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A Short Guide to Writing About Literature,9780321026507

A Short Guide to Writing About Literature

by ;
ISBN13:

9780321026507

ISBN10:
0321026500
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Addison-Wesley
List Price: $31.20
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Summary

The tenth edition of A Short Guide to Writing about Literature continues to offer students sound advice on how to become critical thinkers and enrich their reading response through accessible, step-by-step instruction. This highly respected text is ideal as a supplement to any course where writing about literature or literary studies is emphasized. New to the Tenth Edition: A prefatory "Letter to Students" introduces students to the importance of writing about literature. New Chapter 1: What Is Literature, and Why Write About It? Chapter 2 features new material on critical thinking. Epigraphs have been added to the beginning of each chapter to engage the attention of students and instructors. Seventeen "Rules for Writers" have been addded to various chapters. Tips and practical suggestions are highlighted throughout the text. Four checklists have been added: basic matters, revising for clarity, revising for conciseness, and reviewing a revised draft. Two poems, one by Emily Dickinson and one by Edna St. Vincent Millay, and a fable by Aesop have been added. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
PART 1 Jumping In
The Writer as Reader: Reading and Responding
3(9)
``Ripe Figs''
3(1)
Kate Chopin
Reading as Re-creation
4(1)
Making Reasonable Inferences
5(2)
Reading with a Pen in Hand
7(1)
Recording Your First Responses
8(1)
Audience and Purpose
9(1)
A Writing Assignment on ``Ripe Figs''
10(2)
The Assignment
10(1)
A Sample Essay
10(1)
Other Possibilities for Writing
11(1)
The Reader as Writer: Drafting and Writing
12(21)
Pre-writing: Getting Ideas
12(11)
Annotating a Text
12(1)
More about Getting Ideas: A Second Story ``The Story of an Hour''
12(1)
Kate Chopin
``The Story of an Hour''
13(1)
Kate Chopin
Brainstorming for Ideas for Writing
14(1)
Focused Free Writing
15(1)
Listing
16(2)
Asking Questions
18(1)
Keeping a Journal
19(1)
Critical Thinking: Arguing with Yourself
20(2)
Arriving at a Thesis and Arguing It
22(1)
Writing a Draft
23(7)
A Sample Draft: ``Ironies in an Hour''
24(1)
Revising a Draft
25(1)
Outlining a Draft
26(1)
Peer Review
27(3)
The Final Version
30(3)
``Ironies of Life in Kate Chopin's `The Story of an Hour'''
30(1)
A Brief Overview of the Final Version
31(2)
Two Forms of Criticism: Explication and Analysis
33(23)
Explication
33(6)
A Sample Explication: Langston Hughes's ``Harlem''
33(1)
Working toward an Explication of ``Harlem''
34(2)
Some Journal Entries
36(2)
The Final Draft
38(1)
Analysis: The Judgment of Solomon
39(8)
Other Possible Topics for Analysis
43(1)
Comparison: An Analytic Tool
44(3)
Finding a Topic
47(1)
Considering the Evidence
48(1)
Organizing the Material
48(1)
Communicating Judgments
49(1)
Review: How to Write an Effective Essay
50(6)
Pre-writing
50(1)
Drafting
50(1)
Revising
51(2)
Editing
53(1)
Learning from Duke Ellington
54(1)
A Word about Technical Language
54(1)
Editing Checklist: Questions to Ask Yourself
55(1)
Other Kinds of Writing About Literature
56(17)
A Summary
56(1)
A Paraphrase
57(2)
A Literary Response
59(4)
Writing a Literary Response
59(1)
A Story Based on a Story
60(3)
A Parody
63(2)
A Review
65(8)
A Review of a Dramatic Production
65(1)
A Sample Review: ``An Effective Macbeth''
66(7)
PART 2 Standing Back: Thinking Critically about Literature
What is Literature??
73(13)
Literature and Form
74(5)
