Reasoning and Writing Well: A Rhetoric, Research Guide, Reader, and Handbook

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Table of Contents

* - indicates material that is new to this edition


A Note to Instructors

Rhetoric and Research Writing Guide

PART 1, The Context of Writing

CHAPTER 1, The Rhetorical Situation and the Writing Process

Why Learn to Reason and Write Well?

Writing Sharpens Thinking Skills
Writing Opens Opportunities to Learn
Writing Nurtures Personal Development
Writing Helps to Establish Relationships
Writing Fosters Success in College and the Workplace

What Is the Rhetorical Situation?

Occasion for Writing
Purpose for Writing
The General Purpose
The Specific Purpose
Writing a Purpose Statement
Voice of the Writer

The Writing Process

Writing and Ethics

Thinking about What You Have Learned

For Your Reference: Reading, Summarizing, and Other Study Skills


CHAPTER 2, Thinking Rhetorically

Thinking about the Writer’s Voice

Workplace Case Study: A Series of Collection Letters
How Should a Writer¹s Voice Sound?
Word Choice Influences Voice

Considering How Casual Conversation Differs from Focused Writing

Thinking about Usage: Standard and Nonstandard

Standard Usage
Nonstandard Usage
Dialect and Regionalism
Where are Usage Labels and Abbreviations Found?
What If Dictionaries Disagree?
Three Vocabularies: Speaking, Writing, and Reading

Thinking about Levels of Formality

Informal Standard English
Watch the Pronouns
Mixing Levels of Formality
Professional English
Formal English

Considering Four Common Concerns

Slang and Abbreviations
Misused Colloquialisms
Switching Pronouns in Mid-Sentence
Using Prescriptive Tone Appropriately
Diplomatic Strategies

Thinking about What You Have Learned

Test Yourself


Test Yourself Answers

CHAPTER 3, Beginning to Think Critically: Accuracy and Ethics

Why are Accuracy and Truth Important?

Employers Expect the Truth
An Audience Expects the Truth
Truth Is the Cornerstone of Trust

Evaluating: Searching for Truth

What is an "Established" Fact?
Evidence Accepted as Fact in Court
Inferences are Unproven
Value Judgments and Point of View
Evaluating the Writer¹s Voice

Four Ways Misinformation Arises

Expert Opinion Sometimes Changes
A Small Survey Is Inadequate Proof
Facts Are Misstated and Overstated
Stereotyping Shuts Out Fact

Ethical Considerations: Writing Responsibly

Limiting Unsound Generalizations
Using Absolute Terms Accurately
Identifying Inferences and Other Opinions

Revising for Accuracy

Thinking about What You Have Learned

Test Yourself


Test Yourself Answers

CHAPTER 4, Prewriting and Drafting: Discovering and Developing Ideas

I. Prewriting Strategies





Keeping a Journal

II. Strategies for Drafting

Fleshing Out Prewriting Notes

Turn Off Your Internal Censor
When Ideas Disappear

Focusing on Exploratory Draft

Narrowing a Topic
Case Study: Nita Narrows Her Topic
Identifying the Audience and Writing a Purpose Statement
Drafting a Basic Thesis Statement
Where Should the Thesis Go?
Omitting a Thesis Statement
Starting a Scratch Outline
Selecting a Title

Drafting an Introduction

Begin with an Anecdote that Sets the Scene
Overuse of the Pronoun I
Guideline for using the Pronoun I
Begin with a Description
Begin by Stating a Problem
Begin with a Surprising Statistic or Striking Bit of History
Begin by Disputing a Common Belief or Defying a Stereotype

Seven Basic Ways to Organize a Draft

Chronological Order
Spatial Order
Order of Importance
Order of Generality
Order of Formation
Order of Complexity
Order of Materiality

Writing an Effective Conclusion

End by Referring Back to the Thesis
End with a Personal Response
End on a Note of Optimism
End with a Reference to a Benefit
End with an Unexpected Twist

Drafting on a Computer

Thinking about What You Have Learned



Overview: How Does the Rhetorical Situation Affect Information Design?


How Do You Become Your Own Editor?

