Six Sigma Software Development, Second Edition

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2007-03-27
  • Publisher: Auerbach Public

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Even though Six Sigma programs have successfully been implemented in practice, many IT departments remain skeptical of the process or are unaware of how the tools can be used to improve system development. Removing the mystique surrounding this technique, Six Sigma Software Development, Second Edition demonstrates how Six Sigma tools and concepts can be used to enhance the system development process.Revised and updated, this second edition clearly explains Six Sigma concepts and their application, maps Six Sigma concepts and tools to all aspects of system development, and proposes the use of Six Sigma tools to evaluate and improve the overall performance of the IT department. In addition to classic Six Sigma, the book introduces Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) and illustrates when and how its tools and techniques can be used to increase the robustness and reliability of a new system. It also shows how the judicious application of lean tools can reduce the complexity of IT processes, thus shortening the time needed to translate customer requirements into completed systems and increasing customer satisfaction.

Table of Contents

List of Exhibitsp. xix
Introductionp. xxv
Introduction to Six Sigmap. 1
Six Sigma in Perspectivep. 3
Defining Six Sigmap. 3
More than Statisticsp. 4
Not Just Productsp. 4
Defect Preventionp. 5
Reduced Variationp. 6
Customer Focusp. 7
Fact-Based Decisionsp. 8
Teamworkp. 9
Tools and Trainingp. 9
A Strategy, Not an Initiativep. 10
DFSS: The Logical Extension to Six Sigmap. 10
Applying Six Sigma to System Developmentp. 11
No Relevance to ITp. 12
All or Nothingp. 13
The Six Sigma Differencep. 15
The Six Sigma Differencep. 15
Six Sigma and Quality Assurancep. 15
Six Sigma and CMMp. 17
Six Sigma and Leanp. 19
Managing Changep. 21
The Human Effects of Changep. 21
The Roles People Playp. 23
Components of Successful Changep. 23
Building Commitmentp. 24
Formal Communicationp. 25
Informal Communicationsp. 27
The Basics of Six Sigmap. 29
Introduction to DMAICp. 31
Background to the Case Studyp. 33
The Definition Phasep. 35
The Project Championp. 35
Define the Problemp. 36
Form a Teamp. 37
Establish a Project Charterp. 42
The Thought Process Mapp. 44
Refining the Project Scopep. 44
Develop a Project Planp. 47
Identify the Customersp. 47
Identify Key Outputsp. 49
Identify and Prioritize Customer Requirementsp. 50
The Second Meetingp. 52
Document the Current Processp. 56
Types of Process Mapsp. 56
Top-Level Mapp. 57
Detailed Process Mapp. 58
Functional Process Mapp. 59
Complete the Requirements Definitionp. 61
The Measurement Phasep. 65
Determine What To Measurep. 66
Types of Variationp. 66
The Lean Approachp. 68
Measure What You Valuep. 69
Accuracy of Measurementsp. 71
Conduct the Measurementp. 72
Understanding Variationp. 73
Calculate Current Sigma Levelp. 79
Determine Process Capabilityp. 83
Capability Indicesp. 84
Cycle Timep. 86
Benchmark Process Leadersp. 87
The Analysis Phasep. 91
Determine What Caused the Variationp. 91
Noise Variablesp. 93
Brainstorm Ideas for Process Improvementsp. 98
Determine Which Improvements Have the Greatest Impact on Customer Requirementsp. 99
Develop Proposed Process Mapp. 102
Assess Risks Associated with Revised Processp. 104
The Improvement Phasep. 109
Gain Approval for the Proposed Changesp. 109
The Impact Assessmentp. 111
Finalize the Implementation Planp. 115
Implement the Approved Changesp. 115
The Control Phasep. 119
Establish Key Metricsp. 119
Develop the Control Strategyp. 121
Celebrate and Communicate Successp. 125
