Research Methods For The Behavioral Sciences

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-02-23
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
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This book offers comprehensive coverage of both experimental and non-experimental methods. The author provides succinct explanations for a full range of methods, including descriptive, correlational, experimental, and quasi-experimental research designs. Practical tips and applications integrated throughout the book allow users to make real-world connections that encourage them to master the material.

Table of Contents

Getting Started
Introduction to Research
Behavioral Research
Everyday Science Versus Empirical Research
Relying on Our Intuition
Discovering the Limitations of Using Intuition
The Scientific Method
Values Versus Facts in Scientific Research
Basic and Applied Research
The Importance of Studying Research Methods
Evaluating Research Reports
Conducting Research
Thinking Critically About Research
Research Designs: Three Approaches to Studying Behavior
Descriptive Research: Assessing the Current State of Affairs
Correlational Research: Seeking Relationships Among Variables
Experimental Research: Understanding the Causes of Behavior
The Selection of an Appropriate Method
Current Research in The Behavioral Sciences: Preferences For Brands That Contain The Letters Of Our Own Name
Developing the Research Hypothesis
Getting Ideas
Solving Important Real-World Problems
Using Observation and Intuition
Using Existing Research
Doing a Literature Search
Locating Sources of Information
Conducting the Search
Formalizing Ideas into Research Hypotheses
The Research Hypothesis
Ethics in Research
What Is Ethical Research?
Protecting Research Participants from Physical and Psychological Harm
Types of Threats
The Potential for Lasting Impact
Providing Freedom of Choice
Conducting Research Outside the Laboratory
Securing Informed Consent
Weighing Informed Consent Versus the Research Goals
Maintaining Awareness of Power Differentials
Avoiding Abuses of Power
Respecting Participants' Privacy
Honestly Describing the Nature and Use of the Research
When Deception Is Necessary
Simulation Studies: An Alternative to Deception
The Consequences of Deception
Using Animals as Research Participants
Ensuring that Research Is Ethical
The Institutional Review Board
The Researcher's Own Ethics
Correctly and Honestly Reporting Research Results
Measuring and Describing
Fundamentals of Measurement
Operational Definition
Converging Operations
Conceptual and Measured Variables
Nominal and Quantitative Variables
Measurement Scales
Self-Report Measures
Free-Format Self-Report Measures
Fixed-Format Self-Report Measures
Reactivity as a Limitation in Self-Report Measures
Behavioral Measures
Nonreactive Measures
Psychophysiological Measures
Choosing a Measure
Current Research in The Behavioral Sciences: The Hillyer-Jones Kinematics Scale Of Locomotion In Rats With Spinal Injuries
Reliability and Validity
Random and Systematic Error
Test-Retest Reliability
Reliability as Internal Consistency
Interrater Reliability
Construct Validity
Face Validity
Content Validity
Convergent and Discriminant Validity
Criterion Validity
Improving the Reliability and Validity of Measured Variables
Comparing Reliability and Validity
Current Research in The Behavioral Sciences: Using Multiple Measured Variables To Assess The Conceptual Variable Of Panic Symptoms
Surveys and Sampling
Use of Existing Survey Data
Sampling and Generalization
Definition of the Population
Probability Sampling
Sampling Bias and Nonprobability Sampling
Summarizing the Sample Data
Frequency Distributions
Descriptive Statistics
Sample Size and the Margin of Error
Current Research in The Behavioral Sciences: Assessing Americans' Attitudes Toward Healthcare
Naturalistic Methods
Naturalistic Research
Observational Research
The Unacknowledged Participant
The Acknowledged Participant
Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Observers
Case Studies
Systematic Coding Methods
Deciding What to Observe
Deciding How to Record Observations
Choosing Sampling Strategies
Archival Research
Current Research in the Behavioral Sciences: Detecting Psychopathy From Thin Slices of Behavior
Testing Research Hypotheses
Hypothesis Testing and Inferential Statistics
Probability and Inferential Statistics
Sampling Distributions and Hypothesis Testing
The Null Hypothesis
Testing for Statistical Significance
Reduction of Inferential Errors
Type 1 Errors
Type 2 Errors
Statistical Power
The Tradeoff Between Type 1 and Type 2 Errors
Statistical Significance and the Effect Size
Practical Uses of the Effect Size Statistic
Correlational Research Designs
Associations Among Quantitative Variables
Linear Relationships
Nonlinear Relationships
Statistical Assessment of Relationships
The Pearson Correlation Coefficient
The Chi-Square Statistic
Multiple Regression
Correlation and Causality
Interpreting Correlations
Using Correlational Data to Test Causal Models
When Correlational Designs Are Appropriate