Revision: Stage 3 of the Writing Process

Five Major Steps of Revision

1. Acknowledge the Need
2. Read and Question
3. Reread and Mark the Draft
4. Revise and Refine
5. Let Cool, Then Check the Focus

Refocusing a Draft

Focusing the title
Creating an Intriguing Title
Finding a Fresh Perspective

Clarifying the Draft

Revising Sluggish Openings
Revising the Body
Revising the Conclusion
Case Study: A Series of Student Outlines and Drafts

Editing and Proofreading: Stage 4 of the Writing Process

Major Tasks in Editing and Proofreading

Marking the Revised Draft
Making Sentences Clear and Concise
Finding, Fresh Language
Create a Simile or Metaphor
Experiment with Alliteration and Rhyme
Proofreading Effectively
Peer Review: Helping to Improve Each Others’ Writing

Thinking about What You Have Learned


CHAPTER 6, Revising Paragraphs

Qualities of Effective Paragraphs


Elements of an Effective Paragraph

The Topic Sentence
Support Sentences
A Concluding Sentence

Prewriting and Drafting Paragraphs

Narrowing a Topic Sentence
Positioning the Topic Sentence
The Topic Sentence at the Beginning
The Topic Sentence in the Middle
The Topic Sentence at the End
Unifying a Paragraph without a Topic Sentence
Adjusting Paragraph Length

Strategies to Organize and Develop Paragraphs

Narrative Paragraphs
Descriptive Paragraphs
Process Analysis Paragraphs
Illustration Paragraphs
Comparison or Contrast Paragraphs
Paragraphs of Definition
Transitional Paragraphs

Thinking about What You Have Learned


CHAPTER 7, Restyling Sentences

Strategies for Effective Sentences

Choosing an Effective Voice for Verbs
Favoring the Active Voice
Using Understood You

Replacing Forms of Be

Crafting Sentences and Punctuating

The Simple Sentence
The Compound Sentence
Coordinating Conjunctions
Avoiding Comma Splices and Fused Sentences
The Complex Sentence
The Compound Complex Sentence
The Periodic Sentence
Sentence Length

Positioning Elements within the Sentence

Moving Elements in Independent Clauses
Moving Modifiers and Adding Commas
Using Expletives

Creating Parallel Structures

Parallel Items in a Series
Parallel Items in Pairs
Parallel Comparisons
Parallel Correlative Conjunctions

Chopping out Deadwood

Unnecessary References to Self
Unnecessary Prepositional Phrases
Condensing Adjective Clauses

Thinking about What You Have Learned

Test Yourself


Test Yourself Answers

CHAPTER 8, Selecting Effective Words

Advantages of Reading

Improving Word Choice

Making the Message Clear

Using Abstract Words
Choosing Concrete Words
Moving from General to Specific
Scholarly or Simple Words?
Considering Technical Jargon

Making the Message Appropriate

Weeding Out Trite Language and Clichés
Distinguishing Denotation from Connotation
Considering Euphemisms
Thinking about Positive and Negative Words
Focusing on the Positive
Using Negative Prefixes
Using Courtesy Words

Using Inclusive Language in the Workplace

Replacing Sexist Terms with Gender-free Terms
Avoiding Generational Conflict
Replacing Other Offensive Terms with Respectful Terms

How When, and Where Will You Deliver the Message?

Thinking about What You Have Learned

Test Yourself


Test Yourself Answer


Overview: Mising Writing Strategies for a Purpose

CHAPTER 9, Narrating Memorable Events

Purpose and Ethics

General Purpose
Specific Purpose

Elements of Narration

Where and When

Point of View in Narration

First-Person Narration
Mixing Writing Strategies
Third-Person Narration

Writing a Narrative Paper

Drafting an Introduction
Opening with Action
Opening with a Quotation
Opening with a Comparison
Organizing a Narrative Paper
Developing the Narrative Paper
Concrete Details and Action Verbs
Building Suspense
Writing a Conclusion
Ending with a Hint or a Hope
Ending with a Surprise
Ending with a Reaction

Writing a Narrative Report

Revising a Narrative

Two Student Papers: Narration
For Your Reference: Narrative Essays in the Reader


Twenty Ideas for a Narrative Paper

CHAPTER 10, Describing Significant Impressions

Purpose of Description

What Exactly Is Description?

