Short Guide to College Writing, A (Penguin Academics Series)

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-01-01
  • Publisher: Longman
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One of the high-quality, low-priced entries in Longman's Penguin Academics Series,A Short Guide to College Writingis a clear and authoritative brief rhetoric that emphasizes analysis, argument, and research in academic writing. Brief, high-quality rhetoric with lower price. Drafting, revising, research, documentation. General Interest.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xix
The Writing Processp. 1
Developing Ideasp. 3
Startingp. 3
How to Write: Writing as a Physical Actp. 3
Some Ideas About Ideas: Strategies for Inventionp. 3
Asking Questions and Answering Themp. 4
Listingp. 6
Clusteringp. 8
Freewritingp. 10
Focusingp. 10
Critical Thinking: Subject, Topic, Thesisp. 10
Finding a Topicp. 11
Developing a Thesisp. 13
Developing Ideasp. 15
Thinking About Audience and Purpose: The Reader as Collaboratorp. 15
Writing the Draftp. 16
Drafting and Revisingp. 18
Reading Draftsp. 18
Imagining Your Audience and Asking Questionsp. 18
Peer Review: The Benefits of Having a Real Audiencep. 21
From Assignment to Essay: A Case Historyp. 22
First Draftp. 26
Summary of Peer Group Discussionp. 27
Final Versionp. 29
Two Sides of a Story (Student Essay)p. 30
Checklist for Drafting and Revisingp. 32
Shaping Paragraphsp. 33
Paragraph Form and Substancep. 33
The Shape of a Paragraphp. 35
Paragraph Unity: Topic Sentences, Topic Ideasp. 36
Examples of Topic Sentences at Beginning and at End, and of Topic Ideasp. 36
Unity in Paragraphsp. 38
Organization in Paragraphsp. 41
Coherence in Paragraphsp. 42
Transitionsp. 43
Repetitionp. 44
Linking Paragraphs Togetherp. 45
The Story Behind the Gestures (Student Essay)p. 45
Paragraph Lengthp. 49
The Use and Abuse of Short Paragraphsp. 50
Introductory Paragraphsp. 52
Concluding Paragraphsp. 59
Checklist for Revising Paragraphsp. 60
Revising for Concisenessp. 62
Instant Prosep. 63
How to Avoid Instant Prosep. 64
Extra Words and Empty Wordsp. 65
Weak Intensifiersp. 66
Circumlocutionsp. 66
Wordy Beginningsp. 67
Empty Conclusionsp. 68
Wordy Uses of the Verbs To Be, To Have, and To Makep. 69
Redundancyp. 70
Negative Constructionsp. 71
Extra Sentences, Extra Clauses: Subordinationp. 72
Who, Which, Thatp. 73
It Is, This Is, There Arep. 73
Some Concluding Remarks About Concisenessp. 74
Checklist for Revising for Concisenessp. 75
Revising for Clarityp. 76
Clarityp. 76
Clarity and Exactness: Using the Right Wordp. 78
Denotationp. 78
Connotationp. 80
Avoiding Sexist Languagep. 81
Quotation Marks as Apologiesp. 83
Being Specificp. 83
Using Examplesp. 84
Jargon and Technical Languagep. 86
Clichesp. 89
Metaphors and Mixed Metaphorsp. 90
Euphemismsp. 92
Passive or Active Voice?p. 92
The Writer's "I"p. 95
Clarity and Coherencep. 96
Cats Are Dogsp. 96
Items in a Seriesp. 97
Modifiersp. 98
Misplaced Modifiersp. 98
Squinting Modifiersp. 99
Dangling Modifiersp. 99
Reference of Pronounsp. 100
Vague Reference of Pronounsp. 101
Shift in Pronounsp. 101
Ambiguous Reference of Pronounsp. 101
Agreementp. 102
Noun and Pronounp. 102
Subject and Verbp. 102
Three Additional Pointsp. 103
Repetition and Variationp. 104
Clarity and Sentence Structure: Parallelismp. 106
Checklist for Revising for Clarityp. 107
Writing with Stylep. 108
Academic Styles, Academic Audiencesp. 108
