The Science of Chocolate

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-04-01
  • Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

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The second edition of this international best seller has been fully revised and updated describing the complete chocolate making process, from the growing of the beans to the sale in the shops. The Science of Chocolate takes the reader on the journey of chocolate, to discover how confectionery is made and the way in which basic science plays a vital role. The second edition contains new chapters, covering topics which include nutrition - why chocolate is good for you - how to stop it melting in hot countries and possible methods of putting bubble inside a chocolate bar. This book will appeal to those with a fascination for chocolate and will be of specialist interest to those studying food sciences and working in the confectionery industry. A series of experiments, which can be adapted to suit students, are included to demonstrate the physical, chemical and mathematical principles involved.

Table of Contents

The History of Chocolate
Chocolate as a Drinkp. 1
Eating Chocolatep. 3
Chocolate Crumbp. 7
White Chocolatep. 8
Chocolate Marketing in the UKp. 9
Chocolate is Good for Youp. 9
Referencesp. 10
Chocolate Ingredients
Cocoa Beansp. 11
Cocoa Treesp. 11
Commercial Cocoa-Producing Countriesp. 12
Cocoa Podsp. 14
Fermentationp. 15
Fermentation Procedurep. 15
Microbial and Chemical Changesp. 18
Dryingp. 20
Storage and Transportp. 22
Sugar and Sugar Substitutesp. 23
Sugar and its Productionp. 23
Crystalline and Amorphous Sugarp. 24
Lactosep. 26
Glucose and Fructosep. 28
Sugar Alcoholsp. 28
Polydextrosep. 29
Milk and Other Dairy Componentsp. 30
Milk Fatp. 31
Milk Proteinsp. 32
Milk Powdersp. 33
Whey and Lactose Powdersp. 36
Chocolate Crumbp. 36
Referencesp. 37
Additional Readingp. 38
Cocoa Bean Processing
Bean Cleaningp. 39
Roasting and Winnowingp. 40
The Problem of Bean Size Variationp. 40
Winnowingp. 43
Bean Roastingp. 44
Nib and Liquor Roastingp. 44
Roastersp. 45
Chemical Changes during Roastingp. 46
Maillard Reactionp. 47
Grinding Cocoa Nibp. 49
Cocoa Millsp. 51
Impact Millsp. 52
Disc Millsp. 52
Ball Millsp. 53
Cocoa Butter and Cocoa Powder Productionp. 54
Alkalising (Dutching)p. 54
Cocoa Butterp. 55
Cocoa Powderp. 57
Referencesp. 57
Liquid Chocolate Making
Chocolate Millingp. 61
Separate Ingredient Grinding Millsp. 62
Combined Millingp. 64
Chocolate Conchingp. 68
Chemical Changesp. 69
Physical Changesp. 70
Viscosity Reductionp. 71
Conching Machinesp. 73
The Long Conchep. 73
Rotary Conchesp. 74
Continuous Low Volume Machinesp. 76
The Three Stages of Conchingp. 78
Referencesp. 79
Controlling the Flow Properties of Liquid Chocolate
Viscosityp. 81
Particle Sizep. 84
Particle Size Distribution Datap. 84
Effect of Particle Size on Viscosityp. 86
Effect of Fat Additions on Viscosityp. 90
Moisture and Chocolate Flowp. 92
Emulsifiers and Chocolate Viscosityp. 93
Lecithinp. 94
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleatep. 98
Other Emulsifiersp. 99
Degree of Mixingp. 99
Referencesp. 101
Crystallising the Fat in Chocolate
Structure of Cocoa Butterp. 104
Different Crystalline Formsp. 107
Pre-Crystallisation or Temperingp. 110
Mixing Different Fats (Fat Eutectics)p. 112
Chocolate Fat Bloomp. 116
Some Types of Non-Cocoa Vegetable Fatp. 118
Cocoa Butter Equivalentsp. 119
Enzyme Interesterificationp. 120
Lauric Fat Cocoa Butter Replacersp. 121
Non-Lauric Fat Cocoa Butter Replacersp. 122
Low Calorie Fatsp. 124
Referencesp. 124
Manufacturing Chocolate Products
Temperingp. 125
Liquid Chocolate Storagep. 125
Tempering Machinesp. 126
Hand Temperingp. 128
Temper Measurementp. 128
Mouldingp. 132
Solid Tabletsp. 132
Chocolate Shellsp. 135
Enrobersp. 139
Maintaining Tempered Chocolatep. 142
Solidifying the Chocolatep. 143
Coolersp. 145
Panningp. 146
Chocolate Coatingp. 147
Sugar Panningp. 150
Referencesp. 152
Analytical Techniques
Particle Size Measurementp. 153
Moisture Determinationp. 156
Fat Content Measurementp. 158
Viscosity Determinationp. 159
Simple Factory Techniquesp. 159
The Standard Methodp. 161
Flavourp. 163
Texture Monitoringp. 165
Crystallisation Amount and Typep. 167
Nuclear Magnetic Resonancep. 167
Differential Scanning Calorimetryp. 169
Referencesp. 170
Different Chocolate Products
Special Recipesp. 171
Ice-cream coatingsp. 172
Shape-Retaining Chocolatep. 173
Modifying the Fat Phasep. 173
Transparent Coatingsp. 174
Waterp. 174
Building a Framework of Solid Particlesp. 175
Air Bubbles in Chocolatep. 176
Factors Affecting Bubble Sizep. 178
Water Evaporation Bubblesp. 179
Cream Eggs and Other Filled Chocolate Shapesp. 180
Multiple Chocolates and Centresp. 183
Legislation, Shelf Life and Packaging
Legislationp. 184
Shelf Lifep. 186
Packagingp. 187
Foil and Paper Wrapp. 189
Flow Wrapp. 190
Biopolymersp. 193
Robotic Packingp. 194
Referencesp. 195
Nutrition and Health
Nutritionp. 196
Fatsp. 197
Carbohydratesp. 198
Proteinsp. 199
Obesityp. 200
Tooth Decayp. 201
Anti-Caries Factor in Cocoap. 202
Tooth-Friendly Milk Proteinsp. 202
Oxalic Acidp. 203
Oral Clearancep. 203
Other Alleged Negative Reactionsp. 203
Migraine and Headachesp. 203
Acnep. 203
Allergiesp. 204
Positive Health Effectsp. 204
Psychoactive Compoundsp. 206
Referencesp. 208
Experiments with Chocolate and Chocolate Products
Amorphous and Crystalline Sugarp. 209
Particle Separationp. 210
Fat Migrationp. 212
Cocoa Butter Separationp. 213
Chocolate Viscosityp. 214
Particle Size of Chocolatep. 216
Effect of Lecithinp. 217
Changing the Continuous Phasep. 218
Chocolate Temperp. 219
Hardness Measurementp. 220
Chocolate Composition and Product Weight Controlp. 222
Distributions and Probabilitiesp. 223
Chromatography of Coloursp. 223
Effectiveness of Different Packaging Materialsp. 225
Viscosity and Flavourp. 227
Heat-Resistance Testingp. 228
Coefficient of Expansionp. 229
The Maillard Reactionp. 231
Glossaryp. 232
Subject Indexp. 234
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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