Creating a Dominant Impression

Subjective and Objective Description

Planning a Paper of Description

Determining a Dominant Impression
Selecting a Vantage Point and Transition

Drafting a Paper of Description

Drafting an Introduction
Organizing a Description
Developing a Description

Revising a Description

Two Student Papers: Description
For Your Reference: Descriptive Essays in the Reader


Twenty Ideas for Descriptive Papers

CHAPTER 11, Analyzing a Process

What Is Process Analysis?

Directions for Procedures
Use Second Person for Clarity
Workplace Case Study: Ethan Solves the Office Lounge Problem
Process Descriptions
Using First Person
Using Third Person

Transition in Process Analysis

Writing a Process Paper

Selecting a Topic and Prewriting
Drafting an Introduction
Generalization Followed by Restriction
Historical Opening
Combining Second Person with Person
Developing a Process Paper
Writing a Conclusion
Revising a Process Paper
Two Student Papers: Process Analysis
For Your Reference: Process Analysis Essays in the Reader

Test Yourself


Test Yourself Answers

Twenty Ideas for Process Papers

CHAPTER 12, Illustrating with Effective Examples

Purpose of Examples

Elements of Illustration

Writing a Paper of Illustration

Organizing and Developing a Paper of Illustration
Relevant, Accurate, and Sufficient Examples
Weaving Examples with Explanation
Writing a Conclusion
Revising a Paper of Illustration
Two Student Papers: Illustration
For Your Reference: Illustration Essays in the Reader


Twenty Ideas for Papers for Illustration

CHAPTER 13, Classifying: Sorting into Groups

Purpose of Classification

What Is the Basis of Classification?

Ethical Concerns

Writing a Paper of Classification

Shaping a Topic to the Purpose and Audience
Prewriting with the "Because" Technique
Organizing a Classification Paper
Drafting a Thesis Statement
Developing Main Points and Embedding Transition
Student Essay with the Main Points in the Thesis
Making Main Points Parallel
Writing a Conclusion
Revising the Paper
Two Student Papers of Classification
For Your Reference: Classification Essays in the Reader

Test Yourself


Test Yourself Answers

Twenty Ideas for Classification papers

CHAPTER 14,Comparing and Contrasting for a Purpose

The Purpose of a Comparison or Contrast Paper

Determining a Purpose
Selecting a Suitable Topic
Analogy: A Special Kind of Comparison

Writing a Paper of Comparison or Contrast

Gathering Information and Prewriting
Organizing a Paper of Comparison or Contrast
Drafting an Introduction
Developing a Comparison or Contrast Paper
Writing a Conclusion
Transition in Comparison or Contrast Papers

Revising a Paper of Comparison or Contrast

Two Student Papers: Comparison
For Your Reference: Comparison/Contrast Essays in the Reader

Test Yourself


Test Yourself Answers

Twenty Ideas for Comparison or Contrast Papers


The Purpose of Definition

Formal Sentence Definition

Extended Definition

Consulting Sources
Documenting Sources
Guidelines for Using Extended Definitions

Writing a Paper of Extended Definition

Narrowing a Topic and Prewriting
Organizing a Paper of Definition
Drafting a Special Introduction
Establishing Transition
Developing an Extended Definition
Operational Definition
Defining by Comparison
Definition by Synonym
Definition by Negation
Weaving Example with Explanation
Including a Dictionary Definition for a Purpose
Writing a Conclusion
Closing with a Formal Sentence Definition
Alluding to an Opening Quotation
Ending with a Personal Lesson
Revising a Paper of Definition

Two Student Papers: Definition

For Your Reference: Definition Essays in the Reader


Twenty Ideas for Papers of Definition

CHAPTER 16, Investigating Causes and Consequences

Purpose of Causal Analysis

Workplace Case Study: The Accident

What Is Causal Analysis?

