Russia's Protectorates in Central Asia: Bukhara and Khiva, 1865-1924

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-06-15
  • Publisher: RoutledgeCurzon

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This book examines the Russian conquest of the ancient Central Asian khanates of Bukhara and Khiva in the 1860s and 1870s, and the relationship between Russia and the territories until their extinction as political entities in 1924. It shows how Russia's approach developed from one of non-intervention, with the primary aim of preventing British expansion from India into the region, to one of increasing intervention as trade and Russian settlement grew. It goes on to discuss the role of Bukhara and Khiva in the First World War and the Russian Revolution, and how the region was fundamentally changed following the Bolshevik conquest in 1919-20.

Author Biography

Seymour Becker is Professor Emeritus of History, Rutgers University (New Jersey, USA).

Table of Contents

Supplementary Bibliography
Part One: The Russian Conquest
1. The Setting
Central Asia Before the Russian Conquest.
A Brief Description of Bukhara and Khiva.
Russia and Central Asia to 1853.
Prelude to Conquest, 1853-1864.
Economic Motives for the Conquest.
2. The Reduction of Bukhara
The Problem of Tashkent.
The Break with Bukhara.
The First Bukharan Campaign, 1866.
The Draft Treaty of 1867.
The Second Bukharan Campaign, 1868.
The Treaty of 1868.
3. The Consolidation of Russia's Position in Bukhara
Russo-Bukharan Tensions, 1868-1870.
Russo-Bukharan Adjustments, 1870-1872.
The Question of a New Treaty.
Anglo-Russian Negotiations, 1869-1873.
4. The Conquest of Khiva and the Treaties of 1873
Relations with Khiva, 1867-1872.
The Conquest of Khiva.
The Russo-Khivan Treaty.
The Russo-Bukharan Treaty.
Part Two: The Period of Neglect
5. The Stabilization of Khiva and the Expansion of Bukhara
The Khivan Problem, 1873-1877.
Russo-Bukharan Relations, 1873-1875.
Bukhara's Conquest of Karategin and Darvaz.
Russian Exploration of Khiva and Bukhara, 1873-1883.
6. Anglo-Russian Relations and the Pacification of the Turkomans
Afghanistan, 1875-1880.
Merv, 1881-1884.
Shugnan and Roshan, 1883-1884.
7. The End of an Era
Russia and Bukhara, 1880-1884.
Attitude of the Native Regimes toward Russia.
Western hnfluence in Bukhara and Khiva, 1885.
Part Three: The Russian Presence
8. Russo-Bukharan Relations Transformed
The Central Asian Railroad.
The Accession of Abd al-Ahad.
The Russian Political Agency.
Anglo-Russian Tensions and the Amu-Darya Frontier, 1885-1888.
The Russian Settlements.
Russian Jurisdiction and Extra-territoriality.
9. The Protectorate Completed: Russia and Bukhara
The Amu-Darya Frontier and Russo-Bukharan Relations, 1890-1895.
The Pamir Boundary Settlement.
Monetary Controls.
Communications and Public Works.
The Bukharan Jews.
10. Economic Development
Traditional Economy of the Protectorates.
Russo-Bukharan Trade.
Bukhara's trade with Other Countries.
Russo-Khivan Trade.
The Role of Cotton in Trade and Agriculture.
Industrial Development.
Russian Capital in Bukhara.
Railroad Projects.
11. Bukhara Between Two Worlds
The Impact of the West.
The Role of the Emir.
The Emir's Government and the Need for Reform.
The Origins of a Native Reform Movement.
The Bukharan Djadids.
12. Nonintervention under Attack: Russia and Bukhara
Russian Critics.
The West Pamir Question, 1896-1905.
The Riots of January 1910.
Russian Policy Reappraised, 1909-1914.
13. Nonintervention Abandoned: Russia and Khiva
Khiva, 1885-1912.
The Turkoman Revolt of 1912-1913.
The Turkoman Revolt of 1915.
The Turkoman Revolt of 1916 and the Russo-Khivan Agreement.
Part Four: Revolution
14. The Provisional Government and the Protectorates
The February Revolution and Central Asia.
The Emir's Manifesto.
The Aftermath of the Manifesto.
Khiva in 1917.
15. The Bolshevik Revolution and the Independence of the Khanates
Bolshevik Nationality Policy before October.
Bukhara and the October Revolution.
The Kolesov Campaign.
Khiva and the October Revolution.
16. The Civil War and the Second Russian Conquest
The Military Situation and Russo-Bukharan Relations, 1918-1919.
The Bukharan Political and Economic Scene.
Khiva under Djunaid-khan.
The Overthrow of Djunaid-khan.
The Overthrow of Emir Alim.
17. Bukhara and Khiva as Soviet Satellites
Soviet Policy and the Structure of Dependence.
Eclipse of the Young Khivans and Young Bukharans, 1920-1921.
An End and a Beginning.
Appendices 315(8)
Bibliography 323(22)
Notes 345(62)
Glossary 407(2)
Index 409

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