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Research Design in Clinical Psychology,9780205332922
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Research Design in Clinical Psychology

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205332922

ISBN10:
0205332927
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/8/2002
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $194.60

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  • Research Design in Clinical Psychology
    Research Design in Clinical Psychology




Summary

In this successful text, Kazdin describes research methods in psychology and provides criteria for conducting and evaluating clinical research.This text's emphasis is on clinical psychology, but the issues and methods it discusses are relevant to counseling, school psychology and psychiatry. The various stages of research are discussed, with an emphasis on the special demands that are placed on the investigator. Research Design in Clinical Psychology continues to explain how methodology is an approach toward problem solving, thinking, and acquiring knowledge.This revised edition includes several new topics, as well as an expansion of core topics from the previous edition, which reflect the evolving nature of methodology and the proliferation of clinical research into many topic areas. Students and clinicians will gain a thorough knowledge of the entire research process from developing the idea, selecting methods, analyzing the results, and preparing the written scientific report.To ensure that the book conveys practices concretely, many examples are presented both from research and from everyday life. More attention has been given to specific methodological practices intended to address principles and issues when designing a study.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
About the Author xviii
Introduction
1(21)
Methodology and Research Design
3(4)
Overview
3(3)
Tasks of Research
6(1)
Key Concepts Underlying Methodology
7(5)
Parsimony
7(2)
Plausible Rival Hypotheses
9(2)
Findings versus Conclusions
11(1)
Philosophy of Science, Research Methodology, and Statistical Inference
12(1)
Characteristics of Research in Clinical Psychology
13(2)
The ``Psychology'' of Research Methodology
15(2)
Overview of the Book
17(5)
Drawing Valid Inferences I: Internal and External Validity
22(33)
Types of Validity
23(1)
Internal Validity
24(12)
Threats to Internal Validity
24(10)
General Comments
34(2)
External Validity
36(13)
Threats to External Validity
36(12)
General Comments
48(1)
Perspectives on Internal and External Validity
49(4)
Plausibility and Parsimony
49(2)
Priority of Internal Validity
51(2)
Summary and Conclusions
53(2)
Drawing Valid Inferences II: Construct and Statistical Conclusion Validity
55(27)
Construct Validity
56(10)
Threats to Construct Validity
58(8)
General Comments
66(1)
Statistical Conclusion Validity
66(11)
Overview of Essential Concepts
67(3)
Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity
70(6)
General Comments
76(1)
Experimental Precision
77(3)
Holding Constant versus Controlling Sources of Variation
78(1)
Tradeoffs
79(1)
Summary and Conclusions
80(2)
Sources of Artifact and Bias
82(28)
Sources of Bias
83(18)
Rationales, Scripts, and Procedures
83(4)
Experimenter Expectancy Effects
87(3)
Experimenter Characteristics
90(1)
Situational and Contextual Cues
91(3)
Subject Roles
94(3)
Data Recording and Analysis
97(4)
Subject-Selection Biases
101(7)
The Sample: Who Is Selected for the Study?
101(4)
Attrition: Who Remains in the Study?
105(3)
Summary and Conclusions
108(2)
Selection of the Research Problem and Design
110(38)
Research Ideas
111(13)
Sources of Ideas
111(5)
Levels of Understanding and the Focus of the Study
116(8)
Theory as a Guide to Research
124(6)
Definition and Scope
124(2)
Why Theory Is Needed
126(2)
Generating versus Testing Hypotheses
128(2)
From Ideas to Operations
130(4)
Operational Definitions
130(1)
Multiple Operations to Represent Constructs
131(2)
Discrepancies among Definitions
133(1)
General Comments
134(1)
Variables to Investigate
134(3)
Types of Variables
134(2)
Investigation of Multiple Variables
136(1)
Research Design Options
137(9)
Types of Research
137(2)
Design Strategies
139(1)
Conditions of Experimentation
140(4)
Time Frame for Research
144(2)
Summary and Conclusions
146(2)
Experimental Research: Group Designs
148(36)
Subject Selection
149(5)
Random Selection
149(1)
Who Will Serve as Subjects and Why?
