The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality: Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-02-25
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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This anthology examines the social construction of race, class, gender, and sexuality and the institutional bases for these relations. While other texts discuss various forms of stratification and the impact of these on members of marginalized groups, Ore provides a thorough discussion of how such systems of stratification are formed and perpetuated and how forms of stratification are interconnected. Critical thinking questions at the end of each reading and part opening essays aid students in understanding how the material relates to their lives and how their own attitudes, actions, and perspectives may serve to perpetuate a stratified system. 13 new readings have been added focusing on the experiences of immigrants, contemporary issues in social institutions, current examples of how the media portrays events and much more.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Constructing Differencesp. 1
Examining what categories are constructed, how this is done, and why such categories of difference are constructed.
Race and Ethnicityp. 19
Racial Formationsp. 19
Optional Ethnicities: For Whites Only?p. 29
Becoming Suspectsp. 42
How Did Jews Become White Folks?p. 56
Social Classp. 75
Race, Wealth, and Equalityp. 75
Media Magic: Making Class Invisiblep. 88
Doubly Divided: The Racial Wealth Gapp. 97
Getting Corporations off the Public Dolep. 104
Sex and Genderp. 111
The Social Construction of Genderp. 111
The Five Sexes, Revisitedp. 119
The Transgender Paradigm Shift toward Free Expressionp. 127
Masculinity as Homophobia: Fear, Shame, and Silence in the Construction of Gender Identityp. 132
Sexualityp. 150
The Invention of Heterosexualityp. 150
Sexuality and Gender in Children's Daily Worldsp. 163
Sexual Identity and Bisexual Identities: The Struggle for Self-Description in a Changing Sexual Landscapep. 183
Naming All the Partsp. 201
Maintaining Inequalities: Systems of Oppression and Privilegep. 213
Examining what elements of social structure work to maintain systems of stratification based on constructions of difference.
Social Institutions: Familyp. 239
Our Mothers' Grief: Racial-Ethnic Women and the Maintenance of Familiesp. 239
Families on the Fault Line: America's Working Class Speaks about the Family, the Economy, Race, and Ethnicityp. 260
Stability and Change in Chicano Men's Family Livesp. 270
Gay and Lesbian Families Are Herep. 292
Social Institutions: Educationp. 305
Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schoolsp. 305
Preparing for Power: Cultural Capital and Curricula in America's Elite Boarding Schoolsp. 312
Civilize Them with a Stickp. 323
Missing in Interactionp. 331
Schools and the Social Control of Sexualityp. 344
Social Institutions: Work and Economyp. 354
Jobless Ghettos: The Social Implications of the Disappearance of Work in Segregated Neighborhoodsp. 354
"We'd Love to Hire Them, But... ": The Meaning of Race for Employersp. 365
The Glass Escalator: Hidden Advantages for Men in the "Female" Professionsp. 375
Cause of Death: Inequalityp. 387
Social Institutions: The State and Public Policyp. 392
Welfare Reform, Family Hardship, and Women of Colorp. 392
Beyond Crime and Punishment: Prisons and Inequalityp. 403
No Equal Justice: Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice Systemp. 410
The Effects of Affirmative Action on Other Stakeholdersp. 419
The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: Racialized Social Democracy and the "White" Problem in American Studiesp. 432
Social Institutions: Mediap. 444
Five Decades and Three Hundred Sitcoms about Class and Genderp. 444
Distorted Reality: Hispanic Characters in TV Entertainmentp. 463
Gay Characters in Conventional Spaces: Will and Grace and the Situation Comedy Genrep. 477
Metaphors Matter: Disaster Myths, Media Frames, and Their Consequences in Hurricane Katrinap. 498
Language and Culturep. 524
Racism in the English Languagep. 524
Self, Identity, and the Naming Question: Reflections on the Language of Disabilityp. 535
How to Tame a Wild Tonguep. 548
The Dark Side of Sports Symbolsp. 558
Violence and Social Controlp. 566
Where Race and Gender Meet: Racism, Hate Crimes, and Pornographyp. 566
Fraternities and Collegiate Rape Culture: Why Are Some Fraternities More Dangerous Places for Women?p. 570
The Construction of Masculinity and the Triad of Men's Violencep. 584
Homophobia as a Weapon of Sexismp. 601
Experiencing Difference and Inequality in Everyday Lifep. 612
Examining the impact of constructions of difference and maintaining inequalities on members of society.
Making Systems of Privilege Visiblep. 615
"Yes, I Follow Islam, But I'm Not a Terrorist"p. 622
A Dozen Demonsp. 624
Always Runningp. 634
The Story of My Bodyp. 640
Separated by Deportationp. 649
"Gee, You Don't Seem Like an Indian from the Reservation"p. 665
Living Fearlessly with and within Differences: My Search for Identity beyond Categories and Contradictionsp. 671
Nickel-and-Dimed On (Not) Getting by in Americap. 681
I Am Your Welfare Reformp. 695
Learning to Fightp. 697
Bisexuality, Feminism, Men and Mep. 703
Resistance and Social Changep. 708
Examining how people working within individual and institutional contexts transform difference from a system of inequality to a system of liberation.
Toward a New Vision: Race, Class, and Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connectionp. 720
Cultural Resistance: Reconstructing Our Own Imagesp. 735
Good for the 'Hood?p. 745
Seeing More Than Black and White: Latinos, Racism, and the Cultural Dividesp. 752
How White People Can Serve as Allies to People of Color in the Struggle to End Racismp. 759
Dismantling Noah's Ark: Gender and Equalityp. 768
Voices of a New Movimientop. 782
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