Implement the Control Planp. 125
Measure and Communicate Improvementsp. 125
Design for Six Sigmap. 129
Introduction to DFSSp. 131
The Need for DFSSp. 131
Defining DFSSp. 132
Phases of DFSSp. 134
Distinguishing between Six Sigma and DFSSp. 136
Background to the Case Studyp. 137
The Identification of Opportunities Phasep. 139
Define the Problemp. 140
Form a Teamp. 140
Establish a Project Charterp. 143
Develop a Project Planp. 145
Identify the Customers, Suppliers, and Stakeholdersp. 145
Identify Customer Requirementsp. 148
Identify CTQsp. 156
Begin to Develop the QFD Matrixp. 158
The Definition of the Initial Design Phasep. 163
Identify Potential Designsp. 163
Evaluate the Potential Designs Using Pugh Concept Selection Techniquesp. 167
Identify Potential Failure Modes of the Most Feasible Designp. 169
Expand the QFD with the Results of the Analysesp. 170
The Development of Concept Phasep. 179
Define the Proposed Product and Processp. 179
Identify Possible Causes of Variation in the Processp. 181
Model the Designp. 183
Identify Potential Risks and Mitigation Plansp. 185
Develop Quality Measures for the Processp. 187
The Optimization Phasep. 193
The Challengep. 193
Parameter Designp. 194
Tolerance Designp. 196
The Verification Phasep. 199
The Prototypep. 200
The Pilotp. 202
Six Sigma and the Traditional SDLCp. 207
Introduction to the Traditional SDLCp. 209
Advantages of the Traditional SDLCp. 211
SDLC Disadvantagesp. 211
How Six Sigma Can Helpp. 212
The Role of DFSSp. 216
Project Initiationp. 219
Identify the Problemp. 220
Form the Teamp. 222
Identify Preliminary Requirementsp. 223
Begin to Develop a Thought Process Mapp. 223
Develop the Initial Project Charterp. 224
Define the Problem Statement and Project Goalsp. 225
Identify the Customersp. 226
Identify Key Outputsp. 226
Document the Current Processp. 227
Define High-Level Requirementsp. 228
Validate the Requirementsp. 228
Develop a Feasibility Studyp. 230
Obtain Project Approvalp. 232
System Analysisp. 237
Understand the Current Processp. 239
Identify the Requirementsp. 241
Prioritize the Requirementsp. 243
Identify Potential Process Improvementsp. 246
Determine Which Improvements Will Have the Greatest Impact on the Highest Priority Requirementsp. 246
Create a Detailed "To-Be" Process Mapp. 247
Assess the Impact and Risks of the Proposed Process Improvementsp. 248
Complete the Development of the Conceptual Designp. 248
Complete the Requirements Specification Documentp. 249
Obtain Approvalsp. 249
System Designp. 251
Functional Designp. 251
Technical Designp. 253
Defect Preventionp. 258
Program Designp. 260
Constructionp. 263
Structured Walk-Throughsp. 263
Defect Preventionp. 264
Testing and Quality Assurancep. 267
The Test Planp. 268
Test Casesp. 269
The Unit Testp. 271
The System Testp. 272
The Integration Testp. 272
The Stress Testp. 273
The Acceptance Testp. 275
Six Sigma Tools for Testingp. 275
Implementationp. 277
Customer Trainingp. 277
Customer Documentationp. 279
Data Conversionp. 281
Project Evaluationp. 281
Six Sigma and Legacy Systemsp. 283
Introduction to Legacy Systemsp. 285
The Challengep. 285
Need for Change Managementp. 286
When DFSS Can Helpp. 287
Change Management in the IT Departmentp. 289
Understand and Document the Processp. 290
Define Successp. 292
Identify and Mitigate Risksp. 293
Release-Based Maintenancep. 293
Ensure that the Process Is Followedp. 295
System Maintenance and Supportp. 297
Categorizing Maintenancep. 297
Six Sigma and System Supportp. 298
Customer Focusp. 299
The Steering Committeep. 300
One or More Committees?p. 301
Charters and Agendasp. 302
Service Level Agreementsp. 303
Customer Satisfaction Surveysp. 306
Ensuring Successful Maintenancep. 310
