-TA)p. 285
Readers' Theaterp. 287
Story Mappingp. 288
Intermediate Readers: Characteristics and Strategiesp. 291
Cognitive Mappingp. 291
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)p. 292
Literature Response Journalsp. 295
Developing Scripts for Readers' Theaterp. 297
Adapting Stories into Plays and Scripts for Film and Videotapep. 297
Using Computers and CD-ROMs to Enhance Learningp. 298
Assessing Second Language Readers' Progressp. 298
Assessing with Materials Students Bring to Classp. 299
Informal Assessmentp. 299
Miscue Analysisp. 299
Informal Reading Inventoriesp. 306
Running Recordsp. 307
Student Self-Assessmentp. 307
Summaryp. 309
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 311
Activitiesp. 313
Content Reading and Writing: Prereading and During Readingp. 314
What Does Research Tell Us about Reading and Writing across the Curriculum for English Language Learners?p. 318
Background Information on Students' Interactions with Textsp. 319
Aesthetic and Efferent Interactions with Textsp. 319
Effects of Text Structure on Comprehension and Memoryp. 320
Literary Structurep. 325
Metacognition and Learning from Textp. 326
Matching Students and Textsp. 326
Evaluating Students' Interaction with Text Using the Group Reading Inventory (GRI)p. 327
Strategies to Promote Reading Comprehensionp. 330
Prereading Strategies: Developing Motivation, Purpose, and Background Knowledgep. 331
Teacher Talk: Making Purposes Clearp. 332
Field Trips and Filmsp. 332
Simulation Gamesp. 333
Experimentsp. 334
Developing Vocabulary before Students Read a Textp. 334
Structured Overviewsp. 335
Preview Guidesp. 336
Anticipation Guidesp. 336
During-Reading Strategies: Monitoring Comprehensionp. 337
Using Headings and Subheadingsp. 338
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)p. 338
Vocabulary Strategies during Readingp. 339
Using Clustering to Develop Vocabulary in Contextp. 340
Jigsaw Procedurep. 341
Learning Logsp. 342
Summaryp. 343
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 344
Activitiesp. 345
Content Reading and Writing: Postreading Strategies for Organizing and Rememberingp. 346
Postreading Strategies for Studentsp. 347
Semantic Feature Analysis for Vocabulary Development after Readingp. 347
Rehearsing to Organize and Remember Informationp. 349
Venn Diagramsp. 350
Mappingp. 350
Writing as a Learning Tool across the Curriculump. 353
Journals and Learning Logsp. 353
Developing Topics and Student Self-Selection of Topics in Content Areasp. 355
Photo Essays: Combining Direct Experience, the Visual Mode, and Writingp. 356
Written and Oral Collaborative Research Projectsp. 358
K-W-L, a Strategy that Fosters Thinking before, during, and after Readingp. 360
Theme Studies: Providing a Meaningful Learning Contextp. 361
Introducing the Topic and Choosing Study Questionsp. 362
Organizing Instructionp. 364
Instructional Modifications for English Learnersp. 366
Assessmentp. 368
Portfolio Assessmentp. 369
Using Multiple Measures for Assessmentp. 372
Summaryp. 372
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 373
Activitiesp. 374
Reading Assessment and Instructionp. 376
Theoretical Approach to Literacy Assessmentp. 378
Language Proficiency: Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writingp. 378
Looking Closely at the Reading Process in Englishp. 381
Resources That Non-Native English Speakers Bring to English Readingp. 385
Assessing Reading Using an Informal Reading Inventoryp. 388
Using IRIs to Systematically Assess Students' Status and Progressp. 389
Reading Levels Can Be Established Using Informal Reading Inventoriesp. 390
Procedures for Determining Independent, Instructional, and Frustration Levelsp. 390
Sample Informal Reading Inventoryp. 392
A List of Commercial Informal Reading Inventoriesp. 400
Other Procedures for Evaluating and Helping Readersp. 401
Linking Assessment and Instructionp. 401
Echo Readingp. 402
Guided Readingp. 402
ReQuest Procedurep. 406
Silent Sustained Readingp. 408
Read Aloudsp. 408
Summaryp. 409
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 409
Activitiesp. 410
Referencesp. 412
Author Indexp. 433
Subject Indexp. 439
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