Secondary School Teaching A Guide to Methods and Resources

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-02-03
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Thoroughly revised and updated,Secondary School Teaching: A Guide to Methods and Resourcesis a comprehensive guide to instructional methods and contains many practical exercises for active learning. . This text provides a sound introduction to the challenges of today's secondary schools, teachers'professional responsibilities, thinking and questioning, classroom environment, curriculum, planning instruction, assessment using inquiry, teacher talk, and games, learning alone and in groups, and professional development. Grades 7-12 Inservice Teachers.

Author Biography

Richard Kellough is author and coauthor of more than 50 textbooks, including A Primer For New Principals: Guidelines For Success (Rowman & Littlefield, 2008), A Resource Guide For Teaching K-12, 6/E (Allyn & Bacon, 2011), Teaching Young Adolescents: Methods And Resources, 5/E (Pearson, 2008), Teaching And Learning K-8: A Guide To Methods And Resources, 9/E (Pearson, 2008), Your First Year Of Teaching: Guidelines For Success, 5/E (Pearson, 2009), Science K-8: An Integrated Approach, 11/E (Allyn & Bacon, 2008), and A Guide For Developing Interdisciplinary Thematic Units, 4/E (Pearson, 2008), as well As numerous journal articles. His many recognitions include being named a National Science Foundation Research Fellow at The University Of California, Davis, as well as listings in the International Authors And Writers Who's Who, Leaders In Eco Education, Men Of Achievement (Vol. 1), Dictionary Of International Biography, and Leaders In Education. His 46-year teaching career includes 13 years as a teacher of grades 7-12 (3 years as a teaching principal) and 34 years as university professor.


Coauthor of Teaching Young Adolescents: A Guide To Methods And Resources, 5/e (Allyn & Bacon, 2008), Noreen Kellough's 22-year teaching career includes 6 years of middle school foreign languages teaching, 6 years of high school teaching of French, and 12 years at the university level. At the college and university level she has taught Spanish at Los Rios Community College, was assistant clinical professor at University of the Pacific, and at California State University, Sacramento, taught

Italian, courses in teacher preparation. Until her retirement, she served as director of the children's reading program where she supervised the training of university students as tutors of reading for public school children. Recognitions include recipient of Outstanding Community Service Award (2004) from CSU,S, and 1995 delegate representing the U.S. in Berlin, Germany, at the Deutsche Schreberjugend International Youth Conference.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: Secondary School Teaching Today: Recognizing and Understanding the Challenge

The Classroom in a Nation of Diversity and Shifting Demographics

    Skill Areas Around Which This Resource Guide is Centered

    The Realities of Teaching Today

    A Rather Recent and in Our Opinion Unfortunate Addition to the Challenge

Orientation: No Single Shoe Fits All

    Start of the School Year Orientation

    The School Year and Teachers’ Schedules

    Teaching Teams

    The Community of Learners Concept

    Nontraditional Scheduling

    Quality Education for Every Student

    Instruction that is Differentiated

    Responsive Practices for Helping Each Student Succeed

Middle-Level Schools

High Schools

The Fundamental Characteristic of Quality Education

    Committed Teachers

    Reflective Decision Making

    School Leadership

    Effects of No Child Left Behind Legislation

Parents, Guardians, and the Community

    Community Service Learning

The Emergent Overall Picture: Current Actions, Trends, Problems, and Issues

    Key Trends and Positive Practices

    Major Problems, Concerns, and Issues

Meeting the Challenge: Initial Guidelines for Recognizing and Providing for Student Differences Thereby Effectively Differentiating the Instruction

Reviewing The Developmental Characteristics of Young People of Particular Age Groups

    Young Adolescents (Ages 9–14)

    Older Adolescents (Ages 15–19)


Questions for Class Discussion




CHAPTER 2: Teacher Professional Responsibilities

The Teacher as a Reflective Decision Maker

    Decision-Making Phases of Instruction

    Reflection, Locus of Control, Sense of Self-Efficacy, and Teacher Responsibility

Selected Legal Guidelines

    Student Rights

    Cellular Phones and Other Handheld Electronic Devices in the Classroom

    Teacher Liability and Insurance

    Student Safety Should Always be on Your Mind

Teaching Style

    Multilevel Instruction, Individualized Instruction, and Differentiated Instruction: A Clarification of Terms

