Retrying Galileo, 1633-1992

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-10-17
  • Publisher: Univ of California Pr

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In 1633, at the end of one of the most famous trials in history, the Inquisition condemned Galileo for contending that the Earth moves and that the Bible is not a scientific authority. Galileo's condemnation set off a controversy that has acquired a fascinating life of its own and that continues to this day. This absorbing book is the first to examine the entire span of the Galileo affair from his condemnation to his alleged rehabilitation by the Pope in 1992. Filled with primary sources, many translated into English for the first time,Retrying Galileowill acquaint readers with the historical facts of the trial, its aftermath and repercussions, the rich variety of reflections on it throughout history, and the main issues it raises.

Author Biography

Maurice A. Finocchiaro, Distinguished Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas

Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgmentsp. ix
Introduction. The Galileo Affair from Descartes to John Paul II: A Survey of Sources, Facts, and Issuesp. 1
The Condemnation of Galileo (1633)p. 7
"Vehemently Suspected of Heresy": The Inquisition's Sentence (1633)p. 7
"I Abjure, Curse, and Detest": Galileo's Abjuration (1633)p. 15
"Suspended until Corrected": The Index's Anti-Copernican Decree (1616)p. 16
"Hypothesis versus Assertion": The Index's Correction of Copernicus's Revolutions (1620)p. 20
Promulgation and Diffusion of the News (1633-1651)p. 26
Nuncios and Inquisitors: Pope Urban VIII's Orders (July 1633)p. 26
Professors of Mathematics and Philosophy: Guiducci's Report (August 1633)p. 28
Printed Posters and Flyers: Carafa's Liege Notification (September 1653)p. 30
Private Correspondence: Buonamici's Account (July 1633)p. 33
Newspapers and Books: From Renaudot's Abridgment (1633) to Riccioli's Documems (1651)p. 57
Emblematic Reactions: Descartes, Peiresc, Galileo's Daughter (1633-1642)p. 43
The End of the World: Descartes (1633-1644)p. 43
Sharing Misery: Galileo's Daughter (1633)p. 51
"The Mirrour of True Nobiliiy & Gentility": Peiresc's Plea (1634-1635)p. 52
"No Pardon to Innocents": Galileo (1634-1642)p. 56
Polarizations: Secularism, Liberalism, Fundamentalism (1633-1661)p. 66
States versus Churchp. 66
"Philosophic Freedom": From Strasbourg (1635-1636) to London (1644-1661)p. 72
Illegitimate Births, Burials, and Books: Various Retrials to Riccioli's Apology (1651)p. 79
Compromises: Viviani, Auzout, Leibniz (1654-1704)p. 86
Galileo "Human Not Divine": Vincenzio Viviani (1654-1693)p. 87
The Ghost of Bellarmine: Adrien Auzout (1665)p. 93
Diplomacy Fails: Leihniz (1679-1704)p. 99
Myth-making or Enlightenment?: Pascal, Voltaire, the Encyclopedia (1657-1777)p. 108
From Copernicanism to Jansenism: Pascal (1657) and Arnauld (1691)p. 108
From Prison to Biblical Satire: Un-Enlightened Myths (1709-1773)p. 111
Whose Ignorance and Prejudice? Voltaire (1728-1770)p. 115
"Theology's War on Science": D'Alembert and the French Encyclopedia (1751-1777)p. 120
Incompetence or Enlightenment?: Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758)p. 126
Galileo's Dialogue Unbanned, Sort Of: Toaldo's Edition and Calmet's Introduction (1741-1744)p. 127
Copernicanism Unbanned, Sort Of: Lazzari's Consultant Report (1757)p. 138
New Lies, Documents, Myths, Apologies (1758-1797)p. 154
Dishonorable "Onorato": Gaetani's Forged Letter (1770-1785)p. 155