A Reversed Chain of Cause and Effect
Logical Principles of Cause-and-Effect Relationships
Two Fallacies to Avoid in Analyzing Cause and Effect

Writing a Paper of Cause and Effect

Planning a Cause and Effect Paper
Drafting an Introduction
Developing a Paper Analyzing Cause and Effect
Writing a Conclusion
Revising a Cause-and-Effect Paper
Two Student Papers: Cause and Effect
For Your Reference: Cause and Effect Essays in the Reader


Twenty Ideas for Papers of Cause and Effect

PART 4, Strategies for Critical Thinking, Evaluation, and Argument

CHAPTER 17, Proposing a Solution

Dewey’s Method of Problem Solving

Ethics: How Can One Be Objective?

Workplace Case Study: Writing a Company Policy

Organizing a Problem-Solving Paper

Writing Strategies and Outlining

Writing a Problem-Solving Paper

Selecting a Topic and Prewriting
Organizing a Problem-Solving Paper
Drafting an Introduction
Identifying Criteria
What Are Criteria?
Stating Criteria
Proposing and Evaluating Alternatives
Writing a Conclusion

Revising a Problem-Solving Paper

Two Student Papers: Problem-Solving
For Your Reference: Problem-Solving Essays in the Reader


Twenty Ideas for Problem-Solving Papers

CHAPTER 18, Shaping an Effective Argument

Purpose of Argument

Three Classic Appeals Used in Argument

Workplace Case Study: ³You Got a Tiger by the Tail!²
The Logical Appeal
The Ethical Appeal
The Emotional Appeal
Using the Three Appeals

Understanding Opposing Views and Overcoming Objections

Writing a Classic Argument Paper

Selecting a Topic
Gathering Information and Prewriting
Stating a Position
Planning the Shape of an Argument
Drafting a Neutral Introduction
Finding a Common Ground
Acknowledging Points of Agreement and Clarifying
Refuting Opposing Points
Dodging Fallacies
Writing a Conclusion
Revising an Argument
Two Student Papers: Classic Argument

For Your Reference: Argument Essays in the Reader


Twenty Ideas for Papers of Argument

CHAPTER 19, Detecting Fallacies

Logical Fallacies

Card Stacking
Either/or Fallacy
False Analogy
Red Herring
Begging the Question/Circular Argument
Hasty Generalization
Non Sequitur
Workplace Case Study: Non Sequitur--A Grocer's Mistake
The Post Hoc Fallacy

Emotional Fallacies

Argumentation ad Hominem/Straw Man
Plain Folk Appeal/ad Populum
Status Appeal
Scare Tactics
Testimonial and Improper Appeal to Authority
Glittering Generalities

Ethics: Dealing with Fallacies

Test Yourself


Test Yourself Answers

PART 5, Reading Strategies and Responses to Literature

CHAPTER 20, Reading Critically and Responding to Essays

What to Expect in Essays

Purpose of Essays
Characteristics of Personal Essays
Characteristics of Formal Essays
Point of View and Voice
Figurative Language
The Power of Plain Words

Critical Reading

Evaluating What You Read
A Strategy for Critical Reading

Writing a Paper of Reaction or Essay Exam Answers

Two Types of Reactions
A Commentary
An Argument
Prewriting and Outlining
Writing a Commentary
Planning an Argument
Revision and Editing
Student Paper: Reaction

For Your Reference: Essays in the Reader


Twenty Ideas for Reaction Papers

CHAPTER 21, Reading and Responding to Short Stories, Novels, and Plays

The Human Condition

The Role of the Reader

How Do Short Stories Differ from Novels?
What Are the Major Characteristics of Novels?
How Does Reading a Play Differ from Reading a Novel?

Elements of Literature

Point of View
Figurative Language and Literary Devices

Preparing an Analysis of Literary

Writing about Point of View
Writing about Setting
Writing about Plot
Writing about Character
Writing about Symbols
Writing about Irony
Writing about Theme
Student Paper: Literary Analysis

For Your Reference: Short Stories in The Reader

Twenty Ideas for Papers of Literary Analysis


How Can a Reader Get Hold of a Poem?

