Sensation and Perception

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-07-03
  • Publisher: Psychology Pres

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Sensation and Perception, Fifth Editionmaintains the standard of clarity and coverage set in earlier editions, which make the technical scientific information accessible to a wide range of students. Retaining its traditionally clear writing style, this new edition boasts a thoroughly revised art program and over a thousand new references. It features strong pedagogy, abundant student-friendly examples, and an engaging, conversational style.

Author Biography

Hugh J. Foley received his B.A. from St. John Fisher College and his Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He has taught at small liberal arts institutions throughout his academic career. He is currently a full professor at Skidmore College, where he has directed the Neuroscience Program and served as Mellon Fellow for First-Year Students. Hugh has taught the perception course throughout his career, as well as statistics and methodology courses. He has published articles in methodology, cognition, and perception–typically with his research collaborator, Mary Ann Foley. They have also received several grants from the National Science Foundation. Hugh has worked with Margaret Matlin on the previous two editions of Sensation and Perception.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Introductionp. 1
Preview of the Bookp. 4
Overview of Theoretical Approaches to Sensation and Perceptionp. 6
The Behaviorist Approachp. 6
The Empiricist Approachp. 6
The Gestalt Approachp. 7
The Gibsonian Approachp. 7
The Information-Processing Approachp. 8
The Computational Approachp. 8
Themes of the Bookp. 9
How to Use This Bookp. 12
Review Questionsp. 13
Key Termsp. 13
Recommended Readingsp. 14
Research Methodsp. 15
Measuring Responses to Low-Intensity Stimulip. 18
Classical Psychophysical Measurement of Detectionp. 18
Signal Detection Theoryp. 21
In-Depth: Forensics, Faces, and False Alarms: Applied Signal Detection Theoryp. 28
Two-Alternative Forced Choice Procedurep. 31
Measuring Responses to More Intense Stimulip. 33
Classical Psychophysical Measurement of Discriminationp. 33
Relationship between Physical Stimuli and Psychological Reactionsp. 35
Measuring Brain Activity Due to Perceptual Stimulip. 39
Studying Individual Neuronsp. 39
Studying Massed Brain Activityp. 39
Review Questionsp. 40
Key Termsp. 41
Recommended Readingsp. 42
The Visual Systemp. 43
Visual Stimulusp. 44
Structure and Function of the Eyep. 46
Cornea, Sclera, and Anterior Chamberp. 46
Iris and Pupilp. 47
Lensp. 48
Retinap. 49
Posterior Chamberp. 50
Structure and Function of the Retinap. 51
Photoreceptorsp. 51
The Duplex Retinap. 54
Vertical Connections: Bipolar and Ganglion Cellsp. 59
Lateral Connections: Horizontal and Amacrine Cellsp. 61
Pathways from the Retina to the Visual Cortexp. 63
Information Flow from Retina to Visual Cortexp. 64
Visual Cortexp. 69
In - Depth: Beyond the Primary Visual Cortextp. 73
Concluding Remarks about the Visual Systemp. 78
Review Questionsp. 80
Key Termsp. 80
Recommended Readingsp. 81
Basic Visual Functionsp. 82
Prerequisites for Normal Visionp. 83
Edges Are Importantp. 83
Change Is Importantp. 87
Higher-Level Processes and Experience Are Importantp. 89
Perceiving Light Energyp. 91
Light Energy and Lightness Perceptionp. 91
Lightness Constancyp. 93
Explanations for Lightness Perceptionp. 94
Perceptual Organization Precedes Lightness Perceptionp. 95
Further Complexities in Lightness Perceptionp. 97
Acuityp. 100
Measuring Acuityp. 100
Characteristics of the Eye That Affect Acuityp. 101
Characteristics of the Stimulus That Affect Acuityp. 106
Eye Movementsp. 107
Vergence Movementsp. 107
In - Depth: Version Movementsp. 108
Review Questionsp. 113
