The Right to Development in International Law: The Case of Pakistan

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-08-17
  • Publisher: Routledge

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This book explores the right to development in international law. The volume draws on a range of relevant sources to analyse the legal status of international cooperation in contemporary international law, before going on to explore the domestic application of the right to development looking at the example of Pakistan.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgementsp. xiii
List of Abbreviationsp. xv
Table of Casesp. xix
Table of Statutory Materialp. xxiii
Introductionp. 1
Background and research thesisp. 1
International dimension of the RTDp. 3
Why Pakistan as a case study?p. 4
Human rights and developmentp. 8
Pakistan: towards a rights-based approach to development?p. 12
Approach of the bookp. 12
Structure of the bookp. 14
The RTD: Concept and challengesp. 17
History, politics and concept of the RTDp. 19
Introductionp. 19
Historical overviewp. 19
From economic sovereignty to the RTDp. 19
The Declaration (1986)p. 22
The Vienna Declaration (1993)p. 22
The current status of the RTD (2004-2007)p. 23
Regional and national perspectivesp. 24
The politics of the RTDp. 26
The North-South dividep. 26
The political positions of states/groups of statesp. 27
The voting trends in the General Assemblyp. 29
The Commission on Human Rightsp. 32
Human rights in development programmesp. 34
Conceptual basisp. 35
The capability approachp. 35
Capability and human rightsp. 37
List of capabilitiesp. 39
Realizing capabilities through the RTDp. 39
Islamic perspective vis--vis capability and human eightsp. 40
Conclusionp. 41
The jurisprudence of the RTDp. 43
Introductionp. 43
Sourcesp. 44
The right to self-determinationp. 44
Article 28 of the UDHRp. 48
Articles 55 and 56 of the UN Charterp. 49
Other international instrumentsp. 51
Subjectsp. 52
State as a subjectp. 52
State as a duty-hoiderp. 53
Peoples as a subjectp. 54
Individual as a subjectp. 55
Contentp. 56
Individual rightp. 57
Collective rightp. 58
The right to a process of developmentp. 59
Justiciabilityp. 62
Rights and duties in analytical jurisprudencep. 64
Rights as goats: ethical jutisprudencep. 66
The Maastricht Guidelinesp. 68
The pluralistic foundations of human rightsp. 70
Justiciability at the national levelp. 71
Justiciability at the international levelp. 73
Rights and duties in Islamic jurisprudencep. 74
Conclusionp. 74
The declaration and the working groupsp. 77
Introductionp. 77
The first working group and the drafting of the Declarationp. 79
The working group reportp. 79
An analysis of the working group reportp. 80
The drafting of the Declarationp. 81
The main features of the Declarationp. 83
Unity of human rightsp. 83
Participationp. 84
International cooperationp. 86
The concept of developmentp. 87
Sustainable developmentp. 90
Weaknesses of the Declarationp. 92
Vague and imprecisep. 92
A compromise documentp. 93
Reference to the NIEOp. 94
Women's rightsp. 95
Realization of the RTDp. 96
The global consultationp. 96
The second and third working groupsp. 98
The current status of the realizationp. 100
The independent expert and the task forcep. 100
The Development Compactp. 101
Debate in the working groupp. 103
A critical appraisal of the Development Compactp. 104
The high-level task forcep. 105
Evaluation of the task force reportsp. 107
Conclusionp. 108
The RTD in international lawp. 111
The legal status of the RTD in public international lawp. 113
Introductionp. 113
Sources of international lawp. 114
Customp. 115
What is meant by 'recommendation'?p. 116
Opinio jurisp. 119
State practicep. 122
Is the USA a 'persistent objector'?p. 126
General principles of lawp. 128
Is the Declaration a soft law?p. 130
The RTD and 'new sources'p. 132
The value of the Declaration: determining factorsp. 135
Competency of General Assemblyp. 135
'The nature and content'p. 136
'Time and circumstances'p. 136
'Terms and intent' or languagep. 136
'Voting pattern'p. 137
'International organization practice'p. 137
Implementation or follow-up mechanismp. 138
'Community values, needs and expectations'p. 138
Conclusionp. 140
The RTD at the national level: Pakistan as a case studyp. 143
The nature and extent of the realization of the RTD in Pakistanp. 145
Introductionp. 145
The political economy of Pakistanp. 146
Economy: far from distributive justicep. 146
Constitution-making: still a dilemmap. 147
The national dimension of the RTDp. 152
The Declarationp. 152
Pakistan's role in the mainstream RTD debatep. 153
Constitutional mechanisms versus the features of the RTDp. 154
The nature of the constitutional obligationsp. 155
Public Interest Litigation: prospects for the RTDp. 156
Conceptual basisp. 156
An analysis of case lawp. 157
Right to life (Article 9)p. 158
Prohibition of forced labour (Article 11)p. 159
Freedom of association (Article 25): political participationp. 161
Equality of citizens (Article 25)p. 162
Women's rightsp. 162
Protection of the environmentp. 163
The Principles of Policyp. 165
Problems and prospects of PILp. 166
Impact of the current judicial crisisp. 167
Conclusionp. 169
Reconceptualizing the RTD in Islamic lawp. 171
Introductionp. 171
Shari'ah: meaning, sources and purposep. 171
Meaning of the Shari'ahp. 171
Primary sources: the Qur'an and the Sunnahp. 173
Juristic techniquesp. 175
The purpose of the Shari'ah: the doctrine of maslahahp. 176
Maslahah and the RTDp. 178
General relevance of maslahah to the RTDp. 178
Human rights and Islamic lawp. 181
The challenge of cultural relativismp. 181
How to achieve compatibilityp. 184
Islamization and the RTD in Pakistanp. 186
Jinnah's vision of Pakistanp. 186
The Objectives Resolutionp. 188
The Islamic provisions of the 1973 constitutionp. 189
The Islamic concept of social justicep. 190
Zia's Islamization movement and the RTDp. 191
The judicial systemp. 191
Economic reformp. 193
Implications for the RTDp. 194
The role of the judiciaryp. 197
Implications for other Muslim countriesp. 200
Conclusionp. 201
Pakistan's Poverty-Reduction Strategy and the RTDp. 203
Introductionp. 203
The PRSP frameworkp. 204
Introduction and backgroundp. 204
The guidelinesp. 205
Principles of the PRSP and the RTDp. 207
Country ownershipp. 207
Participationp. 209
Other principlesp. 211
Pakistan's PRSP and the RTDp. 212
National ownership and participationp. 212
AJP in the PRSPp. 216
Governancep. 217
The rule of lawp. 218
The judiciary in the RTD debatep. 219
The guidelines and judicial reformsp. 220
Guideline 8 and the AJPp. 220
Importance of the right of equal access to justicep. 220
The rationale of the AJPp. 221
The scope of the right of equal access to justice (the guideline)p. 222
Objectives and scope of the AJPp. 222
Key targets and indicatorsp. 224
The AJPp. 224
Key features of a strategy for realizing the right of equal access to justicep. 224
The AJP frameworkp. 225
A comparison of the two strategiesp. 225
Evaluation of the AJPp. 230
Conclusionp. 251
Conclusionp. 233
Glossary of Islamic wordsp. 239
Bibliographyp. 241
Indexp. 261
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