The Science on Women and Science

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-10-15
  • Publisher: Aei Pr
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Women have achieved or exceeded parity with men in most academic fields but continue to be outnumbered in the physical sciences, engineering, and math. For many equity activists, this imbalance constitutes a serious problem, even a "crisis," necessitating federal oversight to prevent gender bias in higher education and scientific industries. Congress, the Obama administration, and many science and education leaders are considering dramatic measures to improve women's prospects in the sciences. But what if claims of gender bias have been exaggerated?

Table of Contents

Introduction: The Science on Women in Sciencep. 1
Notesp. 5
Referencesp. 6
Why So Few Women in Math and Science?p. 7
Sex Differences in the General Populationp. 11
Female Advantage in Empathyp. 15
Culture and Biologyp. 18
Conclusionsp. 18
Notesp. 20
Referencesp. 21
Gender, Math, and Sciencep. 24
Gender Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Math and Science?p. 25
Gender Differences in Intrinsic Motivation for Mathematics and Science?p. 38
Toward an Understanding of the Gender Gapp. 40
Conclusions and Prospectsp. 44
Notesp. 45
Referencesp. 48
A History of Structural Barriers to Women in Science: From Stone Walls to Invisible Wallsp. 54
Renaissance Men and Sciencep. 55
Renaissance Women and Sciencep. 57
Access to Education for American Women in Sciencep. 59
Employment for Women Scientistsp. 61
Advancement Opportunitiesp. 64
Receiving Appropriate Recognition for Scientific Accomplishmentsp. 65
Addressing Gender Inequality in Science: A Structural Approachp. 69
Notesp. 74
Referencesp. 76
Sex, Science, and the Economyp. 79
Notesp. 97
Referencesp. 100
Low Numbers: Stereotypes and the Underrepresentation of Women in Math and Sciencep. 104
Stereotype Threatp. 107
Stereotype Threat in the Real Worldp. 114
"Controversial" Issues in Stereotype Threatp. 117
Conclusion: The Grand Experimentp. 125
Notesp. 127
Referencesp. 129
Stereotype Threat: A Case of Overclaim Syndrome?p. 132
Relative Magnitudep. 137
The Skill Baselinep. 148
The Scope of ST's Influencep. 150
Cherry-Picking: The Selective Operation of STp. 153
ST Study Design: Answering the Unanswered Questionsp. 154
ST and the Problem of Pervasive Disparityp. 158
Notesp. 162
Referencesp. 167
An Evolutionary Twist on Sex, Mathematics, and the Sciencesp. 170
Evolutionp. 171
Human Evolutionp. 175
Evolution, Mathematics, and the Sciencesp. 178
Sex Differencesp. 181
Conclusionp. 183
Notesp. 185
Referencesp. 187
Cognition and the Brain: Sex Mattersp. 190
Uncertainty in the Fieldp. 191
Certainty at the NASp. 193
Some Relevant Brain Datap. 195
Offense and Mythp. 197
Conclusionp. 198
Notesp. 200
Referencesp. 201
Women, Men, and the Sciencesp. 202
The Biology of Sex Determinationp. 203
Sex Differences in Cognitive and Behavioral Functionsp. 206
Cross-Generational and Cross-Cultural Comparisonsp. 221
Behavioral Sex Difference in Infantsp. 226
Biological Influences in Early Life on Behavioral Sex Differencesp. 227
Individual Differences in Hormone Levels and Cognitive Abilitiesp. 236
Fluctuations within Individuals in Hormones and Cognitionp. 238
Sex Differences in the Brainp. 242
Men and Women: Values, Interests, and Talentsp. 247
Talents and Achievementsp. 250
Facts and Fictions about Women in Sciencep. 256
Conclusionsp. 258
Appendix to Chapter 9p. 260
Notesp. 261
Referencesp. 267
Conclusion: Why It All Matters and What Is To Be Donep. 285
Notesp. 297
Referencesp. 299
Indexp. 301
About the Authorsp. 325
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