Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Companion Guide (Cisco Networking Academy)

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-07-19
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
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The completely revised and only authorized textbook for the Cisco Networking Academy Program CCNA 2 curriculum A portable reference that supports the topics in the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA 2 curriculum aligning 1:1 with course modules Features improved readability, enhanced topic explanations, real-world examples, and all-new graphical presentations Written by leading CCNA author Wendell Odom and Academy instructor Rick McDonald, who bring a fresh voice to the course material Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Companion Guideis the official supplemental textbook for the CCNA 2 course of the Cisco Networking Academy Program. Completely revised from the previous edition with new examples and explanations, this textbook includes original material developed by the authors, yet it fully aligns with the CCNA 2 curriculum. Written by experienced authors who present material in a comprehensive manner--using their own voices and their own examples--this new edition augments student understanding of course material. The new edition incorporates improved features to aid instructors and enhance student comprehension. For example, chapters align with course modules in both name and number, and chapter objectives are stated as questions to encourage students to think about and find answers as they read chapters. End of- chapter questions and summaries align with chapter objectives to emphasize key topics, while key terms are listed in each chapter opener in the order of occurrence to alert students to upcoming vocabulary words. In addition, new features include "How To" quick references for step-by-step tasks; real-world examples and all-new illustrations; concise explanations with a focus on word usage and sentence structure for improved readability; and correlations to the CCNA exam in Chapter Objectives, Check Your Understanding questions, and new Challenge Activities.

Author Biography

Rick McDonald teaches computer and networking courses at the University of Alaska Southeast in Katchikan, Alaska.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. xx
WANs and Routersp. 1
Objectivesp. 1
Key Termsp. 1
Introduction to Routing Over WANsp. 3
Connecting Routers to WAN Linksp. 5
WAN Clocking on DTE and DCE Devicesp. 7
WAN Standardsp. 8
Creating Inexpensive Leased Lines in a Labp. 10
Overview of Routing Over WANsp. 12
Router Hardware and Software Componentsp. 13
Router Components and Cablingp. 15
Internal Router Componentsp. 15
External Router Interfacesp. 18
Cabling Ethernet LAN Interfacesp. 19
Cabling WAN Interfaces for Leased Linesp. 21
Cabling Other Types of WANsp. 22
Router Management Portsp. 24
Cabling and Accessing a Router Console Portp. 25
Cabling a Router Auxiliary Portp. 28
Comparing the Console and Auxiliary Portsp. 28
Summaryp. 30
Check Your Understandingp. 32
Challenge Questions and Activitiesp. 37
Introduction to Routersp. 39
Objectivesp. 39
Key Termsp. 39
Operating the Cisco IOS CLIp. 40
The Cisco IOS CLIp. 40
Router EXEC Modesp. 43
Router Configuration Modesp. 44
Perspectives on What Needs to Be Configured on a Routerp. 44
Configuration Process and Configuration Modesp. 45
Cisco IOS Fundamentalsp. 47
Cisco IOS Features and Filenamesp. 47
Storing Cisco IOS in Flash Memory and RAMp. 48
Two Alternative OSsp. 50
Starting, Configuring, Accessing, and Using a Routerp. 52
Initial Booting of a Routerp. 52
Performing a Power-On Self Testp. 54
Loading the Bootstrap Programp. 54
Loading the Cisco IOSp. 56
Loading the Startup Configuration into RAMp. 58
Creating an Initial Configuration Using Setup Modep. 59
Accessing a Routerp. 61
Cabling and Accessing a Router Console Portp. 62
Review of Router EXEC and Configuration Modesp. 63
Router Password Basicsp. 65
Using a Router CLIp. 66
How to Find the Commands Available from the CLIp. 67
How to Find the Available Options on a Commandp. 68
Recalling Old Commands to Save Typing Effortp. 70
Changing the Command on the Command Linep. 71
Automatic Help When a Command Is Mistypedp. 73
Show version Commandp. 74
Summaryp. 75
Check Your Understandingp. 77