150(4)
Subject Assignment and Group Formation
154(7)
Random Assignment
154(2)
Group Equivalence
156(1)
Matching
157(2)
Mismatching
159(2)
Selected Group Designs
161(12)
Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design
162(2)
Posttest-Only Control Group Design
164(1)
Solomon Four-Group Design
165(1)
Factorial Designs
166(3)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
169(4)
Multiple-Treatment Designs
173(8)
Crossover Design
174(1)
Multiple-Treatment Counterbalanced Design
175(1)
Considerations in Using the Designs
176(5)
Summary and Conclusions
181(3)
Control and Comparison Groups
184(29)
Control Groups
185(15)
No-Treatment Control Group
185(2)
Waiting-List Control Group
187(2)
No-Contact Control Group
189(2)
Nonspecific-Treatment or ``Attention-Placebo'' Control Group
191(4)
Routine or Standard Treatment
195(2)
Yoked Control Group
197(2)
Nonrandomly Assigned or Nonequivalent Control Group
199(1)
Key Considerations in Group Selection
200(2)
Progression of Control and Comparison Groups: Evaluating Psychotherapy
202(9)
Treatment-Package Strategy
203(1)
Dismantling-Treatment Strategy
204(1)
Constructive-Treatment Strategy
205(1)
Parametric-Treatment Strategy
206(1)
Comparative-Treatment Strategy
207(1)
Treatment-Moderator Strategy
208(1)
Treatment-Mediator Strategy
209(1)
General Comments
210(1)
Summary and Conclusions
211(2)
Assessing thee Impact of the Experimental Manipulation
213(20)
Checking on the Experimental Manipulation
214(7)
Types of Manipulations
214(5)
Utility of Checking the Manipulation
219(2)
Interpretive Problems in Checking the Manipulation
221(4)
Varied Data Patterns
221(4)
Special Issues and Considerations
225(5)
Assessment Issues
225(2)
The Influence of Nonmanipulated Variables
227(1)
Excluding Subjects in the Data Analyses
227(3)
Establishing Potent Manipulations
230(1)
Summary and Conclusions
231(2)
Observational Research: Case-Control and Cohort Designs
233(32)
Case-Control Designs
235(6)
Cross-Sectional Design
236(1)
Retrospective Design
237(2)
Considerations in Using Case-Control Designs
239(2)
Cohort Designs
241(11)
Single-Group Cohort Design
241(2)
Multigroup Cohort Design
243(3)
Accelerated, Multicohort Longitudinal Design
246(2)
Considerations in Using Cohort Designs
248(4)
Critical Issues in Designing and Interpreting Observational Studies
252(11)
Specifying the Construct
252(4)
Selecting Groups
256(5)
Time Line and Causal Inferences
261(1)
General Comments
262(1)
Summary and Conclusions
263(2)
The Case Study and Single-Case Research Designs
265(35)
The Case Study
267(6)
The Value of the Case Study
268(2)
Illustrations
270(2)
Limitations of the Case Study
272(1)
Single-Case Experimental Designs: Key Characteristics
273(7)
Continuous Assessment
274(1)
Baseline Assessment
275(1)
Stability of Performance
276(4)
Major Experimental Design Strategies
280(10)
ABAB Designs
280(3)
Multiple-Baseline Designs
283(3)
Changing-Criterion Designs
286(3)
General Comments
289(1)
Data Evaluation in Single-Case Research
290(8)
Criteria for Visual Inspection
291(5)
Problems and Considerations
296(1)
General Comments
297(1)
Summary arid Conclusions
298(2)
Evaluation of the Single Case in Clinical Work
300(28)
Quasi-Experiments with the Single Case
301(11)
What to Do to Improve the Quality of Inferences
301(2)
Design Variations
303(3)
Case Illustrations
306(6)
Methods for Assessment and Evaluation in Clinical Practice
312(14)
Steps for Evaluation in Clinical Work
313(5)
Case Illustration
318(6)
Issues and Limitations
324(2)
Summary and Conclusions
326(2)
Qualitative Research Methods: An Overview
328(27)
Key Characteristics
330(6)
Background
330(2)
Definition and Core Features
332(2)
Contrast of Qualitative and Quantitative Research
334(2)
Methods and Analyses
336(6)
The Data for Qualitative Analysis
336(1)
Drawing Valid Inferences
337(3)
Generality of the Results
340(2)
Illustrations
342(9)
Inner-City Youth Who Cease to Commit Crimes
342(2)
Gender, Power, and Who Gets the Remote Control during TV Time
344(2)
Single Women and Their Experience
346(2)
Parents' Experience in Treatment for Their Children
348(1)
General Comments
349(2)
Contributions of Qualitative Research
351(2)
Summary and Conclusions
353(2)
Assessment Methods and Strategies
355(53)
Selecting Measures for Research: Key Considerations
356(6)
Construct Validity
356(2)
Psychometric Characteristics
358(2)
Sensitivity of the Measure
360(1)
General Comments
361(1)
Using Available Measures or Devising New Measures
