Social Work and Social Welfare An Introduction

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-07-12
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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This popular text is designed to give you a broad understanding about the social work profession and the role that the profession plays in the social welfare system. The authors demonstrate that there are many reasons why social problems occur. You'll explore the history, values, economic, political and cultural factors that surround these issues, as well as the attempts to solve or address them. Throughout this thought-provoking text, you'll be challenged to think critically about issues in a new way, and gain a more in-depth comprehension and appreciation for this important profession.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. XV
Understanding Social Work and Social Welfare: Key Concepts and Perspectivesp. 1
Social Welfare, Past and Presentp. 4
A Definition of Social Welfare and Its Relationship to Social Workp. 5
The Value Base of Social Welfarep. 6
Our English Heritagep. 7
Social Welfare in Colonial Americap. 9
Changing Patterns after the Revolutionp. 9
Caring for the Urban Poorp. 10
Caring for Specific Populationsp. 10
The New Dealp. 13
The Social Security Actp. 14
Social Insurancep. 14
Public Assistancep. 15
Health and Welfare Servicesp. 15
Social Welfare: The Post-Social Security and Welfare Reform Erasp. 15
The Great Society Programsp. 16
Conservatism in the Mid-1960s and Early 1970sp. 17
Welfare Reform and the Late 1970sp. 17
Cutbacks in the Reagan and Bush Yearsp. 18
The Clinton Yearsp. 19
The George W. Bush Yearsp. 19
Summaryp. 22
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 22
Discussion Questionsp. 22
On the Internetp. 23
Referencesp. 23
Suggested Further Readingsp. 23
Social Work and Other Helping Professionsp. 24
Why Do People Have Problems?p. 25
Genetics and Heredityp. 25
Socializationp. 25
Cultural Differencesp. 26
Environmental Factorsp. 26
The Opportunity Structurep. 26
Social Work Definedp. 27
The Early Years of Social Workp. 27
Underpinnings of the Professionp. 31
Valuesp. 31
Ethicsp. 31
Liberal Arts Basep. 31
Knowledge That Builds on the Liberal Arts Basep. 32
Practice Skillsp. 33
Planned Changep. 33
Social Work Methodsp. 34
Social Work with Individuals and Families (Casework)p. 34
Social Work with Groups (Group Work)p. 34
Community Organizationp. 34
Social Work Researchp. 35
Social Work Administration and Planningp. 35
Professional Issues in Social Workp. 35
The Social Agencyp. 35
Education and Levels of Social Work Practicep. 36
Bachelor of Social Work (BSW)p. 36
Master of Social Work: Advanced Practicep. 38
Doctorate in Social Work (DSW and PhD)p. 38
Careers in Social Workp. 38
Collaboration with Other Helping Professionsp. 40
Other Professionals Likely to Collaborate with Social Workersp. 40
The Need for Professional Diversityp. 43
The Baccalaureate Social Worker and Other Professionsp. 46
Summaryp. 45
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 47
Discussion Questionsp. 47
On the Internetp. 48
Referencesp. 48
Suggested Further Readingsp. 48
The Systems/Ecological Perspectivep. 49
The Impact of Theoretical Frameworks on Interventionp. 50
The Difference Between Causal Relationships and Associationp. 51
A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Welfare Problemsp. 52
The Systems/Ecological Frameworkp. 53
The Perspective of Systems Theoryp. 55
Systemp. 55
Synergyp. 55
Boundariesp. 55
Steady Statep. 59
Equifinalityp. 60
Critiques of the Systems/Ecological Frameworkp. 60
Levels of the Environmentp. 60
Problems in Livingp. 64
Utility of the Systems/Ecological Frameworkp. 65
The Utility of Other Theories and Frameworksp. 67
Psychosocial Frameworksp. 67
Cognitive Behavioral Frameworksp. 68
Political and Ideological Frameworksp. 68
The Systems/Ecological Framework in Professional Practicep. 69
Applying the Systems/Ecological Frameworkp. 69
The Generalist Modelp. 71
The Strengths Perspectivep. 72
Empowermentp. 74
Social and Economic Justicep. 74
The Helping Processp. 76
Applications with Juan and His Familyp. 77
Summaryp. 79