ARTHUR GUITERMAN, On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness


Reading Narrative Poems


Reading Lyric Poems

Special Effects with Words
Imagery in Lyric Poems

JOSO, The Barley Field

SORA, The Barley Field

EMILY DICKINSON, [I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed]

[Anonymous], Inception


Preparing an Analysis of a Poem

Developing Your Analysis
Organizing the Paper
Revising an Analysis of a poem
Student Paper: Analysis of a Poem

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, [I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud]



Overview: Fending off the Wolves

CHAPTER 23, Strategies to Prepare for Exams

Time Management

Setting Priorities, Scheduling, and Implementing

Reading, Note-Taking, and Review

Ten Ways to Improve Retention
Reviewing for Final Exams
Predicting Exam Questions
Before the Exam

Three Kinds of Exams

Open Book Exams
Multiple Choice Exams
Essay Exams

Writing Complete Essay Exam Answers

Understanding the Question
Drafting Complete Essay Answers
Paragraph Essays
Sample Paragraph Essay
Long Exam Essays
For Your Reference: Study Aids for Literature


CHAPTER 24, Making Professional Presentations

Whether Speaking to Six or to Sixty

How Do Writing and Speaking Differ?

Presenting Versus Reading

Four Types of Presentations

Planning an Extemporaneous Presentation

Preview the Setting
Assess the Audience
Consider the Occasion
Define the Purpose
Select an Appropriate Topic

Credibility, Organization, and Development

Consider Credibility
Organizing an Informative Presentation
Organizing a Persuasive Presentation
Considering Ethics, Logic, and Emotion
Choosing the Right Words
Improving Transition
Options for Introductions and Conclusions

Preparing Notes and Audiovisuals

Notes on Paper or Cards?
Creating Effective Audiovisuals

Practicing a Presentation

Revising Note Cards
Using Audiovisuals
Improving Eye Contact,Posture, and Gestures
Improving Vocal Variety

Giving a Presentation

Arrive Early
Take a Deep Breath . . .
Don¹t Apologize Unnecessarily
Adapt to the Audience
End Purposefully and Gracefully
Questions and Answers
A Student¹s Persuasive Presentation


Twenty Ideas for Oral Presentations

CHAPTER 25, Effective Employment Writing

I. Writing an Effective Resume

Ethics, Accuracy, and Resumes

Ten Reasons Resumes Are Discarded

Two Popular Styles of Resumes

The Chronological Résumé
The Functional Résumé

Research and Prewriting for a Resume

Gaining an Overview of a Career Field
Directory 1: Reliable Career Resources
Identifying Employers¹ Needs
Identifying Qualifications
Workplace Skills
Academic Skills
Personal Skills
Personal Qualities and Work Habits

Drafting a Resume

The Service-Oriented Job Objective
Summary of Qualifications
Grouping and Sharpening Skills
Adding Action Verbs
Citing Accomplishments
Work Experience
Gaps in Work Experience
A Series of Short-term Jobs
Other Information on a Résumé

Organizing a Resume

Organizing a Chronological Résumé
Organizing a Functional Résumé
Case Study: Mark Focuses His Functional Résumé
Scannable Résumés
Keyword Summary
Editing and Printing
E-mail Résumés

Responding to Online Ads and Posting Resumes Online

Formatting a Printed Resume

Revising, Editing, and Proofreading a Resume

Checking Layout and Order
Adjusting Length of Printed Résumés
Eagle-Eyed Proofreading
Scrutinizing Word Choice
Directory 2: Online Employment Writing Resources

II. Writing Letters and Other Correspondence for Employment

Ten Common Mistakes in Letters

Writing E-Mail Messages

Effective Introductions
The Name Opening
The Creative Opening
The Summary Opening
The Question Opening
The Body of the Letter
How to Handle the Salary Question
Effective Conclusions
Other Considerations
Email Cover Letters
Revising a Cover Letter

Format for a Business Letter

Packaging Job Search Documents

Providing a List of References

Writing a Letter of Appreciation

Workplace Case Study: Connect the Dots

Writing a Letter of Acceptance

Writing a Letter of Refusal

Writing a Letter of Resignation


Chapter 26, Planning Research

Primary and Secondary Research

The Path to Objectivity
Fact or Idea?