Literature and Meaning
77(1)
Arguing about Meaning
78(1)
Form and Meaning
79(2)
``The Span of Life''
79(2)
Robert Frost
The Literary Canon
81(2)
Literature, Texts, Discourses, and Cultural Studies
83(1)
In Brief: A Contemporary Author Speaks about Literature
84(2)
Suggestions for Further Reading
84(2)
What is Interpretation?
86(12)
Interpretation and Meaning
86(1)
Is the Author's Intention a Guide to Meaning?
87(1)
Is the Work the Author's or the Reader's?
87(1)
What Characterizes a Good Interpretation?
88(2)
An Example: Interpreting Pat Mora's ``Immigrants''
90(1)
Thinking Critically about Literature
91(1)
A Student Interpretation of Robert Frost's ``Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening''
92(6)
Suggestions for Further Reading
97(1)
What is Evaluation?
98(12)
Criticism and Evaluation
98(1)
Evaluative Language and the Canon
99(1)
Are There Critical Standards?
99(5)
Morality and Truth as Standards
100(1)
Other Ways to Think about Truth and Realism
101(3)
Is Sentimentality a Weakness---and If so, Why?
104(6)
``Little Boy Blue''
105(1)
Eugene Field
``Little Elegy''
106(1)
X.J. Kennedy
``We Real Cool''
107(2)
Gwendolyn Brooks
Suggestions for Further Reading
109(1)
Writing About Literature: An Overview
110(31)
The Nature of Critical Writing
110(1)
Some Critical Approaches
111(30)
Formalist Criticism (New Criticism)
112(2)
Deconstruction
114(2)
Reader-Response Criticism
116(3)
Archetypal (or Myth) Criticism
119(2)
Historical Scholarship
121(1)
Marxist Criticism
121(1)
The New Historicism
122(2)
Biographical Criticism
124(1)
Psychological (or Psychoanalytic) Criticism
124(2)
Gender (Feminist, and Lesbian and Gay) Criticism
126(8)
Suggestions for Further Reading
134(7)
PART 3 Up Close: Thinking Critically about Literary Forms
Writing About Fiction: The World of The Story
141(41)
Plot and Character
141(7)
Writing about a Character
143(2)
A Sample Essay on a Character: ``Holden's Kid Sister''
145(3)
Foreshadowing
148(3)
Organizing an Essay on Foreshadowing
150(1)
Setting and Atmosphere
151(1)
Symbolism
151(6)
A Sample Essay on Setting as Symbol: ``Spring Comes to Mrs. Mallard''
153(4)
Point of View
157(4)
Third-Person Narrators
157(2)
First-Person Narrators
159(2)
Notes and a Sample Essay on Narrative Point of View in James Joyce's ``Araby''
161(4)
``The Three First-Person Narrators in Joyce's `Araby'''
162(3)
Theme: Vision or Argument?
165(2)
Determining and Discussing the Theme
166(1)
Preliminary Notes and a Sample Essay on the Theme of Eudora Welty's ``A Worn Path''
167(15)
Preliminary Notes
167(3)
``Rising into Love''
170(4)
Comments and Questions
174(1)
Basing the Paper on Your Own Response
174(1)
Note on Secondary Sources
175(2)
Suggestions for Further Reading
177(1)
A Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Fiction
178(4)
Writing About Drama
182(29)
A Sample Essay
182(6)
Preliminary Notes
182(2)
``The Solid Structure of The Glass Menagerie''
184(4)
Types of Plays
188(7)
Tragedy
189(3)
Comedy
192(1)
Tragicomedy
193(2)
Aspects of Drama
195(16)
Theme
195(2)
Plot
197(4)
Characterization and Motivation
201(2)
Conventions
203(1)
Costumes, Gestures, and Settings
204(4)
Suggestions for Further Reading
208(1)
A Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Drama
208(3)
Writing About Poetry
211(41)
The Speaker and the Poet
211(6)
``Wild Nights---Wild Nights''
211(1)
Emily Dickinson
The Language of Poetry
212(1)
Diction
Tone
Writing about the Speaker: Robert Frost's ``The Telephone''
213(2)
Journal Entries
215(2)
Figurative Language
217(7)
``On First Looking into Chapman's Homer''
218(3)
John Keats
Preparing to Write about Figurative Language
221(2)
``The Sick Rose''
223(1)
William Blake