Incorporating Six Sigma into Other Development Methodologiesp. 311
Rapid Application Developmentp. 313
JRP and JADp. 314
The Role of DFSSp. 314
Selecting the Participantsp. 314
The Role of the Facilitatorp. 315
Optimizing the Meeting Locationp. 316
Effective Sessionsp. 317
Communicationp. 318
Prototyping and Spiral Developmentp. 321
Prototypingp. 322
Spiral or Iterative Developmentp. 323
Phased Deliveryp. 326
Client/Server and Web-Based Systemsp. 327
The Challengep. 327
Reducing Variation through Testingp. 329
Six Sigma and Packaged Software Implementationp. 331
Selecting Packaged Softwarep. 333
Advantages of Packaged Softwarep. 333
Guidelines for Successp. 334
Using Six Sigma to Increase the Probability of Successp. 336
The Selection Processp. 337
Identify the Requirementsp. 338
Prioritize the Requirementsp. 339
Develop a List of Potential Vendorsp. 340
Obtain Product Informationp. 340
Perform a Preliminary Evaluationp. 341
Conduct Initial Product Demosp. 343
Perform Detailed Evaluation of "Short List" Vendorsp. 343
Identify Gaps between Products and Requirementsp. 344
Select Final Vendorp. 345
Negotiate the Contractp. 345
Implementing Packaged Softwarep. 349
Preparing the Customer Departmentp. 350
Installing and Implementing the Softwarep. 351
Communicate the Decision and Project Schedulep. 351
Install and Test the Software with No Modificationsp. 351
Modify the Base Software and Retestp. 352
Build Interfaces To and From Existing Systemsp. 352
Develop Data Conversion Programs and Proceduresp. 354
Develop and Conduct Customer Trainingp. 354
Go Livep. 354
Evaluate the Resultsp. 355
Six Sigma and Outsourcingp. 357
Introduction to Outsourcingp. 359
Outsourcing versus Staff Augmentationp. 359
The Outsourcing Decisionp. 363
What to Outsourcep. 363
Personnel-Related Risksp. 363
Reasons for Outsourcingp. 364
Potential Disadvantages of Outsourcingp. 365
Strategies for Successp. 366
Choosing the Right Supplierp. 366
Categorizing the Engagementp. 368
Selecting the Supplierp. 370
Negotiating the Contractp. 371
Drafting a Comprehensive Contractp. 372
Establishing Effective SOWs and SLAsp. 373
Committing to Successp. 374
Effective Outsourcingp. 377
Where DFSS Can Helpp. 377
Custom System Developmentp. 378
Packaged Software Implementationp. 380
System Maintenancep. 381
The Help Deskp. 381
Data Center Operationsp. 382
The Control Planp. 382
The Six Sigma IT Departmentp. 385
Putting It All Togetherp. 387
Definep. 387
Define the Problemp. 388
Form a Teamp. 388
Establish a Project Charterp. 388
Develop a Project Planp. 388
Identify the Customersp. 389
Identify Key Outputsp. 389
Identify and Prioritize Customer Requirementsp. 389
Document the Current Processp. 390
Measurep. 392
Determine What to Measurep. 392
Conduct the Measurementsp. 392
Calculate Current Sigma Levelp. 392
Determine Process Capabilityp. 392
Benchmark Process Leadersp. 393
Analyzep. 393
Determine What Caused the Variationp. 393
Brainstorm Ideas for Process Improvementsp. 394
Identify Greatest Impact Improvementsp. 394
Develop Proposed Process Mapp. 394
Assess the Risksp. 395
Improvep. 395
Gain Approval for Proposed Changesp. 395
Finalize the Implementation Planp. 395
Implement the Approved Changesp. 395
Controlp. 396
Establish Key Metricsp. 396
Develop the Control Strategyp. 396
Putting It All Togetherp. 396
Appendicesp. 399
The Project Charterp. 401
The Functional Process Mapp. 407
Mapping Conventionsp. 408
The Process Improvement Ranking Spreadsheetp. 411
The Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)p. 413
The Metric Reliability Assessment Spreadsheetp. 419
The Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Matrixp. 423
List of Acronymsp. 431
Suggested Readingp. 435
Indexp. 437
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