    The Theoretical Origins of Teaching Styles and Their Relation to Constructivism

Commitment and Professionalism

    Noninstructional Responsibilities

    Instructional Responsibilities

Identifying and Building Your Instructional Competencies

     Characteristics of the Competent Classroom Teacher: An Annotated List

Teacher Behaviors Necessary to Facilitate Student Learning

    Three Basic Rules for Becoming a Competent Teacher

    Facilitating Behaviors and Instructional Strategies: A Clarification

    Structuring the Learning Environment

    Accepting and Sharing Instructional Accountability

    Demonstrating Withitness and Overlapping

    Providing a Variety of Motivating and Challenging Activities

    Modeling Appropriate Behaviors

    Facilitating Student Acquisition of Data

    Creating a Psychologically Safe Environment

    Clarifying Whenever Necessary

    Using Periods of Silence

    Questioning Thoughtfully

Tools For Instruction

    The Internet

    Professional Journals and Periodicals

    The ERIC Information Network

    Copying Printed Materials

    The Classroom Writing Board

    The Classroom Bulletin Board and Other Nonprojected Visual Displays

    The Community as a Resource

    Guest Speaker or Presenter

    Field Trips

    Media Tools

    Computers and Computer-Based Instructional Tools

    Using Copyrighted Video, Computer, and Multimedia Programs

    Distance Learning


Questions For Class Discussion




CHAPTER 3: Thinking and Questioning: Skills for Meaningful Learning

Teaching Thinking for Intelligent Behavior

    Characteristics of Intelligent Behavior

    Direct Teaching for Thinking and Intelligent Behavior

Purposes for Using Questioning

    Questions to Avoid Asking

Types of Cognitive Questions: A Glossary

    Analytic Question

    Clarifying Question

    Convergent-Thinking Question

    Cueing Question

    Divergent-Thinking Question

    Evaluative Question

    Focus Question

    Probing Question

Socratic Questioning

Levels of Cognitive Questions and Student Thinking

Guidelines for Using Questioning

    Preparing Questions

    Implementing Questioning

Using an Audience Response Student Clicker System

Questions From Students: The Question-Driven Classroom and Curriculum

    Questioning: The Cornerstone of Critical Thinking, Real-World Problem Solving, and Meaningful Learning


Questions For Class Discussion




CHAPTER 4: The Classroom Learning Environment

The Importance of Perceptions

Classroom Control–Its Meaning–Past and Present

    Historical Meaning of Classroom Control

     Today’s Meaning of Classroom Control and the Concept of Classroom  


    Classroom Management: Contributions of Some Leading Authorities

Developing Your Own Effective Approach to Classroom Management

Providing a Supportive Learning Environment

     Consider the Physical Layout

     Create a Positive Ambiance

    Behaviors to Avoid When Using Encouragement to Motivate Students

    Get to Know Your Students as People

Preparation Provides Confidence and Success

    Effective Organization and Administration of Activities and Materials

    Natural Interruptions and Disruptions to Routine

Classroom Procedures and Guidelines for Acceptable Behavior

     Starting the School Term Well

    Procedures Rather Than Rules; Consequences Rather Than Punishment

    The First Day

    Procedural Matters: What Students Need to Understand Early On

Using Positive Rewards as Motivators

Managing Class Sessions

     Opening Activities

    Smooth Implementation of the Lesson

    Transitions Within Lessons

Inappropriate Student Behavior

     Transient Nondisruptive Behaviors

    Disruptions to Learning

    Defiance, Cheating, Lying, and Stealing

    Bullying, Fighting, Sexual Misconduct, and Violence

Teacher Response to Student Misbehavior

     Direct Versus Indirect Assertive Intervention Strategies: A Clarification

    Order of Behavior Intervention Strategies

Teacher-Caused Student Misbehavior

     Scenarios for Case Study Review

    Preventing a Ship From Sinking is Much Easier Than is Saving a Sinking One: Mistakes to Avoid

Situational Case Studies for Additional Review


Questions for Class Discussion




CHAPTER 5: The Curriculum: Selecting and Setting Learning Expectations

Program Organization: Providing Successful Transitions

    Curriculum and Instruction: Clarification of Terms

    Core Curriculum

    Curriculum Content: Essential Versus Supplemental

    Exploratory Opportunities

    Co-Curricular Versus Extracurricular

    Advisory/Homebase Program

Planning for Instruction: Three Levels

    Teacher–Student Collaborative Team Planning

    Reasons for Planning

    Components of an Instructional Plan

    Curriculum Content Selection: Documents that Provide Guidance

Curriculum Standards

    Curriculum Standards and High-Stakes Testing

Student Textbooks

    Benefit of Textbooks to Student Learning

    Problems with Reliance on a Single Textbook

    Guidelines for Textbook Use

    Multitext and Multireadings Approach

Beginning to Think About the Sequencing of Content

Preparing for and Dealing with Controversy

Aims, Goals, and Objectives: The Anticipated Learning Outcomes

    Instructional Objectives and Their Relationship to Aligned Curriculum and Authentic Assessment

