Slash-and-Burn Agriculture : The Search for Alternatives

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-09-30
  • Publisher: Columbia Univ Pr

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Every year about 130,000 km2 of humid tropical rain forest is destroyed. Caused in part by the slash-and-burn practices of both large- and small-scale farmers in Brazil, Cameroon, Indonesia, and elsewhere, the environmental implications of tropical deforestation and its threat to biodiversity and carbon emissions remain a worldwide concern. Yet the small-scale farmers who use slash-and-burn agriculture depend on it to produce food and make a living for their families. Balancing the legitimate interests of rural households and global concerns about tropical deforestation is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. The Alternatives to Slash and Burn (ASB) consortium was formed in 1992 by a group of concerned national and international research institutions to address the global and local issues associated with this form of agriculture. With contributions from agronomists, foresters, economists, ecologists, and anthropologists, this book synthesizes the first decade of ASB's work. It assesses the environmental, economic, and social impact of deforestation and identifies the costs and benefits of alternative uses of forests and cleared land. Throughout the volume, the contributors present new conceptual tools and a rich compendium of empirical analyses needed to formulate viable alternatives to slash-and-burn agriculture.

Table of Contents

Foreword ix
Preface xi
Contributors xv
Acronyms and Abbreviations xxi
I The Problem and Approach
1 Alternatives to Slash and Burn: Challenge and Approaches of an International Consortium
Pedro A. Sanchez, Cheryl A. Palm, Stephen A. Vosti, Thomas P. Tomich, and Joyce Kasyoki
II Thematic Research
2 Carbon Losses and Sequestration After Land Use Change in the Humid Tropics
Cheryl A. Palm, Meine van Noordwijk, Paul L. Woomer, Julio C. Alegre, Luis Arévalo, Carlos E. Castilla, Divonzil G. Cordeiro, Kurniatun Hairiah, Jean Kotto-Same, Appolinaire Moukam, William J. Parton, Auberto Ricse, Vanda Rodrigues, and Syukur M. Sitompul
3 Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Slash and Burn and Alternative Land Use Practices in Sumatra, Indonesia
Daniel Murdiyarso, Haruo Tsuruta, Shigehiro Ishizuka, Kurniatun Hairiah, and Cheryl A. Palm
4 The Potential Role of Above-Ground Biodiversity Indicators in Assessing Best-Bet Alternatives to Slash and Burn
Andrew N. Gillison
5 Below-Ground Biodiversity Assessment: Developing a Key Functional Group Approach in Best-Bet Alternatives to Slash and Burn
David E. Bignell, Jerome Tondoh, Luc Dibog, Shiou Pin Huang, Fátima Moreira, Dieudonné Nwaga, Beto Pashanasi, Eliane Guimarăes Pereira, Francis-Xavier Susilo, and Michael J. Swift
6 Sustainability of Tropical Land Use Systems After Forest Conversion
Kurniatun Hairiah, Meine van Noordwijk, and Stephan Weise
7 The Forest for the Trees: The Effects of Macroeconomic Factors on Deforestation in Brazil and Indonesia
Andrea Cattaneo and Nu Nu San
III Site-Specific Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn Agriculture
8 Sustainable Forest Management for Smallholder Farmers in the Brazilian Amazon
Marcus V.N. d'Oliveira, Michael D. Swaine, David F.R.P. Burslem, Evaldo M. Bráz, and Henrique J.B. de Araújo
9 Permanent Smallholder Rubber Agroforestry Systems in Sumatra, Indonesia
Gede Wibawa, Sinung Hendratno, and Meine van Noordwijk
10 Coffee, Pastures, and Deforestation in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Farm-Level Bioeconomic Model
Chantal L. Carpentier, Stephen A. Vosti, and Julie Witcover
11 Smallholder Options for Reclaiming and Using Imperata cylindrica L. (Alang-Alang) Grasslands in Indonesia
Pratiknyo Purnomosidhi, Kurniatun Hairiah, Subekti Rahayu, and Meine van Noordwijk
IV National Perspectives
12 The Western Brazilian Amazon
Judson F. Valentim and Stephen A. Vosti
13 The Forest Margins of Sumatra, Indonesia
Soetjipto Partohardjono, Djuber Pasaribu, and Achmad M. Fagi
14 The Forest Margins of Cameroon
James Gockowski, Jean Tonyé, Chimere Diaw, Stefan Hauser, Jean Kotto-Same, Rosaline Njomgang, Appolinaire Moukam, Dieudonné Nwaga, Téophile Tiki-Manga, Jerome Tondoh, Zac Tschondeau, Stephan Weise, and Louis Zapfack
15 The Peruvian Amazon: Development Imperatives and Challenges
Douglas White, Manuel Arca, Julio Alegre, David Yanggen, Ricardo Labarta, John C. Weber, Carmen Sotelo-Montes, and Hector Vidaurre
16 Northern Thailand: Changing Smallholder Land Use Patterns
Plodprasop Suraswadi, David E. Thomas, Komon Pragtong, Pornchai Preechapanya, and Horst Weyerhaeuser
V Cross-Site Comparisons and Conclusions
17 Land Use Systems at the Margins of Tropical Moist Forest: Addressing Smallholder Concerns in Cameroon, Indonesia, and Brazil
Stephen A. Vosti, James Gockowski, and Thomas P. Tomich
18 Balancing Agricultural Development and Environmental Objectives: Assessing Tradeoffs in the Humid Tropics
Thomas P. Tomich, Andrea Cattaneo, Simon Chater, Helmut J. Geist, James Gockowski, David Kaimowitz, Eric F. Lambin, Jessa Lewis, Ousseynou Ndoye, Cheryl A. Palm, Fred Stolle, William D. Sunderlin, Judson F. Valentim, Meine van Noordwijk, and Stephen A. Vosti
Index 441

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