Challenge Questions and Activitiesp. 81
Configuring a Routerp. 83
Objectivesp. 83
Key Termsp. 83
Configuring a Router for Basic Routingp. 84
Reviewing the Configuration Modesp. 85
Configuring Ethernet and Serial Interfacesp. 86
Configuring Clock Rate on a Serial Linkp. 88
Configuring Routesp. 89
Summarizing the Working Configurations for R1 and R2p. 90
Configuring Hostnames and Passwordsp. 91
Configuring a Router's Hostnamep. 92
User and Enable Mode Passwordsp. 92
Examining Operational Status Using show Commandsp. 94
Changing the Configurationp. 98
What to Do if the Configuration Is Incorrectp. 98
What to Do After the Configuration Is Correctp. 100
Documenting the Router Configurationp. 101
Configuring Interface Descriptionsp. 102
Configuring Login Bannersp. 103
Configuring Local Host Tablesp. 104
Backing Up the Configurationp. 106
Using TFTP to Back Up a Configurationp. 107
Where to Keep the Backup Configuration Filesp. 109
Summaryp. 110
Check Your Understandingp. 113
Challenge Questions and Activitiesp. 116
Learning About Other Devicesp. 117
Objectivesp. 117
Key Termsp. 117
Discovering Neighbors Using CDPp. 118
CDP Protocol Operationsp. 120
CDP Versions 1 and 2p. 121
CDP Timersp. 121
Information Learned by CDPp. 123
Configuring and Verifying CDP Operationsp. 125
Creating a Network Map Using CDP Informationp. 128
Additional CDP Verification and Troubleshooting Commandsp. 130
Getting Information and Troubleshooting Remote Devicesp. 131
Verifying Which Networking Layers Are Workingp. 131
Telnet Basicsp. 132
Cisco IOS telnet Commandp. 133
Basic Telnet Troubleshootingp. 135
Issues with the Default Name Resolution Methodp. 135
Advanced Telnet: Suspending and Switching Between Telnet Connectionsp. 136
Switching Between Multiple Telnet Connectionsp. 138
Number of Concurrent Telnetsp. 140
Cisco IOS ping and traceroute Commandsp. 141
Cisco IOS ping Commandp. 141
Cisco IOS traceroute Commandp. 142
Summarizing the ping and traceroute Commandsp. 143
Summaryp. 144
Check Your Understandingp. 145
Challenge Questions and Activitiesp. 148
Managing Cisco IOS Softwarep. 151
Objectivesp. 151
Key Termsp. 151
Router Boot Sequence and Loading Cisco IOS Imagesp. 152
Choosing the Cisco IOS Image During the Router Boot Sequencep. 153
Choosing the Cisco IOS Image Based on the Configuration Registerp. 154
Choosing the Cisco IOS Based on boot system Commandsp. 156
Loading the First File in Flash Memoryp. 158
Broadcasting to Find a Cisco IOS on a TFTP Serverp. 159
Loading a Limited-Function OS from ROMp. 159
Troubleshooting and Verifying the Choice of Cisco IOSp. 159
Determining How a Router Should Apply the Five-Step Decision Processp. 160
Determining Which Steps Failedp. 160
Managing Cisco Router IOS and Configuration Filesp. 161
Cisco IOS File Systemp. 161
Cisco IOS Filenamesp. 164
Copying and Managing Cisco IOS Imagesp. 166
Copying Using the Cisco IOS copy Commandp. 167
Copying Using the ROMMON tftpdnld Commandp. 169
Copying Using ROMMON and Xmodemp. 171
Verifying Cisco IOS Imagesp. 174
Copying and Managing Cisco IOS Configuration Filesp. 176
Copying Configuration Files Using the IOS copy Commandp. 176
Copying Configuration Files Using Copy and Pastep. 177
Recovering from Lost Passwordsp. 182
Summaryp. 183
Check Your Understandingp. 185
Challenge Questions and Activitiesp. 188
Routing and Routing Protocolsp. 191
Objectivesp. 191
Key Termsp. 191
Introduction to Static and Connected IP Routesp. 192
Learning Connected Routesp. 193
Static Routesp. 194
Configuring Static Routes in a Small, Nonredundant Networkp. 194
Using Static Routes for Dial Backup Using Administrative Distancep. 197
Statically Defined Default Routesp. 199
Verifying Static Routesp. 201
Dynamic Routing Overviewp. 203
Terminology Related to Routing Protocolsp. 203
Routing Protocol Functionsp. 203
Interior and Exterior Routing Protocolsp. 205
How Routing Protocols Work: Routing Protocol Algorithmsp. 206
Distance Vector Routing Protocol Featuresp. 207
Link-State Routing Protocol Featuresp. 210
Routing Protocols Overviewp. 215
A Brief Review of IP Routingp. 215
Routing Protocol Features: RIP, OSPF, EIGRP, and BGPp. 216
RIP Configurationp. 218
Summaryp. 221
Check Your Understandingp. 223
Challenge Questions and Activitiesp. 226
Distance Vector Routing Protocolsp. 227
Objectivesp. 227
Additional Topics of Interestp. 227
Key Termsp. 227
Avoiding Loops When Converging Using Distance Vector Routing Protocolsp. 228