Scheduling Research Tasks

Is a Schedule Really Necessary?
Will the Internet Cut Research Time?

Collecting Source Information

A Note of Encouragement


Chapter 27, Locating Print and Electronic Sources

Determing the Aim or Purpose

Informative Research Papers
Problem-Solving Research Papers
Research Papers of Argument

Selecting an Appropriate Topic

Limiting the Topic

Starting Points
Writing a Controlling Question
Case Study: Flora Narrows a Very Broad Topic

Balancing Print and Electronic Sources

Two Important Precautions
Avoid Identity Theft
Know How to Avoid Plagiarism

Finding and Evaluating Print and Electronic Sources at the Library

Finding Your Way around the Library
Preliminary Reading: General References
Electronic Central Catalog
Periodical Indexes and Abstracts
General Indexes
Specialized Indexes
Government Publications
Locating Print Sources
Scanning Sources and Evaluating Content

Selecting Suitable Sources

Previewing Sources: Criteria
Making a Working Bibliography
How to Begin

Accessing Networks to Borrow Materials

Finding and Evaluating Internet Sources

Internet Directories
Evaluating Web Sites
Clues to Sponsors of Web Sites
Domain Names
Evaluating the Reliability of Internet Documents
Check for a Monitor
Watch for Credentials
Examine the Source Data
Notice the Tone
Notice Dates
Evaluate the Coverage
Preserving Online Source Information
Obtain as much Data about Each Sources as Possible
Save Internet Source Documents Until Your Paper Is Returned
Directory of Reliable Web Sites


Twenty Ideas for Research

Chapter 28, Identifying Sources: Supplying Documentation

What Precisely Is Documentation

Three Steps to Avoid Plagiarism

Which Documentation Style Is Appropriate?

Frequently Asked Questions: Source Information

MLA Style of Documentation

Chapter 28 MLA Style Directory
Parenthetical Citations: MLA Style
Using Notes with MLA Parenthetical Citations
Content Notes
Bibliographic Notes
Recommended Abbreviations for MLA Works Cited Entries
Preparing a List of Works Cited: MLA Style
1. Sample MLA Entries for Books
2. Sample MLA Entries for Articles
3. Sample MLA Entries for Miscellaneous Sources
4. Sample MLA Entries for Electronic Sources

APA Style of Documentation

Chapter 28 APA Style Directory
Parenthetical Citations: APA style
Preparing a Reference List: APA style
A. APA Entries: Periodicals
B. APA Entries: Books, Brochures, and GovernmentPublications
C. APA Entries: Audiovisual Media
D. APA Entries: Electronic Media

Internet Articles Based on a Print Source

Periodicals on the Internet

Nonperiodical Documents on the Internet

Nonperiodical Publications on CD-ROM


Chapter 29, Using Sources and Writing a Research Paper

Workplace Case Study: Tracking the Truth

When Is a List of Sources Required?

Research Reading

Examining Dates and Credentials
Using Tentative Words to Discuss Findings and Theories
Recognizing Information That Must Be Acknowledged
Restating Common Knowledge
Acknowledging Everything Else
Citing Professional Opinions and Conclusions

Note-taking, Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting

Note-Taking and Critical Reading
Replacing Major Words with Synonyms
Using Quotations
Making Changes in Quotations
Quotation within a Quotation

Making a Working Outline

Drafting a Research Paper

Drafting a Thesis and Introduction
Using Signal Phrases to Integrate Quotations into the Text
Weak Phrases
Short Quotations
Block Quotations
Inserting Explanatory Notes
Writing a Conclusion

Revising, Editing, and Formatting

Checking Documentation
Editing and Proofreading
Using an Appropriate Format
Margins and Indentations
MLA Style Heading, Title, and Page Numbering
APA Style Headings, Title, and Page Numbering

Annotated Student Research Paper: MLA Style

Test Yourself


Test Yourself Answers

Chapter 30, Field Research: Observation, Interviews, and Surveys


Selecting a Site
Preparing to Observe
Keeping a Log


Types of Interviews
Informational Interviewing
Unstructured Versus Structured Interviews
Types of Questions


