Research Techniques for the Health Sciences

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-03-02
  • Publisher: Benjamin Cummings
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Key Message: Research Techniques for the Health Sciences focuses on pragmatic aspects of health science research. Underlying concepts and theory are explained and illustrated through a common-sense approach utilizing case studies. All of the book's case studies are health-oriented in school, community, and hospital settings involving students, teachers, physicians, nurses, and health science researchers. This edition features an emphasis on the new role of technology in the research methods processes, and includes new Lecture Outlines in PowerPoint reg; slides. Key Topics:What is Research?, Developing the Research Proposal, Critical Review of the Literature and Information Resources, Research in an Ethical Context, Conducting Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research, Data Collection through Surveys and Self-Reports, Sampling Designs and Techniques, Qualitative Research, Evaluation Research, Analytic Epidemiologic Studies, Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Descriptive Analysis, Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Inferential Analysis, Techniques for Data Presentation, Writing a Research Report Market:Intended for those interested in learning the basics of research methods for health.

Author Biography

James J. Neutens, PhD, FASHA is the Dean of the College of Medicine-Knoxville at the University of Tennessee.


Laurna Rubinson, a native New Yorker, received her B.S. from Long Island University.  She taught in the Connecticut public schools while attending Southern Connecticut State University to earn her M.S.  Her Ph.D. was earned at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where she continued on as a faculty member.  During her career at Illinois, she was the Director of Graduate Studies and taught courses in health behavior, research methods, and community health organization.  Her research interests focused on the health behavior of college students and young adults.  She has written books entitled: Contemporary Human Sexuality and Foundations for Health Education, in addition to Research Techniques for the Health Sciences.  She was the recipient of grants from both the Federal government and private agencies, and received awards from professional organizations.  She retired as an Associate Professor in 2000 from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign after 27 years in the Community Health department. Her most rewarding professional experiences have been working with outstanding students in their efforts to complete their theses and dissertations.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
What Is Research?p. 1
Health Science Researchp. 1
Using Science in the Quest for Knowledgep. 2
Summaryp. 10
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 11
Suggested Activitiesp. 12
Referencesp. 13
Developing the Research Proposalp. 14
Selection of the Problemp. 14
Sources of Problemsp. 15
Statement of the Problem and Research Questionsp. 17
Subproblemsp. 18
Components Comprising the Setting of the Problemp. 19
Formulation of Hypothesesp. 20
Significance and Justification of the Problemp. 21
Résumé of Related Literaturep. 22
Proposed Research Proceduresp. 23
Budget Considerationsp. 23
Time Schedulep. 23
Research Proposal Checklistp. 24
Summaryp. 26
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 26
Suggested Activitiesp. 27
Referencesp. 27
Critical Review of the Literature and Information Sourcesp. 29
Purposes of the Reviewp. 29
Steps in the Review Processp. 31
Conducting a Computer Search: Finding the Evidencep. 35
Determining the Level of Evidencep. 37
Finding Shortcuts to Determining the Level of Evidencep. 45
Writing the Section on Related Literaturep. 45
Summaryp. 47
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 47
Suggested Activitiesp. 48
Referencesp. 48
Considering Ethics in Researchp. 50
Case Studyp. 50
General Ethical Dilemmas in Human Researchp. 51
Justification to Experiment on Humansp. 54
Vulnerable Target Groups: Childrenp. 55
Vulnerable Target Groups: Elderlyp. 57
Informed Consent: Truthtelling and Deceptionp. 58
Right to Privacy and Confidentialityp. 60
Responsibility for Harmful Consequencesp. 62
The Duty to Continue a Successful Research Effortp. 63
Therapeutic and Nontherapeutic Researchp. 64
Sponsored Researchp. 64
Publication of Unethical Researchp. 65
Research or Just a Look-See?p. 65
Role of the Institutional Review Boardp. 66
Case Discussionp. 70
Summaryp. 70
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 71
Suggested Activitiesp. 72