362(5)
Using a Standardized Measure
362(1)
Varying the Use or Contents of an Existing Measure
363(2)
Developing a New Measure
365(1)
General Comments
366(1)
Modalities and Methods of Assessment
367(20)
Global Ratings
368(4)
Self-Report Inventories, Questionnaires, and Scales
372(3)
Projective Techniques
375(2)
Direct Observations of Behavior
377(3)
Psychobiological Measures
380(3)
Computerized Assessment
383(2)
General Comments
385(2)
Unobtrusiveness and Reactivity of Psychological Measures
387(3)
Nature of the Problem
387(2)
Potential Solutions with Traditional (Obtrusive) Measures
389(1)
Unobtrusive Measures
390(6)
Simple Observation
391(2)
Observation in Contrived Situations
393(1)
Archival Records
393(1)
Physical Traces
394(1)
General Comments
395(1)
Measurement Strategies and Issues
396(9)
Use of Multiple Measures
396(5)
Interrelations of Different Measures
401(4)
Summary and Conclusions
405(3)
Assessment and Evaluation of Interventions
408(28)
Assessing Clinical Significance of the Changes
409(12)
Comparison Methods
411(4)
Subjective Evaluation
415(2)
Social Impact Measures
417(3)
General Comments
420(1)
Scope and Breadth of the Changes
421(1)
Characteristics of the Treatment
422(5)
Disseminability of Treatment
422(2)
Cost
424(3)
Acceptability of Treatment
427(1)
Assessment During the Course of Treatment
427(3)
Pre-Post and Continuous Assessment
428(1)
Evaluating the Mechanisms of Change
429(1)
Follow-up Assessment
430(4)
Attrition
430(1)
Practical Assessment Decisions and Options
431(3)
General Comments
434(1)
Summary and Conclusions
434(2)
Statistical Methods of Data Evaluation
436(35)
Significance Tests and the Null Hypothesis
437(14)
Overview
437(3)
Significance Level (alpha)
440(1)
Power
441(4)
Ways to Increase Power
445(6)
Data Analyses and Designing the Study
451(1)
Special Topics in Data Analysis
451(8)
Intent-to-Treat Analysis
451(3)
Analyses Involving Multiple Comparisons
454(3)
Multiple Outcomes: Multivariate and Univariate Analyses
457(2)
Objections to Statistical Significance Testing
459(4)
Major Concerns
459(2)
Misinterpretations
461(1)
Significance Testing and Failures to Replicate
462(1)
Alternatives or Supplements to Tests of Significance
463(6)
Magnitude and Strength of Effect
463(2)
Confidence Intervals
465(1)
Meta-Analysis
466(1)
Statistical Significance, Magnitude of Effect, and Clinical Significance
467(1)
General Comments
468(1)
Summary and Conclusions
469(2)
Interpretation of the Data
471(26)
Interpreting the Results of a Study
472(7)
Overview
472(1)
Common Leaps in Language and Conceptualization of the Findings
472(3)
More Data Analyses Can Enhance Data Interpretation
475(4)
General Comments
479(1)
Negative Results or No-Difference Findings
479(9)
Ambiguity of Negative Results
480(4)
When Negative Results Are Interpretable
484(2)
When Negative Results Are Important
486(2)
Replication
488(7)
Types of Replication
489(2)
Importance of Replication
491(4)
General Comments
495(1)
Summary and Conclusions
495(2)
Ethical Issues and Guidelines for Research
497(48)
Contemporary Context and Scope of the Issues
498(4)
Critical Issues in Research
502(9)
Deception
502(4)
Debriefing
506(1)
Invasion of Privacy
507(4)
Informed Consent
511(7)
Conditions and Elements
511(3)
Consent Forms
514(1)
Letter and Spirit of Consent
515(3)
Intervention Research Issues
518(5)
Informing Clients about Treatment
518(1)
Withholding the Intervention
519(1)
Control Groups and Treatments of Questionable Efficacy
520(1)
Consent and the Interface with Threats to Validity
521(1)
General Comments
522(1)
Ethical Guidelines for Research Practices
523(4)
Ethical Issues and Scientific Integrity
527(15)
Fraud in Science
528(2)
Allocation of Credit
530(3)
Sharing of Materials and Data
533(3)
Conflict of Interest
536(4)
Guiding Principles and Responsibilities
540(2)
Summary and Conclusions
542(3)
Publication and Communication of Research Findings
545(16)
Publication Process: An Overview
546(4)
Methodologically Informed Manuscript Preparation
550(9)
Overview
550(1)
Main Sections of the Article
551(5)
Questions to Guide Manuscript Preparation
556(2)
General Comments
558(1)
Summary and Conclusions
559(2)
Closing Comments: Methodology in Perspective
561(10)
Goals of Methodology
561(2)
Substantive Contribution of Methodology
563(3)
Final Word: Abbreviated Guidelines for a Well-Designed Study
566(5)
Glossary 571(14)
References 585(32)
Author Index 617(12)
Subject Index 629


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