Key Termsp. 113
Recommended Readingsp. 114
Visual Pattern Perceptionp. 115
Approaches to Shape and Pattern Perceptionp. 116
Spatial Frequency Analysis Approachp. 117
Gestalt Approachp. 120
Computational Approachp. 125
Feature-Integration Approachp. 130
Prototype-Matching Approachp. 131
Influence of Context on Shape and Pattern Perceptionp. 133
Perceiving Letters in the Context of Wordsp. 133
Perceiving Objects in the Context of Scenesp. 134
Illusory Contoursp. 136
Distortions of Shape Due to Contextp. 137
Selected Topics in Shape and Pattern Perceptionp. 138
The Role of Time in Shape Perceptionp. 138
Ambiguous Figuresp. 140
Effects of Unusual Stimulus Orientationsp. 141
In - Depth: Face Perceptionp. 143
Review Questionsp. 147
Key Termsp. 147
Recommended Readingsp. 148
Distance and Size Perceptionp. 149
Perceiving a Three-Dimensional Worldp. 150
Monocular Cues to Depthp. 151
Binocular Disparityp. 162
Eye Muscle Cues to Depthp. 167
Approaches to Distance Perceptionp. 168
Perceiving Three-Dimensional Objectsp. 171
In - Depth: Where Am I?: Navigating a Three-Dimensional Worldp. 172
Physiological Bases for Depth Perceptionp. 174
Size Perceptionp. 176
Factors Influencing Size Perceptionp. 176
Size Constancyp. 178
Illusions of Distance and Sizep. 180
Ambiguous Depth or Distance Informationp. 180
Illusions Involving Line Length or Distancep. 181
Explanations for Line-Length and Distance Illusionsp. 183
Illusions Involving Areap. 184
Review Questionsp. 187
Key Termsp. 188
Recommended Readingsp. 188
Colorp. 189
Nature of Colorp. 190
Color Mixingp. 193
Subtractive Mixturesp. 193
Additive Mixturesp. 195
Anatomy and Physiology of Color Visionp. 198
The Cone Mosaic and Trichromatic Theoryp. 198
Opponent-Process Theoryp. 200
Color Coding beyond the Photoreceptorsp. 201
Individual Differences in Color Visionp. 203
Color-Vision Deficienciesp. 204
More than Three Cone Systemsp. 206
Aging and Color Perceptionp. 206
Color Phenomenap. 208
Color Constancyp. 208
Simultaneous and Successive Color Contrastp. 210
Subjective Colorsp. 211
Purkinje Shiftp. 211
Memory Colorp. 212
In - Depth: Color Names and Color Perceptionp. 212
Review Questionsp. 215
Key Termsp. 216
Recommended Readingsp. 217
Motionp. 218
Visual Perception of Real Movementp. 219
Detecting Motionp. 219
Movement of the Observerp. 220
In - Depth: Perceiving Biological Motionp. 222
Illusory Movementp. 226
Stroboscopic Movementp. 226
Perceiving Motion in Stationary Stimulip. 227
Misperceiving Motion Due to Contextp. 229
Theoretical Explanations for Motion Perceptionp. 230
Corollary Discharge Theoryp. 230
Direct Perception Approachp. 232
Computational Approachp. 233
Physiological Basis of Motion Perceptionp. 235
Processing Motion Information Before VIp. 235
Processing Motion Information in VI and Beyondp. 235
Processing Self-Motion Informationp. 236
Review Questionsp. 237
Key Termsp. 238
Recommended Readingsp. 238
The Auditory Systemp. 240
The Auditory Stimulusp. 241
Frequencyp. 243
Amplitudep. 244
Phase Anglep. 246
The Auditory Systemp. 246
Outer Earp. 247
Middle Earp. 247
Inner Earp. 249
In - Depth: Inner and Outer Hair Cellsp. 251
Higher Levels of Auditory Processingp. 257
Hearing Impairments and Treatmentsp. 260
Assessing Auditory Sensitivityp. 260
Tinnitusp. 261
Conductive Hearing Lossp. 261
Sensorineural Hearing Lossp. 262
Exposure to Loud Soundsp. 262
Treatments: Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implantsp. 263
Review Questionsp. 264
Key Termsp. 265
Recommended Readingsp. 265
Basic Auditory Functionsp. 267
Pitch Perceptionp. 268
Background: Early Theories of Pitch Perceptionp. 268
Developments in Place Theoryp. 269
Developments in Temporal Theoryp. 273
How Do We Perceive Pitch?p. 274
The Complex Relationship between Frequency and Pitchp. 274
Measuring Pitchp. 275
Loudness Perceptionp. 277
How Do We Perceive Loudness?p. 277
