Security Studies: An Introduction

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-05-15
  • Publisher: Routledge
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Security Studiesis the most comprehensive textbook available on security studies. Comprehensively revised for the new edition including new chapters on Polarity, Culture, Intelligence, and the Academic and Policy Worlds, it continues to give students a detailed overview of the major theoretical approaches, key themes and most significant issues within security studies. Part 1explores the main theoretical approaches currently used within the field from realism to international political sociology. Part 2explains the central concepts underpinning contemporary debates from the security dilemma to terrorism. Part 3presents an overview of the institutional security architecture currently influencing world politics using international, regional and global levels of analysis. Part 4examines some of the key contemporary challenges to global security from the arms trade to energy security. Part 5discusses the future of security. Security Studiesprovides a valuable new teaching tool for undergraduates and MA students by collecting these related strands of the field together into a single coherent textbook. Contributors: Richard J. Aldrich, Deborah D. Avant, Sita Bali, Michael N. Barnett, Alex J. Bellamy, Didier Bigo, Pinar Bilgin, Ken Booth, Barry Buzan, Stuart Croft, Simon Dalby, John S. Duffield, Colin Elman, Louise Fawcett, Lawrence Freedman, James M. Goldgeier, Fen Osler Hampson, William D. Hartung, Michael Jensen, Adam Jones, Danielle Zach Kalbacher, Stuart J. Kaufman, Michael T. Klare, Peter Lawler, Matt McDonald, Colin McInnes, Cornelia Navari, Michael Pugh, Paul R. Pillar, Srinath Raghavan, Paul Rogers, Waheguru Pal Singh Sidhu, Joanna Spear, Caroline Thomas,Thomas G. Weiss, Nicholas J. Wheeler, Sandra Whitworth, Paul D. Williams, Phil Williams and Frank C. Zagare.

Author Biography

Paul D. Williams is Associate Professor in the Elliott School of International Affairs at the George Washington University, USA. His books include War and Conflict in Africa (Polity, 2011); British Foreign Policy under New Labour, 1997-2005 (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2005); Understanding Peacekeeping, 2nd ed. (Polity, 2010); Security and Development in Global Politics: A Critical Comparison (Georgetown University Press, 2012); and The International Politics of Mass Atrocities: The Case of Darfur (Routledge, 2010).