    Learning Targets and Goal Indicators

    Overt and Covert Performance Outcomes

    Balance of Behaviorism and Constructivism

    Teaching Toward Multiple Objectives, Understandings, and Appreciations: The Reality of Classroom Instruction

    Preparing Instructional Objectives

    Components of a Complete Objective Classifying Instructional Objectives The Domains of Learning and the Developmental Needs of         Students

    Cognitive Domain Hierarchy

    Affective Domain Hierarchy

    Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy

Using the Taxonomies

    Observing for Connected (Meaningful) Learning: Logs, Portfolios, and Journals

    Character Education and the Domains Of Learning

Learning That Is Not Immediately Observable

Integrated Curriculum

    Level 1 Curriculum Integration

    Level 2 Curriculum Integration

    Level 3 Curriculum Integration

    Level 4 Curriculum Integration

    Level 5 Curriculum Integration

    Integrated Curriculum in a Standards-Based Environment

Planning for Instruction: A Seven-Step Process

The Syllabus

    Use and Development of a Syllabus

    Content of a Syllabus


Questions for Class Discussion




CHAPTER 6: Planning the Instruction

The Instructional Unit

    Planning and Developing any Unit of Instruction

    Unit Format, Inclusive Elements, and Time Duration

Theoretical Considerations for the Selection of Instructional Strategies

    Decision Making and Strategy Selection

    Direct and Indirect Instruction: A Clarification of Terms

    Degrees of Directness

    Principles of Classroom Instruction and Learning: A Synopsis

    Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge

    Direct Versus Indirect Instructional Modes: Strengths and Weaknesses of Each

Selecting Learning Activities that are Developmentally Appropriate

Styles of Learning and Implications for Teaching

    Learning Modalities

    Learning Styles

    The Three-Phase Learning Cycle

    Learning Capacities: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

The Learning Experiences Ladder

    Direct, Simulated, and Vicarious Experiences Help Connect Student Learning

Planning and Developing an Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit

    Specific Guidelines for Developing an Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit

    Developing the Learning Activities: The Heart and Spirit of the ITU

    The Common Thread

    Initiating Activities

    Developmental Activities

    Culminating Activity

Preparing the Lesson Plan

    Rationale for Preparing Written Plans

    Assumptions about Lesson Planning

    A Continual Process

    Well Planned but Open to Last-Minute Change

    The Problem of Time

    The Pressure of Standards-Based and High-Stakes Testing and the Felt Need to “Cover” the Prescribed Curriculum

    Caution about “The Weekly Planning Book”

Constructing a Lesson Plan: Format, Elements, and Samples

    For Guidance, Reflection, and Reference

    Basic Elements in a Lesson Plan

    Descriptive Data

    Goals and Objectives

Setting the Learning Objectives

    A Common Error and How to Avoid It

    No Need to Include All Domains and Hierarchies in Every Lesson




    Special Considerations, Notes, and Reminders

    Materials and Equipment to be Used

    Assessment, Reflection, and Revision


Questions for Class Discussion



CHAPTER 7: Assessing and Reporting Student Achievement

Purposes and Principles of Assessment

The Language of Assessment

    Assessment and Evaluation

    Measurement and Assessment

    Validity and Reliability

    Authentic Assessment: Advantages and Disadvantages

    Diagnostic, Formative, and Summative Assessment

Assessing Student Learning: Three Avenues

    Assessing What a Student Says and Does

    Assessing What a Student Writes

    Assessment for Affective and Psychomotor Domain Learning

Student Involvement in Assessment

    Using Portfolios

    Using Checklists

Maintaining Records of Student Achievement

    Recording Teacher Observations and Judgments

Grading and Marking Student Achievement

    Criterion-Referenced Versus Norm-Referenced Grading

    Determining Grades

Testing for Achievement

    Standardized (Formal) Versus Nonstandardized (Informal) Tests

    Purposes for Informal Testing

    Frequency for Informal Testing

    Anxiety: Symptom Recognition and Helping Students (and Yourself) Deal with It

    Test Construction

    Administering Tests

    Controlling Cheating

    Determining the Time Needed to Take a Test

Preparing Assessment Items

    Classification of Assessment Items

    Performance Testing

    General Guidelines for Preparing for Informal Assessment of Student Learning

    Attaining Content Validity

Assessment Items: Descriptions, Examples, and Guidelines for Preparing and Using 12 Types