Defining Stylep. 111
Style and Tonep. 112
Acquiring Stylep. 115
Clarity and Texturep. 115
Originality and Imitationp. 115
College Writingp. 117
Analyzing Textsp. 119
Analyzing an Imagep. 119
Analyzing Advertisements (Visual Rhetoric)p. 120
Checklist for Analyzing Advertisementsp. 122
Analyzing Textsp. 122
Analysis Versus Summary and Paraphrasep. 123
The Gettysburg Address: Summary, Paraphrase, Analysisp. 123
Summarizingp. 123
The Gettysburg Addressp. 124
Paraphrasingp. 127
Analyzingp. 127
Paraphrasing and Summarizing Literary Textsp. 128
Classifying and Thinkingp. 129
Examples of Classifyingp. 129
Cause and Effectp. 130
Advertisements, Pornography, and Public Spacep. 131
Analysis and Descriptionp. 135
Description at Work in the Analytic Essayp. 136
Comparingp. 137
Organizing Short Comparisonsp. 138
Longer Comparisonsp. 141
Ways of Organizing an Essay Devoted to a Comparisonp. 143
Checklist for Revising Comparisonsp. 145
Process Analysisp. 145
It's the Portly Penguin That Gets the Girl, French Biologist Claimsp. 146
Explaining an Analysisp. 149
Persuading Readersp. 150
Emotional Appealsp. 150
Making Reasonable Argumentsp. 151
Claims and Evidencep. 153
Three Kinds of Claims: Claims of Fact, Value, and Policyp. 153
Claims of Factp. 153
Claims of Valuep. 154
Claims of Policyp. 155
Three Kinds of Evidence: Examples, Testimony, Statisticsp. 156
Examplesp. 156
Testimonyp. 158
Statisticsp. 159
A Note on Definition in the Persuasive Essayp. 159
Definition at Workp. 160
The Plight of the Politically Correct (Student Essay)p. 160
How Much Evidence Is Enough?p. 161
Two Kinds of Reasoning: Induction and Deductionp. 162
Avoiding Fallaciesp. 163
Witp. 167
Avoiding Sarcasmp. 168
Tone and Ethical Appealp. 168
A Note on Critical Thinkingp. 169
Organizing an Argumentp. 171
Checklist for Revising Drafts of Persuasive Essaysp. 172
Persuasion at Work: Two Writers Consider Torturep. 173
Torture Should Not Be Authorizedp. 173
An Analysis of Heymann's Argumentp. 175
Yes, It Should Be "On the Books"p. 176
An Analysis of Dershowitz's Argumentp. 178
Using Sourcesp. 180
Why Use Sources?p. 180
What Is a Source? Primary and Secondary Materialsp. 182
Developing a Research Topicp. 183
Finding Sourcesp. 183
The Library's Central Information Systemp. 184
Using the Internetp. 185
Checklist for Evaluating Web Sitesp. 187
Reading and Taking Notes on Secondary Sourcesp. 187
A Guide to Note-Takingp. 188
Acknowledging Sourcesp. 191
Using Sources Without Plagiarizingp. 191
Acknowledging a Direct Quotationp. 193
Acknowledging a Paraphrase or Summaryp. 193
Acknowledging an Ideap. 196
Fair Use of Common Knowledgep. 197
"But How Else Can I Put It?"p. 197
Checklist for Avoiding Plagiarismp. 198
Writing the Research Essayp. 199
Writing the Essayp. 200
Checklist for Revising Drafts of Research Essaysp. 201
A Sample Research Essay (MLA Format)p. 202
Politics and Psychology in The Awakening (Student Essay)p. 203
A Brief Analysis of Cody's Use of Sourcesp. 217
A Sample Research Essay (APA Format)p. 218
Nitrite: Preservative or Carcinogen? (Student Essay)p. 219
A Brief Analysis of Alexander's Use of Sourcesp. 234
Writing Essay Examinationsp. 236
Why Write Examinations? Examinations as Critical Thinkingp. 236
Writing Essay Answersp. 237
Questions on Literature and the Social Sciencesp. 237
Questions on the Physical Sciences and Mathematicsp. 239
A Writer's Handbookp. 241
Punctuating Sentencesp. 243