Structure
224(7)
``Upon Julia's Clothes''
224(1)
Robert Herrick
Annotating and Thinking about a Poem
224(2)
The Student's Finished Essay: ``Herrick's Julia, Julia's Herrick''
226(2)
Some Kinds of Structure
228(1)
``A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal''
228(2)
William Wordsworth
``The Flea''
230(1)
John Donne
Verbal Irony
231(1)
Paradox
231(1)
Explication
231(4)
A Sample Explication of Yeats's ``The Balloon of the Mind''
232(3)
Rhythm and Versification: A Glossary for Reference
235(9)
Rhythm
235(2)
Meter
237(3)
Patterns of Sound
240(1)
Stanzaic Patterns
241(2)
Blank Verse and Free Verse
243(1)
``When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer''
243(1)
Walt Whitman
Sample Essay on Metrics: ``Sound and Sense in Housman's `Eight O'Clock' ''
244(8)
Suggestions for Further Reading
248(1)
A Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Poetry
249(3)
Writing About an Author in Depth
252(14)
A Case Study: Writing about Langston Hughes
253(13)
``The South''
254(2)
Langston Hughes
``Ruby Brown''
256(1)
Langston Hughes
``Ballad of the Landlord''
257(1)
Langston Hughes
``Let America Be America Again''
258(3)
Langston Hughes
``A National Problem: Race and Racism in the Poetry of Langston Hughes''
261(5)
Writing About Film
266(21)
Film as a Medium
266(3)
Film Techniques
269(5)
Shots
269(2)
Sequences
271(1)
Transitions
271(1)
Editing
272(2)
Theme
274(2)
Getting Ready to Write
276(1)
A Sample Essay on Visual Symbols: ``A Japanese Macbeth''
277(5)
The Big Picture
282(5)
Suggestions for Further Reading
283(1)
A Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Film
283(4)
PART 4 Inside: Style, Format, and Special Assignments
Style and Format
287(20)
Principles of Style
287(14)
Get the Right Word
288(3)
Write Effective Sentences
291(3)
Write Unified and Coherent Paragraphs
294(5)
A Checklist: Revising Paragraphs
299(1)
Write Emphatically
299(1)
Notes on the Dash and the Hyphen
300(1)
Remarks about Manuscript Form
301(6)
Basic Manuscript Form
301(1)
Corrections in the Final Copy
302(1)
Quotations and Quotation Marks
303(4)
Writing A Research Paper
307(35)
What Research is Not. and What Research is
307(1)
Primary and Secondary Materials
308(1)
From Topic to Thesis
308(1)
Locating Material
309(3)
First Steps
309(3)
Other Bibliographic Aids
312(1)
Taking Notes
312(4)
Two Mechanical Aids: The Photocopier and the Word Processor
313(1)
A Guide to Note Taking
314(2)
Drafting the Paper
316(1)
A Sense of Proportion
317(1)
Documentation
317(15)
What to Document: Avoiding Plagiarism
317(2)
How to Document: Footnotes and Internal Parenthetical Citations
319(13)
Sample Essay with Documentation: ``The Women in Death of a Salesman''
332(10)
A Checklist: Reading Drafts of Research Papers
341(1)
New Approaches to The Research Paper: Literature, History, and The World Wide Web
342(33)
Case Study on Literature and History: The Internment of Japanese-Americans
342(33)
Literary Texts
343(1)
``The Question of Loyalty''
344(1)
Mitsuye Yamada
``An Argument: On 1942''
344(3)
David Mura
Historical Sources
347(10)
Electronic Sources
357(9)
A Checklist for Evaluating Sources on the World Wide Web
366(1)
Documenting Electronic Sources in MLA Style
367(8)
Essay Examinations
375(4)
What Examinations Are
375(1)
Writing Essay Answers
376(3)
APPENDIX A: TWO STORIES 379(10)
``Araby''
379(4)
James Joyce
``A Worn Path''
383(6)
Eudora Welty
APPENDIX B: LITERARY RESEARCH: PRINT AND ELECTRONIC RESOURCES 389(8)
APPENDIX C: GLOSSARY OF LITERARY TERMS 397(14)
Credits 411(2)
Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poems 413(4)
Index of Literary Terms 417


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