9781583210161

Residential End Uses of Water

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781583210161

  • ISBN10:

    1583210164

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1999-11-01
  • Publisher: AMER WATER WORKS ASSN

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Table of Contents

List of Tables
xi
List of Figures
xv
Foreword xvii
Acknowledgments xix
Executive Summary xxi
Introduction
1(5)
Background
3(1)
Project Team
4(1)
How to Use This Report
4(2)
Literature Review
6(5)
Research Approaches and Procedures
11(37)
Overview of Research Process
11(3)
Study Site Selection
14(2)
Initial Survey Group Sample
16(3)
Survey Development and Implementation
19(3)
Survey Design
19(1)
Use of KEYCODE to Preserve Customer Anonymity
20(1)
Survey Implementation
21(1)
Study Group Selection
22(5)
Comparison of Survey Respondents with Survey Targets and Non-respondents
22(2)
Selection of Data Logging Sample
24(3)
End Use Data Collection
27(4)
Overview
27(1)
Data Logging Equipment
27(2)
Logger Installation
29(1)
Data Collection Schedule
30(1)
End Use Data Analysis
31(9)
Flow Trace Analysis
31(1)
Meter-Master Data Loggers
32(1)
Trace Wizard
33(5)
Database Development
38(1)
Working Categories for Disaggregation
39(1)
Supplemental Data Collection
40(2)
Weather Data
40(1)
Conservation Program Data and Price and Rate Structure
41(1)
Quality Assurance and Quality Control
42(6)
Accuracy of Flow Trace Analysis
43(5)
Comparison of Study Sites
48(34)
Utility Service Area Characteristics
48(10)
Water and Sewer Rates
55(3)
Utility Sponsored Conservation Programs and Local Conservation Regulations
58(1)
Information from Billing Data
58(9)
Annual Use Patterns
60(3)
Seasonal Water Use
63(4)
Survey Responses
67(15)
Survey Response Rate
67(2)
Comparison of Survey Responses Across Study Sites
69(13)
End Use Data Analysis
82(59)
Daily Household Use
82(4)
Total Daily Use
83(1)
Daily Indoor Use
84(2)
Indoor Per Capita Use
86(25)
Mean Per Capita Daily Water Use
86(4)
Study Site Comparison
90(1)
Leaks
90(4)
Fixture Utilization Per Capita Per Day
94(2)
Toilets
96(3)
Showers
99(5)
Clothes Washers
104(2)
Analysis of Variance in Indoor Water Use
106(5)
Outdoor Use
111(10)
Irrigated Area Update
115(1)
Outdoor Use and ET
116(1)
Irrigable Area and Application Rate
117(2)
Variability in Outdoor Water Use
119(2)
Peak Use
121(3)
Peak Instantaneous Demand
121(2)
Peak Day Demand
123(1)
Water Pressure Delivery Ranges
124(1)
Hourly Use
124(3)
Comparison of REUWS Results with Other Studies
127(4)
Per Capita Per Day Comparison
128(2)
Fixture Utilization Comparison
130(1)
Conservation Effectiveness
131(10)
Ultra-Low-Flush Toilets
131(2)
Low-Flow Showerheads
133(3)
Landscape Measures
136(1)
Additional Conservation Potential
137(4)
Statistical Models of End Use Measurements
141(25)
Introduction
141(2)
Survey Characteristics of the Data Logging Sample
143(4)
Price of Water and Sewer
146(1)
Omitting Weather and Seasonality from End Use Models
147(1)
Inferential Analysis
148(7)
Toilet Use
149(2)
Shower and Bath Use
151(1)
Faucet and Water Treatment System Use
151(1)
Dishwasher Use
152(1)
Clothes washer Use
152(1)
Leaks
152(1)
Outdoor Use
153(1)
Other/Unknown Use
154(1)
Predictive Analysis
155(11)
Estimated System of End Use Models
156(3)
Applying End Use Models: An Example
159(1)
Comparison of Logged Use with End Use Model Predictions
160(1)
Extending the End Use System to Predict Total Use
160(6)
Conclusions and Recommendations
166(16)
Conclusions
167(11)
Annual Use
167(1)
Daily Per Capita Use
167(4)
Peak Use
171(1)
Hourly Use
171(2)
End Use Models
173(5)
Modeling Conclusions
178(1)
Recommendations
178(4)
Modeling Recommendations
179(3)
APPENDIX A RESIDENTIAL END USES OF WATER SURVEY
182(65)
Detailed Survey Group Selection Procedures
182(4)
Instructions for Handling Survey Forms
186(2)
Suggested Cover Letter for Water Survey
188(1)
Residential Water Use Survey
189(7)
Survey Follow-up Postcard
196(1)
Survey Follow-up Letter to Non-Respondents
197(1)
Survey Implementation Schedule
198(1)
Sample Water Survey Input Form
199(1)
Draft Notice (Consent) Letter
200(2)
Complete Mail Survey Responses
202(45)
APPENDIX B QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL
247(15)
Description of Eight Major Quality Assurance and Quality Control Tests
247(6)
QA Test 1 - Test Validity of Service Address
247(1)
QA Test 2 - Test to See if 1,000 Sample is Representative
248(1)
QA Test 3 - Check Accuracy of Survey Response Data Entry Process
248(1)
QA Test 4 - Test if Water Use of Survey Respondents is Representative
249(1)
QA Test 5 - Test if 150 Sites Selected for Logging are Representative
250(1)
QA Test 6 - Test Data Logger to See that it is Recording Properly
251(1)
QA Test 7 - Check Accuracy of Data Logger vs. Meter
251(1)
QA Test 8 - Check Accuracy of Event Database
252(1)
QA Test Forms
253(4)
QA Test 1 - Test Validity of Service Address
253(1)
QA Test 3 - Check Accuracy of Survey Response Data Entry Process
254(1)
QA Test 6 -- Data Logger Installation and Removal
255(1)
QA Test 7 -- Check Logger vs. Meter Volumes
255(1)
QA Test 8 -- Check Accuracy of Event Database
256(1)
QA Test Results
257(5)
APPENDIX C THE RESIDENTIAL END USES OF WATER STUDY DATABASE
262(9)
Introductions
262(1)
Database Structure
262(1)
Database Tables
263(1)
Data Considerations
264(3)
Keycodes
264(1)
Logging Data
265(1)
Daily Use
266(1)
Survey Responses
266(1)
Q1000 Tables
267(1)
Using the REUWS Database
267(3)
Billing data
267(1)
End Use Data
268(1)
Survey Response Data
269(1)
How to Obtain the REUWS Database
270(1)
APPENDIX D RESIDENTIAL END USE MODELS
271(31)
Statistical Model of Average Total Household Use
271(6)
Introduction
271(1)
Model Estimation Procedure
271(2)
Scale Correction for Interpreting Coefficients of Binary Variables
273(1)
Interpretation of Total Household Use Model
273(4)
Development of Inferential Models
277(8)
Estimation Procedure for Inferential Models
277(1)
Model Specification and Selection
277(8)
Development of Predictive System of End Use Equations
285(5)
Estimation Approach
285(1)
The Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) Procedure
285(5)
Extending End Uses Models to Predict Total Monthly Use
290(12)
Estimation Process and Results
290(3)
Example Application of End Use Model
293(1)
Developing Predictions of Indoor and Outdoor Use
294(8)
References 302(6)
Abbreviations 308

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