Referencesp. 72
Conducting Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Researchp. 74
Case Study Ap. 74
Case Study Bp. 74
Characteristics of Experimentationp. 75
Control in Experimentsp. 76
The Hawthorne Effect in Controlling Situationsp. 77
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Experimental Methodp. 78
Internal and External Validityp. 78
Constructing Experimental Designs to Control Variablesp. 84
The Randomized Controlled Trial: Clinical Trialsp. 88
Case Discussion for Case Study Ap. 94
Case Discussion for Case Study Bp. 95
Summaryp. 95
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 96
Suggested Activitiesp. 96
Referencesp. 97
Data Collection Through Surveys and Self-Reportsp. 99
Case Studyp. 99
Characteristics of Survey Researchp. 99
Survey Flow Planp. 100
Survey Designp. 103
Data Collection Methodsp. 104
Survey Samplingp. 111
Questionnaire Design and Constructionp. 112
Attitude Scale Constructionp. 117
Cover Letterp. 122
Pretesting and Questionnaire Revisionp. 122
Focus Groupsp. 124
The Delphi Techniquep. 124
Case Discussionp. 126
Summaryp. 127
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 128
Suggested Activitiesp. 128
Referencesp. 129
Sampling Designs and Techniquesp. 133
Case Studyp. 133
The Purpose of Samplingp. 134
The Sampling Framep. 134
Sampling Techniquesp. 135
Sample Sizep. 141
Sample Size for Studies with Hypothesis: Analytical Studiesp. 142
Sample Size for Studies Without Hypotheses: Surveys and Descriptive Studiesp. 143
Case Discussionp. 149
Summaryp. 150
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 151
Suggested Activitiesp. 151
Referencesp. 152
Qualitative Researchp. 153
Case Studyp. 153
Characteristics of Qualitative Researchp. 153
Theoretical Foundationsp. 157
Methods of Qualitative Researchp. 158
Techniques of Collecting Qualitative Datap. 170
Analyzing Qualitative Datap. 176
Using Computers in Data Analysisp. 178
Case Discussionp. 179
Summaryp. 179
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 180
Suggested Activitiesp. 180
Referencesp. 181
Evaluation Researchp. 182
Case Studyp. 182
Introductionp. 182
Purposes of Evaluation Researchp. 183
What Can Be Evaluated?p. 184
Steps in Conducting Evaluationp. 184
Evaluation Modelsp. 188
Types of Evaluation Researchp. 197
Methodological Approaches in Evaluation Researchp. 204
Case Discussionp. 210
Summaryp. 210
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 211
Suggested Activitiesp. 212
Referencesp. 212
Analytical Epidemiologic Studiesp. 214
Case Study Ap. 214
Case Study Bp. 214
The Nature of Epidemiologyp. 215
Analytical Methodologies in Epidemiologyp. 215
Cohort Investigationsp. 217
Case-Control Studiesp. 218
Establishing Causationp. 220
Problems of Errorp. 220
Control in Epidemiological Researchp. 222
Analysis of Results in Analytic Epidemiologyp. 224
Case Discussion of Case Study Ap. 232
Case Discussion of Case Study Bp. 232
Summaryp. 233
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 234
Suggested Activitiesp. 234
Referencesp. 235
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Descriptive Analysisp. 237
Case Studyp. 237
The Meaning of Statisticsp. 238
Statistical Analysis and Datap. 238
Descriptive Data Analysis Techniquesp. 240
Personal Computers and Information Delivery Systemsp. 250
Case Discussionp. 252
Summaryp. 253
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 253
Suggested Activitiesp. 253
Referencesp. 255
Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Inferential Analysisp. 256
Case Study Ap. 256
Case Study Bp. 257
Inferential Analysisp. 257
Estimation of Parametersp. 258
Hypotheses Testingp. 259
Inferential Data Analysis Techniques for Comparing Mean Scoresp. 263
Measures of Relationship and Predictionsp. 268
Nonparametric Tests of Significancep. 269
Meta-Analysisp. 271
Case Discussion of Case Study Ap. 273
Case Discussion of Case Study Bp. 273
Summaryp. 273
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 274
Suggested Activitiesp. 274
Referencesp. 275
Techniques for Data Presentationp. 276
Case Studyp. 276
Table Presentationsp. 276
Table Formatp. 281
Figure Presentationsp. 286
Graphics and the Computerp. 293
Case Discussionp. 293
Summaryp. 293
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 294
Suggested Activitiesp. 294
Referencesp. 294
Writing a Research Reportp. 295
The Report as a Communication Documentp. 295
Preliminariesp. 296
Text or Main Body of the Reportp. 299
Referencesp. 306
Appendixesp. 307
Writing Stylep. 307
Summaryp. 308
Critical Thinking Questionsp. 309
Suggested Activitiesp. 309
Referencesp. 309
Common Statistical Proceduresp. 311
World Wide Web Researchp. 314
Name Indexp. 317
Subject Indexp. 321
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