A Word on Computer Grammar and Punctuation Checksp. 245
Three Common Errors: Fragments, Comma Splices, and Run-on Sentencesp. 245
Fragments and How to Correct Themp. 245
How to Correct Comma Splices and Run-on Sentencesp. 247
The Periodp. 249
The Question Markp. 250
The Colonp. 250
The Semicolonp. 251
The Commap. 253
The Dashp. 259
Parenthesesp. 260
Italicsp. 261
Capital Lettersp. 262
The Hyphenp. 264
The Apostrophep. 265
Abbreviationsp. 267
Numbersp. 268
Using the Right Wordp. 270
A Note on Idiomsp. 270
A Writer's Glossaryp. 272
Documenting Sourcesp. 296
Documentationp. 296
MLA Formatp. 297
Citations Within the Textp. 297
Author and Page Number in Parenthetic Citationp. 300
Title and Page Number in Parenthesesp. 300
Author, Title, and Page Number in Parenthesesp. 301
A Government Document or a Work of Corporate Authorshipp. 301
A Work by Two or Three Authorsp. 301
Parenthetic Citation of an Indirect Source (Citation of Material That Itself Was Quoted or Summarized in Your Source)p. 302
Parenthetic Citation of Two or More Wordsp. 302
A Work in More Than One Volumep. 302
An Anonymous Workp. 303
A literary Workp. 303
A Personal Interviewp. 305
Lecturesp. 306
Electronic Sourcesp. 306
A Note on Footnotes in an Essay Using Parenthetic Citationsp. 306
The List of Works Citedp. 307
Alphabetic Orderp. 308
Form on the Pagep. 308
Author's Namep. 308
Title of Bookp. 309
Place of Publication, Publisher, and Datep. 310
A Book by More Than One Authorp. 311
Government Documentsp. 311
Works of Corporate Authorshipp. 311
Republished Workp. 312
A Book in Several Volumesp. 312
One Book with a Separate Title in a Set of Volumesp. 313
A Book with an Author and an Editorp. 313
A Revised Edition of a Bookp. 313
A Translated Bookp. 313
An Introduction, Foreword, or Afterwordp. 314
A Book with an Editor but No Authorp. 314
A Work in a Volume of Works by One Authorp. 314
A Work in a Collection of Works by Several Authorsp. 314
A Book Reviewp. 315
An Article or Essay-Not a Reprint-in a Collectionp. 316
An Article or Essay Reprinted in a Collectionp. 316
An Encyclopedia or Other Alphabetically Arranged Reference Workp. 317
A Filmp. 317
A Television or Radio Programp. 318
An Article in a Scholarly Journalp. 318
An Article in a Weekly, Biweekly, or Monthly Publicationp. 318
An Article in a Newspaperp. 319
An Interviewp. 319
A Lecturep. 319
Portable Database Sourcesp. 319
Online Sourcesp. 320
APA Formatp. 323
Citations Within the Textp. 324
A Summary of an Entire Workp. 324
A Reference to a Page or Pagesp. 325
A Reference to an Author Represented by More Than One Work Published in a Given Year in the Referencesp. 325
The List of Referencesp. 325
Form on the Pagep. 325
Alphabetic Orderp. 325
Form of Titlep. 327
Sample Referencesp. 327
A Book by One Authorp. 327
A Book by More Than One Authorp. 327
A Collection of Essaysp. 327
A Work in a Collection of Essaysp. 328
Government Documentsp. 328
An Article in a Journal That Paginates Each Issue Separatelyp. 328
An Article in a Journal with Continuous Paginationp. 328
An Article from a Monthly or Weekly Magazinep. 328
An Article in a Newspaperp. 329
A Book Reviewp. 329
Electronic Sourcesp. 329
A Note on Other Systems of Documentationp. 331
Preparing the Manuscriptp. 333
Basic Manuscript Formp. 333
Using Quotations (and Punctuating Them Correctly)p. 338
Corrections in the Final Copyp. 343
Last Wordsp. 345
Creditsp. 346
Indexp. 347
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