Undiplomatic Diplomat: Guicciardini's 1616 Report Published (1773)p. 158
From One Extreme to Another: Mallet du Pan's Formative Myth (1784-1797)p. 159
"Spots in the Sun": Tiraboschi's Brilliant Apology (1792-1793)p. 164
Napoleonic Wars and Trials (1810-1821)p. 175
The Trial Proceedings to Paris: Napoleon's Publication Plan (1810-1814)p. 175
Lost and Found: Marini's Efforts (1814-1817)p. 178
The Napoleonic Transladons; Delambre's Finding (1820)p. 181
Primary versus Accessory Causes: Venturi's Explanation (1820)p. 184
Galileo's Confession: The Inquisition's Trial Summary Revealed (1821)p. 190
The Inquisition on Galileo's Side?: The Settele Affair (1820) and Beyond (1835)p. 193
More Unbanning of Copernicanism (1820-1835)p. 194
Anti-Copernican Insubordination: Olivieri's Official Summary (1820)p. 198
Solomonic Injustice: 1820 versus 1616p. 218
Varieties of Torture: Demythologizing Galileo's Trial? (1835-1867)p. 222
"Martyr of Science"? Victim of Torture? Brewster and Libri (1835-1841)p. 223
Immoral Disobedience? Dublin's Cooper and Cincinnati's J. Q. Adams (1838-1844)p. 226
Torturing People versus Torturing Texts: Marini's Semi-Official Apologia (1850)p. 230
"Moral Torture"? Antihero?: Biot's and Chasles's Circumstantialism (1858-1867)p. 233
Inquisition Right and Wrong? Madden's Tortured Thinking (1863)p. 237
A Miscarriage of Justice?: The Documentation of Impropriety (1867-1879)p. 241
A Legal Impropriety: Wohlwill's Radical Revisionism (1870)p. 242
Independent Evidence: Gherardi's Inquisition Minutes (1870)p. 246
Plea Bargaining out of Court: Commissary Maculano's 1633 Letter Published (1875)p. 249
Tampering with the Evidence: Scartazzini on Paper Shuffling (1877-1878)p. 251
Inaccurate but Not Forged Documents: Gebler's Balanced Synthesis (1879)p. 255
Galileo Right Again, Wrong Again: Hermeneutics, Epistemology, "Heresy" (1866-1928)p. 259
Cultural Penetration and Consolidadon (1866-1928)p. 259
Galileo Theologically Right: Leo XIII's Encyclical Providentissimus Deus (1893)p. 263
Blaming "Realism": Duhem's Epistemological Explanation (1908)p. 266
Muller's Anti-Galilean Synthesis and Garzend's Un-Apologetic Concept of Heresy (1909-1912)p. 269
A Catholic Hero: Tricentennial Rehabilitation (1941-1947)p. 275
"Harmony of Science and Religion": Gemelli Reverses Traditional View (1942)p. 275
A Model of Religious Faith: Paschini's Preview (1943)p. 280
A Noble Intellectual Sacrifice: Soccorsi Justifies Galileo's Retraction (1947)p. 284
Secular Indictments: Brecht's Atomic Bomb and Koestler's Two Cultures (1947-1959)p. 295
Galileo's Social Betrayal: Brecht's Historical Fiction (1947/1955)p. 296
Galileo's Blame for "Science versus Religion": Koestler's Fictional History (1959)p. 306
History on Trial: The Paschini Affair (1941-1979)p. 318
Silencing a Historian: Paschini's Letters (1941-1946)p. 318
"Rehabilitating" a Historian: The Pontifical Academy's Edition of Paschini's Galileo (1964)p. 326
Adulterating Historiography: Bertolla's Recovery of the Genuine Galileo (1978)p. 330
More "Rehabilitation": Pope John Paul II (1979-1992)p. 338
Admitting Wrongs versus Admitting Mistakes: The Einstein Centennial Speech (1979)p. 338
Rethinking versus Retrying Galileo: The Vatican Study Commission (1981-1992)p. 343
The "Right to Make Mistakes": Brandmuller's New Apology (1982/1992)p. 348
Undoing a Rehabilitation: Poupard's Commission Report (1992)p. 350
Closing a "Case": The Pope's Complexity Conference Speech (1992)p. 353
Epilogue: Unfinished Businessp. 359
Notesp. 367
Select Bibliographyp. 429
Indexp. 467
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