Planning a Survey
Representative and Random Samples
Constructing a Questionnaire
Distributing Questionnaire
Workplace Case Study: Cindy Surveys Dress Codes for Bank Employees
Drawing Conclusions from a Survey and Interviews

Making an Outline

Writing a Primary Research Paper or Report

Organizing and Interpreting Findings
Interviews and Surveys
How Research Papers and Research Reports Differ
Student Paper Based on Observation
Student Report Based on Reading and Observation

Twenty Ideas for Observation, Interviewing, and Surveys


Alternate Contents: The Readings by Theme

Introduction to the Reader

How Do Essays and Short Stories Differ?
Strategies for Critical Reading
Second Guessing

Narrating Memorable Events

*Dan Greenburg, Sound and Fury

*Maya Angelou, Momma's Encounter

*Jean Houston, The Art of Acknowledgement

*Philip Weiss, How to Get out of a Locked Trunk

Describing Significant Impressions

*Sue Hubbell, Caterpillar Afternoon

EUDORA WELTY, One Writer’s Beginnings


LIANE NORMAN, Pedestrian Students and High-Flying Squirrels

Analyzing a Process

*Ian Dunbar, Fast Track to Perfection

EUELL GIBBONS, How to Cook a Carp

CAROL CARTER, Write Your Own Success Story

MARYA MANNES, How Do You Know It’s Good?

Illustrating with Effective Examples



ANDREA LEE, Black and Well-to-Do

*Matea Gold and David Ferrell, Going for Broke

Classifying: Sorting into Groups

NORMAN BROWN, Mind Over Munchies

*Lisa Davis, Where Do We Stand?

*James T. Baker, How Do We Find the Student?

*Judith Ortiz Cofer, The Myth of the Latin Woman

Comparing and Contrasting for a Purpose

*Deborah Tannen, Gender Gap in Cyberspace

*Phillip Lopate, A Nonsmoker with a Smoker

AMY TAN, Mother Tongue

*Nancy Masterson Sakamoto, Conversational Ballgames

Definition: Identifying Basic Characteristics

DAVID RAYMOND, On Being 17, Bright, and Unable to Read

*WILLIAM RASPBERRY, The Handicap of Definition

BARBARA JORDAN, Becoming Educated

*STEPHEN L. CARTER, The Insufficiency of Honesty

Investigating Causes and Consequences

*Monica Sone, The Stubborn Twig: My Double Dose of Schooling

ANNE ROIPHE, Why Marriages Fail

NICHOLAS GAGE, The Teacher Who Changed My Life

ELISABETH KUBLER-ROSS, The Emotional Quadrant

Proposing a Solution

*Dan Greenburg, Sound and Fury

*Philip Weiss, How to Get out of a Locked Trunk

Andrea Sachs, When the Lullaby Ends

*Judith Ortiz Cofer, The Myth of the Latin Woman

Argument: Shaping an Effective Argument

Andrea Sachs, When the Lullaby Ends

*Richard M. Restack, The Other Difference Between Boys and Girls

*Historical Perspective on the Wal-Mart Controversy

*Dan Levine, Wal-Mart's Big City Blues

*Steven Malanga, The War on Wal-Mart

*What is the "Pursuit of Happiness"?

*C.S. Lewis, We Have No "Right to Happiness"

*Andrew Sullivan, The Pursuit of Happiness: Four Revolutionary Words

*Taking a Close Look at the Stars and Stripes

*William J. Brennan, Majority Opinion of the U.S. Supreme Court in Texas v. Johnson (1989)

*William H. Rehnquist, Dissenting Opinion in Texas v. Johnson (1989)

Short Stories

*Ursula Hegi, Doves

*Charles Baxter, Scheherazade

*Kate Chopin, Story of an Hour

*John Updike, Still of Some Use

The Handbook: A Guide to Grammar, Punctuation, mechanics, and Usage

Handbook Directory


What is the Best Way to Use This Handbook?

Should a Writer Ever Break a Rule?

1. Grammar and Usage

2. Punctuation

3. Capitalization

4. Abbreviations

5. Numbers

6. Spelling

7. Glossary of Usage


Index of Authors and Titles

Subject Index

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