Review of Distance Vector Operation in a Stable Networkp. 228
Route Poisoningp. 230
Problem: Counting to Infinityp. 231
Loop-Prevention Featuresp. 233
Split Horizonp. 233
Poison Reverse and Triggered Updatesp. 235
Using Holddown Timers to Prevent Loops in Redundant Networksp. 237
The Holddown Process and Holddown Timerp. 240
Summarizing Loop Avoidancep. 241
Routing Information Protocolp. 243
Configuring RIP Versions 1 and 2p. 243
Configuring RIP V1p. 244
Configuring RIP V2p. 245
Using Both RIP V1 and V2p. 246
Design Options Impacted by the RIP Versionp. 247
Other RIP Configuration Optionsp. 248
Adjusting RIP Timersp. 248
Disabling Split Horizonp. 249
Configuring Neighborsp. 249
Enabling the passive-interface Commandp. 249
Filtering Routesp. 251
RIP Verification and Troubleshootingp. 251
Verifying RIP Operations Using show Commandsp. 251
Troubleshooting RIP Operations Using the debug Commandp. 254
Choosing the Best Route Among the Possible Routesp. 256
Load Balancing over Multiple Equal-Cost Routesp. 256
Choosing Routes Based on Administrative Distancep. 258
Integrating Static Routes with RIPp. 259
Floating Static Routesp. 259
Advertising Default Routes with RIPp. 260
Classful and Classless Routing Protocols, Routing, and Addressingp. 261
Classless and Classful Routing Protocolsp. 261
Classless and Classful Routingp. 262
Classless and Classful Addressingp. 263
Summaryp. 264
Check Your Understandingp. 266
Challenge Questions and Activitiesp. 270
TCP/IP Suite Error and Control Messagesp. 273
Objectivesp. 273
Additional Topics of Interestp. 273
Key Termsp. 273
ICMP Echo Messages and the ping Commandp. 275
ICMP Unreachable: Notifying Hosts When the Packet Cannot Be Deliveredp. 276
A Review of IP Routingp. 277
Type Codes for ICMP Unreachable Messagesp. 279
ICMP Unreachable Message Formats and Codesp. 280
ICMP Unreachable Messages When a Router Cannot Fragment a Packetp. 281
ICMP TTL Exceeded and Long Routesp. 282
Summaryp. 283
Check Your Understandingp. 285
Challenge Questions and Activitiesp. 287
Basic Router Troubleshootingp. 289
Objectivesp. 289
Key Termsp. 289
Examining the Routing Tablep. 290
IP Routing (Forwarding)p. 291
The show ip route Commandp. 291
IP Routing: Layer 3 Perspectivep. 293
IP Routing: Layer 2 Perspectivep. 294
Filling the IP Routing Table with Routesp. 295
Comparing Static Routes and Dynamically Learned Routesp. 296
Default Routes and the Gateway of Last Resortp. 297
Administrative Distancep. 301
Choosing Routes Based on the Metricp. 302
Determining the Last Routing Updatep. 304
Using Multiple Equal-Cost Routesp. 305
Using Multiple Unequal-Cost Routes Using Variancep. 306
Network Testing Methods and Tipsp. 306
Troubleshooting Methodsp. 307
Troubleshooting Tipsp. 309
Layer 1 Tipsp. 309
Layer 2 Tipsp. 310
Layer 3 Troubleshooting Using Pingp. 311
Layer 7 Troubleshooting Using Telnetp. 315
Router and Routing Troubleshooting Tipsp. 316
Troubleshooting Using the show interfaces Commandp. 317
Understanding Routing Interface Statusp. 319
Indications of Typical Layer 1 Problemsp. 320
Indications of Typical Layer 2 Problemsp. 322
Troubleshooting Layer 1 Using the show controllers Commandp. 323
Troubleshooting Using the show cdp Commandp. 324
Troubleshooting Using the traceroute Commandp. 326
Troubleshooting Using the show ip route and show ip protocols Commandsp. 329
Troubleshooting Using the debug Commandp. 331
Summaryp. 332
Check Your Understandingp. 334
Challenge Questions and Activitiesp. 337
Intermediate TCP/IPp. 339
Objectivesp. 339
Key Termsp. 339
TCP and UDP Operationp. 340
Flow Control and Windowingp. 341
Flow Control Through Dynamic Sliding Windowsp. 341
Flow Control Through Withholding Acknowledgmentsp. 343
Establishing and Terminating TCP Connectionsp. 343
Denial-of-Service Attacks and SYN Floodsp. 345
TCP Error Recovery (Reliability)p. 346
Segmentation, Reassembly, and In-Order Deliveryp. 348
Comparing TCP and UDPp. 350
Operation of Transport Layer Portsp. 353
Connecting to Servers: Well-Known Portsp. 354
Comparing Well-Known, Dynamic, and Registered Portsp. 356
Comparing MAC Addresses, IP Addresses, and Port Numbersp. 357
Summaryp. 358
Check Your Understandingp. 360
Challenge Questions and Activitiesp. 363
Access Control Listsp. 365
Objectivesp. 365
Additional Topics of Interestp. 365
Key Termsp. 365
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