Current Research in The Behavioral Sciences: Moral Conviction, Religiosity, and Trust in Authority
Experimental Research: One-Way Designs
Demonstration of Causality
Temporal Priority
Control of Common-Causal Variables
One-Way Experimental Designs
The Experimental Manipulation
Selection of the Dependent Variable
Variety and Number of Levels
Analysis of Variance
Hypothesis Testing in Experimental Designs
Between-Groups and Within-Groups Variance Estimates
The ANOVA Summary Table
Repeated-Measures Designs
Advantages of Repeated-Measures Designs
Disadvantages of Repeated-Measures Designs
When to Use a Repeated-Measures Design
Presentation of Experiment Results
When Experiments Are Appropriate
Current Research In The Behavioral Sciences: Does Social Exclusion "Hurt?"
Designing and Interpreting Research
Experimental Research: Factorial Designs
Factorial Experimental Designs
The Two-Way Design
Main Effects
Interactions and Simple Effects
The ANOVA Summary Table
Understanding Interactions
Patterns of Observed Means
Interpretation of Main Effects When Interactions Are Present
More Factorial Designs
The Three-Way Design
Factorial Designs Using Repeated Measures
Comparison of the Condition Means in Experimental Designs
Pairwise Comparisons
Complex Comparisons
Current Research in the Behavioral Sciences: Post-decisional Dissonance Reduction in Canadian and Japanese Samples
Experimental Control and Internal Validity
Threats to the Validity of Research
Experimental Control
Extraneous Variables
Confounding Variables
Control of Extraneous Variables
Limited-Population Designs
Before-After Designs
Matched-Group Designs
Standardization of Conditions
Creation of Valid Manipulations
Impact and Experimental Realism
Manipulation Checks
Confound Checks
How to Turn Confounding Variables into Factors
Pilot Testing
Threats to Internal Validity
Placebo Effects
Demand Characteristics
Experimenter Bias
Random Assignment Artifacts
Current Research in the Behavioral Sciences: Testing the "Romantic Red" Hypothesis
External Validity
Understanding External Validity
Generalization Across Participants
Generalization Across Settings
Exact Replications
Conceptual Replications
Constructive Replications
Participant Replications
Summarizing and Integrating Research Results
Research Programs
Review Papers
Interpretation of Research Literatures.
Current Research in The Behavioral Sciences: A Meta-Analysis Of The Effectiveness Of Contemporary Treatment Approaches For Withdrawal From Tranquilizer Addictions
Quasi-Experimental Research Designs
Program Evaluation Research
Quasi-Experimental Designs
Single-Group Design
Comparison-Group Design
Single-Group Before-After Design
Comparison-Group Before-After Design
Regression to the Mean as a Threat to Internal Validity
Time-Series Designs
Participant-Variable Designs
Demographic Variables
Personality Variables
Interpretational Difficulties
Single-Participant Designs
Current Research in the Behavioral Sciences: Damage to the Hippocampus Abolishes the Cortisol Response to Psychosocial Stress in Humans
Reporting Research Results
Communication of Scientific Knowledge
Face-to-Face Contact
Publication in Scientific Journals
The Research Report
Headings in APA Format
Title Page
Footnotes and Author Notes
Tables and Figures
Tips on Writing the Research Report
Sample Research Report
Data Preparation and Univariate Statistics
Preparing Data for Analysis
Collecting the Data
Analyzing the Data
Entering the Data into the Computer
Checking and Cleaning the Data
Dealing with Missing Data
Deleting and Retaining Data
Transforming the Data
Conducting Statistical Analysis
Descriptive Statistics, Parameters, and Inferential Statistics
Statistical Notation
Computing Descriptive Statistics
Frequency Distributions
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Dispersion
Computer Output
Standard Scores
The Standard Normal Distribution
Working with Inferential Statistics
Unbiased Estimators
The Central Limit Theorem
The Standard Error
Confidence Intervals
Bivariate Statistics
The Pearson Correlation Coefficient
Calculating r
Obtaining the p-value
Contingency Tables
The Chi-Square Test for Independence
Bivariate Regression
The Regression Equation
The Regression Line
Partitioning of the Sum of Squares
One-Way Analysis of Variance
Computation of a One-Way Between-Participants ANOVA
Multivariate Statistics
Multiple Regression
Regression Coefficients
The Multiple Correlation Coefficient (R)
Hierarchical and Stepwise Analyses
Multiple Regression and ANOVA
Loglinear Analysis
Means Comparisons
A Priori Contrast Analysis
Post Hoc Means Comparisons
Multivariate Statistics
Coefficient Alpha
Exploratory Factor Analysis
Canonical Correlation and MANOVA
Structural Equation Analysis
How to Choose the Appropriate Statistical Test
Statistical Tables
Random Numbers
Selecting a Random Sample
Selecting Orders for Random Assignment Conditions
Distribution of z in the Standard Normal Distribution
Critical Values of t
Critical Values of r
Critical Values of Chi Square
Critical Values of F. Statistical Table G: Statistical Power
Using Computers To Collect Data
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