Running Behavioral Experiments with Human Participants : A Practical Guide for Students

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-11-08
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc
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Supplemental Materials

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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.
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This text provides a concrete roadmap for the design and implimentation of experiments using human participants. It covers both conceptual and practical issues that are critical to experimental methods and the organization of the book follows the standard process in experiment-based research. Both students and instructors will find this book accessible and easy to use. The detailed guidance on each step of an experiment is particularly useful for people with little or no previous training in research methodology. Further, the example studies will serve as effective 'recipes' to help students organize their experimental studies. Features: Shows students how to prepare to run experiments covering important topics such as how to recruit participants, maintainance of apparatus, and what to measure from the experiment A separate chapter on ethics examines ethical considerations necessary for running experiments with human participants A separate chapter covers essential information on IRBs (Institutional Review Boards) Provides example studies with a brief synopsis of procedural steps. so that students can learn detailed procedures for preparing and running an experiment.

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tablesp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
About the Authorsp. xix
Introductionp. 1
Backgroundp. 1
Overview of the Research Processp. 5
Overview of the Running Examplesp. 11
Further Readingsp. 15
Questionsp. 16
Summary Questionsp. 16
Thought Questionsp. 17
Preparation for Running Experimentsp. 19
Reading Literature in the Areap. 19
Preparing the Apparatus and Materials, Design, and Procedure Through Pilotingp. 21
Care, Control, Use, and Maintenance of Apparatusp. 22
The Testing Facilityp. 26
Choice of Dependent Measures: Performance, Time, Actions, Errors, Verbal Protocols, and Other Measuresp. 28
Plan Data Collection With Analysis in Mindp. 34
Run Analyses With Pilot Datap. 36
Write About Your Experiment Before Runningp. 37
Preparing for Recruitingp. 37
Choice of a Term: Participants or Subjectsp. 37
Recruiting Participantsp. 39
Subject Pools and Class-Based Participationp. 41
Institutional Review Board (IRB)p. 43
What Needs IRB Approval?p. 44
Preparing an IRB Submissionp. 46
Preparing to Run the Low Vision HCI Studyp. 48
Preparing to Run the HRI Studyp. 52
Conclusionp. 53
Further Readingsp. 54
Questionsp. 55
Summary Questionsp. 55
Thought Questionsp. 56
Potential Ethical Problemsp. 57
Preamble: A Simple Study That Hurt Somebodyp. 59
The History and Role of Ethics Reviewsp. 60
Recruiting Subjectsp. 61
Coerning Subjectsp. 61
Risks, Costs, and Benefits of Participationp. 62
Sensitive Datap. 63
Plagiarismp. 66
Fraudp. 66
Conflicts of Interestp. 67
Authorship and Data Ownershipp. 68
Interpersonal Conflicts Within a Research Teamp. 69
Potential Ethical Problems in the Low Vision HCI Studyp. 71
Potential Ethical Problems in the Multilingual Fonts Studyp. 73
Conclusionp. 75
Further Readingsp. 75
Questionsp. 76
Summary Questionsp. 76
Thought Questionsp. 76
Risks to Validity to Avoid While Running an Experimentp. 79
Validity Defined: Internal, External, Construct, and Surfacep. 81
Risks to Internal Validityp. 83
Power: How Many Participants?p. 84
Experimenter Effectsp. 86
Participant Effectsp. 87
Demand Characteristicsp. 88
Equipment and Setup Effectsp. 89
Randomization and Counterbalancingp. 89
Abandoning the Taskp. 91
Risks to External Validityp. 92
Task Fidelityp. 92
Representativeness of Your Samplep. 94
Avoiding Risks in the Multilingual Fonts Studyp. 95
Avoiding Risks in the HRI Studyp. 96
Conclusionp. 97
Further Readingsp. 97
Questionsp. 98
Summary Questionsp. 98
Thought Questionsp. 98
Running a Research Sessionp. 99
Preparing to Run a Research Sessionp. 99
Preparing the Space for Your Studyp. 99
Pilotingp. 102
Experimental Dress Codep. 103
Preparing and Using a Scriptp. 104
Before Subjects Arrivep. 104
Running a Research Sessionp. 106
Welcomep. 106
Talking With Subjectsp. 106
Concluding a Sessionp. 108
Running Simulated Subjectsp. 112
Other Issuesp. 112
Missing Subjectsp. 112
Other Problems and How to Deal With Themp. 113
Chance for Insightsp. 114
Running the Low Vision HCI Studyp. 115
Running the Multilingual Fonts Studyp. 116
Running the HRI Studyp. 117
Conclusionp. 118
Further Readingsp. 118
Questionsp. 119
Summary Questionsp. 119
Thought Questionsp. 119
Concluding a Studyp. 121
Data Care, Security, and Privacyp. 121
Data Backupp. 122
Data Analysisp. 123
Documenting the Analysis Processp. 123
Descriptive and Inferential Statisticsp. 124
Planned Versus Exploratory Data Analysisp. 127
Displaying Your Datap. 127
Communicating Your Resultsp. 128
Research Outletsp. 128
The Writing Processp. 129
Concluding the Low Vision HCI Studyp. 130
Concluding the Multilingual Fonts Studyp. 131
Concluding the HRI Studyp. 132
Conclusionp. 133
Further Readingsp. 133
Questionsp. 134
Summary Questionsp. 134
Thought Questionsp. 134
Afterwordp. 137
A Checklist for Preparing Studiesp. 139
Example Scripts for Running Studiesp. 141
A High-Level Script for a Human-Computer Interaction Studyp. 141
A More Detailed Script for a Cognitive Psychology Experimentp. 143
Example Consent Formp. 145
Example Debriefing Formp. 149
Example Institutional Review Board Applicationp. 151
Considerations When Running a Study Onlinep. 167
Recruiting Subjectsp. 167
Apparatusp. 168
Gaming Your Apparatusp. 169
Further Readingsp. 169
Referencesp. 171
Indexp. 179
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