The Complex Relationship between Amplitude and Loudnessp. 277
Intensity Discriminationp. 279
Measuring Loudnessp. 280
Auditory Localizationp. 280
Sources of Information for Auditory Localizationp. 281
Physiological Basis of Auditory Localizationp. 283
Measuring Localization Abilitiesp. 284
When Interaural Differences Aren't Enough: Localization Difficultiesp. 285
In - Depth: Nonhuman Localizing Abilitiesp. 286
Integrating Visual and Auditory Localizationp. 290
Perception of Simultaneous Soundsp. 291
Perception of Pure Tone Combinationsp. 291
Maskingp. 292
Noisep. 292
Review Questionsp. 293
Key Termsp. 294
Recommended Readingsp. 295
Auditory Pattern Perceptionp. 296
Perception of Complex Auditory Patternsp. 297
The Nature of Complex Sound Stimulip. 297
Making Sense of Complex Soundsp. 298
Music Perceptionp. 299
The Musical Stimulusp. 300
Music and the Brainp. 305
The Role of Cognition in Music Perceptionp. 305
Illusions in Musicp. 307
Speech Perceptionp. 309
The Speech Stimulusp. 310
Theories of Speech Perceptionp. 314
Speech and the Brainp. 318
The Role of Cognition in Speech Preparationp. 318
In - Depth: Interactions between Auditory and Visual Stimulip. 321
Review Questionsp. 323
Key Termsp. 324
Recommended Readingsp. 325
The Skin Sensesp. 326
The Skinp. 327
Receptors in the Skinp. 327
From the Skin to the Brainp. 328
Touchp. 329
Afferent Systems for Touchp. 329
Passive Touchp. 331
Active Touchp. 334
Interactions between Touch and Visionp. 336
Temperaturep. 337
Afferent Systems for Temperaturep. 338
Thresholds for Temperaturep. 338
Adapting to Temperaturep. 339
Painp. 339
Afferent Systems for Pain and Gate-Control Theoryp. 340
In - Depth: Phantom Limbs and Painp. 342
Measuring Painp. 344
Adapting to Painp. 345
Controlling Painp. 345
Kinesthetic and Vestibular Sensesp. 348
Kinesthetic Sensep. 348
Vestibular Sensep. 349
Review Questionsp. 351
Key Termsp. 352
Recommended Readingsp. 352
The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smellp. 353
Tastep. 354
Sensory Aspects of Tastep. 354
Modifying Taste Perceptionp. 357
Measuring Taste Perceptionp. 359
Individual Differences in Taste Perceptionp. 359
Smellp. 360
Sensory Aspects of Smellp. 361
Cognitive Aspects of Smellp. 364
Modifying Olfactory Perceptionp. 364
Measuring Olfactory Perceptionp. 365
Individual Differences in Olfactory Perceptionp. 367
Recognizing and Identifying Odorsp. 367
In - Depth: Behavioral Influences of Odorsp. 369
Flavor: Interaction of Taste, Smell, and Other Sensesp. 371
Contributions of Taste and Smell to Flavorp. 371
Contributions of Somatosensory Input to Flavorp. 372
Contributions of Temperature to Flavorp. 372
Contributions of Vision to Flavorp. 372
Contributions of Cognition to Flavorp. 373
Putting It All Together: Hedonics of Foodp. 373
Review Questionsp. 374
Key Termsp. 375
Recommended Readingsp. 375
Perceptual Developmentp. 376
Studying Perceptual Development in Infancyp. 377
Preference Methodp. 377
Habituation Methodp. 378
Conditioning Methodp. 378
Physiological Methodsp. 379
Early Development of Visual Abilitiesp. 380
The Developing Visual Systemp. 380
Acuityp. 381
Eye Movementsp. 382
In - Depth: Shape Perceptionp. 383
Depth and Distance Perceptionp. 385
Color Perceptionp. 386
Motion Perceptionp. 386
Early Development of Auditory Abilitiesp. 387
The Developing Auditory Systemp. 387
Speech Perceptionp. 388
Early Development of Intersensory Abilitiesp. 390
Integrating Vision and Auditionp. 390
Integrating Vision and Touchp. 391
Late Development of Perceptual Abilitiesp. 391
Vision in Late Adulthood and Old Agep. 392
Hearing in Late Adulthood and Old Agep. 393
The Senses and Agingp. 394
Review Questionsp. 395
Key Termsp. 396
Recommended Readingsp. 396
Glossaryp. 397
Referencesp. 419
Name Indexp. 465
Subject Indexp. 481
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