Scaffolding the Academic Success of Adolescent English Language Learners : A Pedagogy of Promise

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-02-15
  • Publisher: INGRAM
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Too often, the needs of English language learners are met with simplified curriculum and lowered expectations. What would happen if instead classrooms were organized to honor the promise of these students by increasing rather than decreasing the intellectual challenge of instruction, by increasing the support such challenge requires, and by increasing students' active engagement with their own learning? This book is the result of a decade-long effort in school districts such as New York City, Austin, and San Diego to implement challenging instruction that is designed for classrooms that include English learners and that raises the bar and increases engagement for all learners. Classroom vignettes, transcripts of student interactions, and detailed examples of intellectually engaging middle school and high school lessons provide a concrete picture of the instructional approach developed by co-author Aída Walqui, founder and director of WestEd’s Quality Teaching for English Learners (QTEL) initiative. Underlying the QTEL approach and giving it coherence and power are three strands of instructional theory — cognitive psychology, sociolinguistics, and sociocultural learning theory. Co-author Leo van Lier, internationally recognized author, linguist, and sociocultural theorist, lays out through clear and frequently wry examples just what these theories have to offer the classroom teacher, in particular the teacher of English learners.

Author Biography

Ada Walqui, a native of Peru, earned an MA in sociolinguistics from Georgetown University as a Fulbright scholar, and a PhD from Stanford University. At WestEd, she directs the Teacher Professional Development Program and the Quality Teaching for English Learners (QTEL) project and consults nationally and internationally. Leo van Lier, originally from The Netherlands, earned a PhD in linguistics from Lancaster University, United Kingdom. A widely published author, he is Professor of Educational Linguistics at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and editor of Modern Language Journal and the Springer book series Educational Linguistics.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
A Pedagogy of Promisep. 1
Helping Students Become What They Are Not Yetp. 2
The Theoretical Foundations of Future-Oriented Pedagogyp. 4
The QTEL Application of Sociocultural Learning Theoryp. 6
Development Follows Learningp. 6
Participation in Activity Is Central in the Development of Knowledgep. 7
Participation in Activity Progresses from Apprenticeship to Appropriation, or from the Social to the Individual Planep. 9
Learning Can Be Observed As Changes in Participation Over Timep. 10
Conclusionp. 12
Scaffolding Reframedp. 15
The Zone of Proximal Development and the Peekaboo Gamep. 16
Peekaboop. 17
Predicting the Unpredictablep. 18
Scaffolding in a Tutoring Settingp. 20
Scaffolding in Classroomsp. 23
Learning Tasks That Promote Autonomyp. 23
Teacher Interactions That Promote Autonomyp. 25
Interactions Beyond "Expert-Novice" That Scaffold Learningp. 28
Features of Pedagogical Scaffoldingp. 33
Amplify, Don't Simplify!p. 38
Conclusionp. 40
The Role of Language and Language Learningp. 43
Language Developmentp. 44
Conversational Languagep. 45
Academic Languagep. 47
Conversational and Academic Language: A Continuump. 49
Genrep. 52
Culture, Language, and Identityp. 56
The Identities of English Language Learnersp. 57
The L1-L2 Connectionp. 58
Language and the Brainp. 62
Schema and the Experiential Basis of Cognitionp. 62
Multimodal Discourse and Multisensory Learningp. 66
Accuracy and Fluencyp. 67
Feedback and Assessmentp. 73
Conclusionp. 77
Principles of Quality Teaching for English Learnersp. 81
Principles: The Cornerstone of Practicep. 82
Sustain Academic Rigorp. 83
Hold High Expectationsp. 88
Engage English Language Learners in Quality Teacher and Student Interactionsp. 93
Sustain a Language Focusp. 96
Develop a Quality Curriculump. 99
Conclusionp. 100
Pedagogy in Action: The Apprenticeship of Two Teachersp. 103
Two Contextsp. 104
Using Tasks to Learn About Literary Character Developmentp. 108
Using Tasks to Understand Brain Structure and Functionp. 119
A Map of QTEL Principles in Two Lessonsp. 131
Academic Rigorp. 131
High Expectationsp. 132
Quality Interactionsp. 134
Language Focusp. 135
Quality Curriculump. 136
Conclusionp. 137
Designing Instructionp. 139
The Need for an Inviting and Future-Oriented Pedagogyp. 140
Planning Units of Studyp. 142
Determining Macro Unit Objectivesp. 143
Determining the Assessment of Macro Objectivesp. 144
Determining Meso Objectives, Content Topics, and Benchmark Momentsp. 144
A Sample Final Unit Assessmentp. 146
The Interrelationship of Disciplinary, Cognitive, and Language Objectivesp. 147
Planning Lessonsp. 149
Three Moments in a Lessonp. 151
Preparing Learnersp. 152
Interacting with Textp. 168
Extending Understandingp. 177
Conclusionp. 185
Referencesp. 189
Appendix: Linguistics in the ELL Classroomp. 199
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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