Sexual Offenses and Offenders : Theory, Practice and Policy

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-06-14
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning

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This comprehensive book examines the unique characteristics of sexual offenses and the resulting laws that pertain specifically to them, including the causes and treatment of sexual offenses as well as the policy implications of research outcomes. Sexual offenders are often treated differently than other offenders (by both the community and the criminal justice system) as a result of public scorn and recidivism. This distinctive book provides you with thorough, research-based coverage of this inherently controversial subject.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Understanding Sexual Offending: Incidence, Prevalence, and Causesp. 1
Sexual Offenses and Offendersp. 3
What Is a Sexual Offense?p. 4
Prevalence of Sexual Offending and Victimizationp. 7
Official Data on Sexual Victimizationp. 10
Research Estimatesp. 16
Reporting Sexual Abusep. 18
Telescopingp. 21
Chapter Summaryp. 22
Discussion Questionsp. 23
Historical Perspectives on Sexual Behaviorp. 24
Historical, Religious, and Cultural Perspectives of Sexual Behaviorp. 24
Changing Perceptions of Deviant Sexual Behavior: The 20th Centuryp. 27
1885-1935: The First Wave of Panicp. 28
1936-1976: The Rise of the Sexual Psychopathp. 32
1976-Present: The Emergence of a Sexually Violent Predatorp. 39
Chapter Summaryp. 42
Discussion Questionsp. 42
Etiology of Sexually Deviant Behaviorp. 44
Paraphilias and Other Sexual Disordersp. 45
Noncontact and Minimal Contact Paraphiliasp. 46
High-Contact Paraphiliasp. 48
Psychodynamic Theoriesp. 54
Biological Theoriesp. 55
Feminist Theoriesp. 57
Attachment Theoriesp. 58
Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Theoriesp. 60
Psychosocial Theoriesp. 61
Routine Activities Theoryp. 63
Integrated Theories and Empirical Researchp. 64
Chapter Summaryp. 69
Discussion Questionsp. 69
Cycle of Sexual Offendingp. 71
The Offense Cyclep. 71
Grooming and Planningp. 73
Persistence of Offending Behaviorp. 77
Cognitive Distortionsp. 77
Victim Empathyp. 83
The Role of Fantasiesp. 85
Behavioral Triggersp. 87
Chapter Summaryp. 89
Discussion Questionsp. 89
Offender Typologies, Special Groups of Offenders, and Victimsp. 91
Types and Typologies of Sexual Offendersp. 93
Specialization and Generalization of Offending Behaviorp. 94
Typologies of Rapistsp. 96
Sexually Motivated Offensesp. 98
Nonsexually Motivated Offensesp. 99
Typologies of Child Sexual Abusersp. 101
Intrafamilial and Extrafamilial Abusersp. 102
The Fixated-Regressed Typologiesp. 105
The FBI Typologiesp. 108
The MTC: CM3 Typologiesp. 109
Other Typologiesp. 111
Typologies of Female Sex Offendersp. 111
Chapter Summaryp. 116
Discussion Questionsp. 117
Juvenile Offendersp. 118
Who Are Juvenile Sexual Offenders?p. 119
Prevalence, Recidivism, and Characteristicsp. 119
History of Abusep. 122
Female Juvenile Sex Offendersp. 123
Juvenile Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Comparisonp. 124
Why Juveniles Sexually Offendp. 126
Experimental or Criminal Behavior?p. 126
Theories and Antecedents of Offending Behaviorp. 127
Typologies of Juvenile Sex Offendersp. 129
Assessment and Treatment of Juvenile Offendersp. 131
The Assessment Processp. 132
The Treatment Processp. 134
Management of Juvenile Offendersp. 134
Chapter Summaryp. 136
Discussion Questionsp. 137
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Childrenp. 139
Sexual Offenders and the Internetp. 140
Accessing Child Pornographyp. 140
Scope of the Problemp. 143
Characteristics and Typologies of Cyber Sex Offendersp. 144
Victims of Child Pornographyp. 145
Crossover between Child Pornography and Child Sexual Abusep. 147
