Reconstructing Earth's Climate History : Inquiry-Based Exercises for Lab and Class

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-04-30
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

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There has never been a more critical time for students to understand how the Earth works. Understanding the causes and potential consequences of Earth's changing climate are of particular importance because modern global warming is an issue that impacts economies, environments, and lifestyles. The context for the global warming today lies in the records of Earth's past. This accessible textbook which is designed with the practical student in mind, is the result of a National Science The text integrates scientific ocean drilling data and research with education. The exercises address relevant and timely 'Big Ideas' with foundational geoscience concepts and climate change case studies, as well transferable skills valued in professional settings. They are divided into separate but inter-related modules including: introduction to cores, seafloor sediments, microfossils and biostratigraphy, paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy, climate rhythms, oxygenisotope changes in the Cenozoic, past Arctic and Antarctic climates, drill site selection, interpreting Arctic and Antarctic sediment cores, onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, onset of Antarctic glaciation, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Each module has several parts, and each is designed to be used in the classroom, laboratory, and/or assigned as homework. Students have the opportunity to work individually and in groups, evaluate real-world problems, and formulate hypotheses. Initial exercises in each module are useful to introduce a topic, gauge prior knowledge, and flag possible areas of student misconception. Comprehensive instructor guides provide essential background information, detailed answer keys, and alternative implementation strategies, as well as providing links to other supplementary materials and examples for assessment.

Author Biography

Dr. Kristen St. John is a Professor of Geology at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, VA. St. John is a marine sedimentologist, specializing in high latitude paleoclimate records and reconstructing ice-rafting histories. She has participated in four scientific ocean drilling expeditions with the ODP/IODP. Her teaching responsibilities include: Earth Systems and Climate Change, Oceanography for Teachers, Earth Science for Teachers, Geowriting and Communication, Paleoclimatology, and Physical Geology.

Dr. R. Mark Leckie is a Professor of Geology at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. Leckie is a marine micropaleontologist and specializes in paleoceanography, particularly reconstructing ocean-climate history of the past 120 million years. He has participated in six DSDP/ODP scientific expeditions, and served as Co-Chief Scientist of ODP Leg 165. His teaching responsibilities include: Introductory Oceanography; History of the Earth; Introductory Field Methods; Paleoceanography; and Marine Micropaleontology.

Dr. Kate Pound is a Professor of Geology, and a member of the Science Education Group at St. Cloud State University. Pound leads hands-on education and outreach programs for teachers in Minnesota, and was a science educator in the ANDRILL program in Antarctica. Her research focuses on provenance studies and regional tectonics. Her teaching responsibilities include: Physical Geology, Glacial Geology, Field Geology, Rocks & Minerals, Sedimentology, General Education Geology courses, and Science for Elementary Teachers.

Dr. Megan Jones is a Professor of Geology at North Hennepin Community College, a diverse, open-access institution. Jones' broad background and experience in marine micropaleontology/paleoceanography, sed/strat and field geology offers her students options to pursue field experiences and undergraduate research. Her research interest focuses on the connections between student motivation and success in introductory science courses. Her teaching responsibilities include: Physical and Historical Geology, Oceanography, and Minnesota Field Geology.

Dr. Lawrence Krissek is a Professor in the School of Earth Sciences, Ohio State University. His primary scientific research is the study of the evolution of climates and ocean environments on the earth during the past 65 million years. He has conducted field research in the Antarctic, and has sailed on numerous DSDP, ODP, and IODP cruises. He teaches Oceanography, Oceanography for Educators, Field Geology for Educators, Natural Hazards, Physical Geology, Historical Geology, and Stratigraphy and Sedimentation.

Table of Contents

The Authors
Acknowledgments Book
Introduction for Students and Instructors Geologic Timescale
Introduction to Paleoclimate Records
Archives and Proxies
Owens Lake - An Introductory Case Study of Paleoclimate Reconstruction
Coring Glacial Ice and Seafloor Sediments
Seafloor Sediments
Sediment Predictions
Core Observations and Descriptions
Sediment Composition
Geographic Distribution and Interpretation
Microfossils and Biostratigraphy
What are Microfossils?
Why are they Important in Climate Change Science?
Microfossils in Deep-sea Sediments
Application of Microfossil First and Last Occurrences
Using Microfossil Datums to Calculate Rates
How Reliable are Microfossil Datums?
Paleomagnetism and Magnetostratigraphy
Earth's Magnetic Field Today and the Paleomagnetic Record of Deep-Sea Sediments
Paleomagnetism in Ocean Crust
Using Paleomagnetism to Test the Seafloor Spreading Hypothesis
The Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale
CO2 as a Climate Regulator during the Phanerozoic and Today
The Short Term Global Carbon Cycle
CO2 and Temperature
Recent Changes in CO2
The Long-term Global Carbon Cycle, CO2, and Phanerozoic Climate History
The Benthic Foraminiferal Oxygen Isotope Record of Cenozoic Climate Change
Stable Isotope Geochemistry
A Biogeochemical Proxy
Patterns, Trends and Implications for Cenozoic Climate
Scientific Drilling in the Arctic Ocean: A Lesson on the Nature of Science
Climate Models and Regional Climate Change
Arctic Drilling Challenges and Solutions
The Need for Scientific Drilling
Results of the Arctic Drilling Expedition
Climate Cycles
Patterns and Periodicities
Orbital Metronome
A Break in the Pattern
The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) Event
The Cenozoic ¿13C Record and an Important Discovery
Global Consequences of the PETM
Bad Gas: Is Methane to Blame?
How fast? How long?
Global Warming Today and Lessons from the PETM
Glaciation of Antarctica: The Oi1 Event
Initial Evidence
Evidence for Global Change
Mountain Building, Weathering, CO2 and Climate
Legacy of the Oi1 Event: The Development of the Psychrosphere
Antarctica and Neogene Global Climate Change
What do we Think we Know about the History of Antarctic Climate?
What is Antarctica's Geographic & Geologic Context?
Selecting Drillsites to Best Answer our Questions
Interpreting Antarctic Sediment Cores: A Record of Dynamic Neogene Climate
What Sediment Facies are Common on the Antarctic Margin?
ANDRILL 1-B The BIG Picture
Pliocene Sedimentary Patterns in the ANDRILL 1-B Core
Pliocene Warmth: Are We Seeing Our Future?
The last 5 million years
Sea Level Past, Present, and Future
Northern Hemisphere Glaciation
Concepts & Predictions
What is the Evidence?
What Caused It? Index
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