    Completion Drawing

    Completion Statement






    Multiple Choice


    Short Explanation


Reporting Student Achievement

    The Grade Report

Teacher Parental/Guardian Connections

    Contacting Parents/Guardians

    Meeting Parents/Guardians

    Parent/Guardian Conference

    Dealing with an Angry Parent or Guardian


Questions for Class Discussion




CHAPTER 8: The Thinking Curriculum: Using Teacher Talk, Demonstrations, Inquiry, and Games

Teacher Talk: Formal and Informal

    Cautions in Using Teacher Talk

    Teacher Talk: General Guidelines

    Teacher Talk: Specific Guidelines


    Reasons for Using Demonstrations

    Guidelines for Using Demonstrations

Inquiry Teaching and Discovery Learning

    Problem Solving

    Inquiry Versus Discovery

    True Inquiry

    The Critical Thinking Skills of Discovery and Inquiry

Integrating Strategies for Integrated Learning

Educational Games

    Classification of Educational Games

    Functions of Educational Games


Questions for Class Discussion




CHAPTER 9: Mastery Learning and Differentiated Instruction

Today’s Emphasis: Quality Learning for Every Student

    Assumptions About Mastery, or Quality, Learning

    Elements of Any Mastery Learning Model: The Cycle of Teaching

    Strategies for Personalizing (Individualizing) the Instruction Now!

Working with and Individualizing the Learning Experiences for Specific Learners

    Recognizing and Working with Students with Special Needs

    Recognizing and Working with Students of Diversity and Differences

    Language-Minority Students

    Recognizing and Working with Students Who are Gifted

    Curriculum Tracking

    Meaningful Curriculum Options: Multiple Pathways to Success

    Recognizing and Working with Students Who Take More Time but are Willing to Try

    Recognizing and Working with Recalcitrant Learners

    Recognizing and Working with Abused Children

Learning Alone


Questions For Class Discussion



CHAPTER 10: Organizing and Guiding Student Learning in Groups

Learning in Pairs

    The Learning Center

Learning in Small Groups

    Purposes for Using Small Groups

Cooperative Learning

    The Cooperative Learning Group (CLG)

    The Theory and Use of Cooperative Learning

    Roles Within the Cooperative Learning Group

    What Students and the Teacher Do When Using Cooperative Learning Groups

    When to Use Cooperative Learning Groups

    Cooperative Group Learning, Assessment, and Grading

    Why Some Teachers Experience Difficulty Using CLGs

Learning in Large Groups

    Student Presentations

    Whole-Class Discussion

Equality in the Classroom

    Ensuring Equity

Learning from Assignments and Homework

    Purposes for Assignments

    Guidelines for Using Assignments

    Opportunities for Recovery

    How to Avoid Having So Many Papers to Grade that Time for Effective Planning is Restricted

Project-Centered Learning: Guiding Learning from Independent and Group Investigations, Papers, and Oral Reports

    Values and Purposes of Project-Centered Learning

    Guidelines for Guiding Students in Project-Centered Learning

    Writing as a Required Component of Project-Centered Learning

    Assessing the Final Product

Writing Across the Curriculum

    Kinds of WritingPreventing Plagiarism

     Journals and Blogs

A Collection of 130 Annotated Motivational Teaching Strategies with Ideas for Lessons, Interdisciplinary Teaching, Transcultural Studies, and Student Projects

    The Visual and Performing Arts

    Family and Consumer Economics, Foods, and Textiles

    English, Languages, and the Language Arts


    Physical Education


    Social Studies/History

    Vocational Career Education


Questions For Class Discussion

Content Area Websites



CHAPTER 11: Professional Development: A Continuing Process

Professional Development Through Student Teaching or Internship

    Whether Student Teaching or Intern Teaching, It Is the Real Thing

    Getting Ready for the Beginning Teaching Experience

    First Impressions

    Continuing to Get Ready

    Student Teaching from the Cooperating Teacher’s Point of View

    Comments from the University Supervisor

    What to do Before an Observation

    What to do During an Observation

    What to do During an Observation Conference

    What to do After the Supervisor Leaves

Finding a Teaching Position

    Guidelines for Locating a Teaching Position

    The Professional Career Portfolio (Or How to Get Hired by Really Trying)

    Resources for Locating Teaching Vacancies

    The Professional Résumé

    The In-Person Interview

Professional Development Through Reflection and Self-Assessment

Professional Development Through Mentoring

    It is Helpful to Have a Mentor, Sometimes More Than One

    When Should I Seek Help?

    Coping Strategies: Avoiding Feelings of Aloneness

    Make Career Plans: A Life Plan Map

Professional Development Through Inservice and Graduate Study

Professional Development Through Participation in Professional Organizations

Professional Development Through Communications with Teachers

Professional Development Through Off-Teaching Work Experience

Professional Development Through Micro Peer Teaching

Questions for Class Discussion






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