Table of Contents

List of boxes, figures and tablesp. xi
About the contributorsp. xiv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
List of abbreviationsp. xviii
Security Studies: An Introductionp. 1
What is security studies? A very short overview
Defining a field of inquiry: Four fundamental questions
What is security?
Whose security?
What is a security issue?
How can security be achieved?
How to use this book
Theoretical Approachesp. 13
Realismsp. 15
Classical realism
Neorealism: Waltz's Theory of International Politics
Defensive structural realism
Offensive structural realism
Rise and fall realism
Neoclassical realism
Realisms and the rise of China
Liberalismsp. 32
Traditional or Kantian liberalism
Douce commerce
The democratic peace thesis
Neoliberal institutionalism
Game Theoryp. 48
Primitive concepts
Strategic-form games and Nash equilibria
Extensive-form games, backwards induction and subgame perfect equilibria
Applications of game theory in security studies
Constructivismsp. 63
Introduction: Constructivism and security
Constructivism: Central tenets and shared assumptions
Security as social construction: identity and norms
Negotiation and contestation
Agents, structures and change
The Copenhagen School and securitization
Peace Studiesp. 77
Introduction: What is peace studies?
Peace Studies: A brief history
Peace research as science
From peace research to peace studies
Key concepts
Positive and negative peace
Structural violence
Cultural violence
The future of peace studies?
Critical Theoryp. 90
Introduction: the need for a critical perspective
Rethinking security
Critical theory Theory/practice
The 'Aberystwyth School' of critical security studies
Feminismsp. 107
Feminist approaches in international security
Women, gender and security: The impacts of armed conflict
Women, gender and security: Action and activism
Women, gender and security: Talking and making weapons and war
International Political Sociologyp. 120
Interdisciplinarity, relations and practices
An international political sociology of security
Major findings
Key Conceptsp. 135
Uncertaintyp. 137
The house of uncertainty
The quintessential dilemma
Three logics
The security dilemma in the twenty-first century
Towards a new agenda for security, studies
Polarityp. 155
The debates about polarity
Polarity during the Cold War
Polarity after the Cold War
The problem with polarity
The future of polarity
Conclusion: The utility of polarity
Culturep. 170
States behaving badly
Cultures in security
Strategic culture
Peacekeeping cultures
Warp. 187
Three philosophies of war
The functions of war
Trends in armed conflicts since 1945
Who fights? Who dies?
Is the nature of warfare changing?
The idea of total war
The 'new wars' debate
The contemporary Western way of war
Coercionp. 206
Deterrence and compellence
Designing coercive strategies
Punishment and denial
Types of costs
Multiple audiences
Long-term impact
Terrorismp. 221
Terrorism in perspective
State and sub-state terror
Responding to terrorism
The 9/11 response and the war on terror
Trends in terrorism
Intelligencep. 235
What is intelligence?
Warning, surprise and 'failure'
Intelligence, uncertainty and stability
Covert action, disruption and event-shaping
Intelligence cooperation
Security and global surveillance
Genocide and Crimes Against Humanityp. 250
Challenges of intervention
Understanding crimes against humanity
Ethnic Conflictp. 264
What is ethnic conflict?
An overview of ethnic conflicts
Causes of violent ethnic conflict
International security dimensions of ethnic conflicts
Resolution of ethnic civil wars
Human Securityp. 279
Understanding the scope of human security
Setting the boundaries of human security
Ongoing debates and unresolved issues
Human security and 'failed' states
The dilemmas of humanitarian intervention
Human security risk assessment
Governance and human security
Towards a theory of human security
Povertyp. 295
Is poverty an appropriate concern for security studies?
Whose poverty? Whose security?
What do we know about the poverty-security nexus?
What do we know about the poverty-violent conflict nexus?
Effect of poverty on conflict
Effect of conflict on poverty
The diplomatic agenda on poverty and security
Climate Change and Environmental Securityp. 311
Introduction: Security and environment
Armed conflict and environmental change
Climate change and security
Scenarios of doom
Security planning and risk analysis
Climate wars?
Healthp. 324
The emergence of health as a national security issue
The spread of infectious disease HIV/AIDS
A not so perfect partnership?
Institutionsp. 337
Alliancesp. 339
Introduction: Why study alliances?
Definitions: What is an alliance?
Explanations of alliance persistence and collapse
The case of NATO after the Cold War
Conclusion: Alliance theory and the future of NATO
Regional Institutionsp. 355
The origins and development of regional security institutions
Regional security institutions in the Cold War
Regional security institutions since the Cold War
Contemporary challenges
Peace operations
Terrorism and WMD
Assessing the growth of regional security institutions
The United Nationsp. 374
The Security Council
The General Assembly
The Secretariat
Other UN organs and actors
Twenty-first-century challenges
Changes in the nature of war and UN responses
Disarmament and non-proliferation
Peace Operationsp. 393
Language and meaning
Surge, retraction, resurgence
Brahimi's report
Guehénno goals
Ban's plans
Standards and principles
Hybrid operations
Public security gaps
Conclusion: Future prospects
The Nuclear Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Regimep. 409
Three caveats
Non-proliferation regime
Three challenges
Three approaches
Way forward
Private Securityp. 425
Private security and the control of force
A transnational market for military and security services
The current market compared
Why the current market?
Contemporary Challengesp. 439
The International Arms Tradep. 441
Three channels for arms transfers
Arms sales take off: The 1970s and 1980s
Post-Cold War dynamics
Post-9/11 arms exports
The trade in small arms and light weapons
Dangers of dual use: The A.Q. Khan network
Prospects for restraint
Counterterrorismp. 457
Basic elements
Going on the offensive
Law enforcement and military force
Issues and choices
Counterinsurgencyp. 471
Introduction: The current discourse on counterinsurgency
The state of the field
The problem that counterinsurgency responds to ù insurgency
'Hearts and minds'
The role of military force in counterinsurgency
Learning on the ground
Counterinsurgency in the media age
Similarities to post-conflict peacebuilding
The Responsibility to Protectp. 486
Sovereignty and responsibility
R2P and international politics
R2P in action
Transnational Organized Crimep. 503
Organized crime as a security threat
What is transnational organized crime?
Globalization, governance and the rise of organized crime
Transnational criminal organizations
Illicit markets
Responses to transnational crime
Population Movementsp. 520
Population movements as a security issue
Population movements categorized
Population movements and violent conflict
Population movements and foreign policy
Population movement and internal security
Energy Securityp. 535
Understanding energy security Why now?
Intimations of global petroleum insufficiency
A shift in the centre of gravity of world oil production
Oil facilities as a target of attack
Addressing energy (in)security
Conclusionsp. 553
The Academic and Policy Worldsp. 555
What is policy-relevant knowledge?
Cold War nuclear experts
Realism and liberalism after the Cold War
What Future for Security Studies?p. 568
Introduction: Context and scope
Locating security studies
Future directions in the sub-field
Future directions in the sub-discipline
Security studies, porous boundaries and the struggle for coherence
Referencesp. 581
Indexp. 621
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