Regulating and Policing Child Pornographyp. 148
Sexting and Self-Produced Pornographyp. 152
Juvenile Prostitutionp. 154
Human Traffickingp. 157
Chapter Summaryp. 159
Discussion Questionsp. 160
Sexual Offending in Institutional Settingsp. 161
Sexual Abuse within Child and Adolescent-Oriented Institutionsp. 162
Schoolsp. 162
Child Care Settingsp. 162
Boy Scouts of Americap. 163
Big Brothers Big Sistersp. 164
Athletic Organizationsp. 165
Professional and Legal Remediesp. 167
Sexual Abuse in Religious Institutionsp. 167
Child Sexual Abuse within Non-Catholic Religious Organizationsp. 168
Sexual Abuse within the Catholic Churchp. 172
Sexual Abuse within Prisonsp. 177
Prevalence and Reportingp. 178
Effects of Victimizationp. 179
Characteristics of Sexual Assaulters and Victims in Prisonp. 180
Prison Rape Elimination Actp. 181
Preventing Sexual Assault in Prisonp. 182
Sexual Abuse within the Militaryp. 183
Chapter Summaryp. 184
Discussion Questionsp. 184
Victimsp. 186
Overview of Research on Sexual Victimizationp. 187
Effects of Victimizationp. 190
Physical Harmp. 191
Psychological Reactionsp. 192
Rape Trauma Syndrome and the Stages of Victimizationp. 195
Secondary Victimsp. 196
Responding to Reports of Sexual Abuse: The Medical and Criminal Justice Processesp. 197
The Hospitalp. 198
The Policep. 200
The Adversarial Processp. 202
Victim Treatment and Counselingp. 209
Chapter Summaryp. 212
Discussion Questionsp. 212
Responses to Sexual Offenders: Treatment, Punishment and Community Regulationsp. 213
Management and Supervision of Sex Offenders in the Communityp. 215
Overview of Sex Offender Lawsp. 216
Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act (1994)p. 216
Megan's Law (1996)p. 217
Pam Lychner Sex Offender Tracking and Identification Act (1996)p. 218
Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act (1998)p. 218
Campus Sex Crimes Prevention Act (2000)p. 218
Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today (PROTECT) Act (2003)p. 219
Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act (2006)p. 219
Registration and Community Notification Lawsp. 220
RCNL Regulations and Guidelinesp. 220
Legal Challenges to RCNLp. 223
Risk Assessmentp. 227
The Adam Walsh Act: Uniformity and Controversyp. 230
Efficacy of RCNLp. 232
Residence Restrictionsp. 235
GPS Monitoringp. 237
The Containment Approach: Collaborating for Effective Managementp. 239
Reentry and Reintegrationp. 242
Housingp. 242
Employment and Schoolp. 243
Recreation and Social Relationshipsp. 244
Chapter Summaryp. 245
Discussion Questionsp. 246
Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Offendersp. 247
History of Treatmentp. 248
"Nothing Works"p. 250
Professionalization of Treatmentp. 251
Assessment for Treatmentp. 252
Background Informationp. 252
Physiological Testingp. 253
Psychometric and Actuarial Testingp. 253
Types of Treatmentsp. 254
Cognitive-Behavioral Treatmentp. 254
Medical Treatmentp. 260
Community versus Prison Treatmentp. 262
Variables and Controversies with Treatmentp. 265
Ethics of Sex Offender Treatmentp. 265
Treatment Staffp. 267
Assessment for Treatment Participation: Exclusion Criteriap. 268
Measuring Treatment Effectivenessp. 269
Methodological Considerationsp. 270
Study Findingsp. 272
Chapter Summaryp. 274
Discussion Questionsp. 274
Incapacitating Sex Offendersp. 276
SVP Legislationp. 277
Definition of an SVPp. 277
The Commitment Processp. 278
State Variation in SVP Statutesp. 279
The Role of Mental Health in SVP Legislationp. 281
Assessing "Dangerousness"p. 281
Treatmentp. 283
Releasep. 284
Legal Arguments about SVP Legislationp. 284
Understanding the Goals and Efficacy of SVP Legislationp. 289
Chapter Summaryp. 291
Discussion Questionsp. 291
Bibliographyp. 293
Indexp. 351
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