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 80
Discussion Questionsp. 80
On the Internetp. 80
Referencesp. 80
Suggested Further Readingsp. 81
Diversity and Social Justicep. 83
Social and Economic Justicep. 84
Prejudice and Discriminationp. 85
Social and Economic Justice for Womenp. 87
Incomep. 88
Educationp. 91
Social Workp. 91
Religionp. 91
Politicsp. 91
Institutional Sexismp. 92
Issues Relating to Reproductive Rightsp. 93
Legal Issuesp. 93
Medical Issuesp. 94
Values Issuesp. 95
Social Reform: The Feminist Movementp. 96
Social and Economic Justice: Sexual Orientationp. 97
Social and Economic Justice: Classp. 100
Social and Economic Justice: Race and Ethnicityp. 101
African Americansp. 102
Latino Populationsp. 103
Asians and Pacific Islandersp. 104
Native Americansp. 105
Efforts to Produce Social Justice for Populations at Riskp. 106
School Desegregationp. 106
Civil Rights Legislationp. 107
Uneven Progressp. 108
Affirmative Actionp. 108
Law Enforcement and Profilingp. 110
Social Work and the Civil Rights Movementp. 110
Summaryp. 112
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 113
Discussion Questionsp. 113
On the Internetp. 114
Referencesp. 114
Suggested Further Readingsp. 115
Social Work Practice: Methods of Interventionp. 117
Social Work Practice with Individuals, Families, and Groupsp. 120
Generalist Practice: Backgroundp. 121
Generalist Practice: A Definitionp. 122
Preparation for Generalist Practice with Individuals, Families, and Groupsp. 123
Social Studyp. 123
Assessmentp. 124
Goal Settingp. 124
Contractingp. 124
Interventionp. 124
Evaluationp. 125
The Social Worker-Client Relationshipp. 125
The Development of Practice Skillsp. 126
Conceptual Skillsp. 126
Interviewing Skillsp. 127
Recordingp. 127
Practice Theories and Skills: Individuals and Familiesp. 128
Systems/Ecological Frameworkp. 128
Ego Psychologyp. 128
Problem-Solving Approachp. 129
Cognitive-Behavioral Approachesp. 130
Task-Centered Social Workp. 131
Social Work Intervention with Familiesp. 132
Other Approachesp. 132
Practice Theories and Skills: Groupsp. 133
Group Focusp. 134
Effective Group Developmentp. 135
Theory for Group Work Practicep. 137
Group Work as a Practicep. 138
Group Settingsp. 139
Group Terminationp. 139
Practice Effectiveness with Individuals, Families, and Groupsp. 139
Supervision of Generalist Practitionersp. 140
Social Work Practice and the MSW Social Workerp. 140
The BSW Social Worker in Practice with Individuals, Families, and Groupsp. 141
Summaryp. 142
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 142
Discussion Questionsp. 142
On the Internetp. 143
Referencesp. 143
Suggested Further Readingsp. 143
Social Work Practice with Agencies and the Communityp. 144
Social Work with Communitiesp. 145
Community: Definition and Social Work Rolesp. 146
Roles of Social Workers in Communitiesp. 146
Community Practice Models and Approachesp. 148
Profile of an Effective Community Organizerp. 149
Policy Practicep. 149
The Development of Social Welfare Policyp. 149
Models of Policy Analysisp. 150
The Practitioner's Role in Social Welfare Policyp. 151
Administration and Delivery of Social Welfare Servicesp. 151
Meeting the Challengep. 151
Weighing the Client's Best Interestsp. 152
Social Welfare Agenciesp. 152
A Historical Perspectivep. 152
Contemporary Structuresp. 153
Research Practicep. 154
Disciplinary Researchp. 154
Policy Researchp. 155
Evaluative Researchp. 156
Demonstrating a Causal Connectionp. 156
The Status of Social Work in Communities, Policy, Administration, and Researchp. 156
Career Opportunities in Agency Administration, Community Social Work, Policy, and Researchp. 157
Summaryp. 159
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 160
Discussion Questionsp. 160
On the Internetp. 161
Referencesp. 161
Suggested Further Readingsp. 162
Fields of Practice and Populations Served by Social Workersp. 163
Poverty, Income Assistance, and Homelessnessp. 167
Views on Poverty and How to Helpp. 169
Conceptualizations of Povertyp. 170
Definitions of Povertyp. 171
Who Are America's Poor?p. 172
Welfare Reform-An End to Welfare as We Knew Itp. 174
Relevant Legislationp. 175
Revisions to the Lawp. 176
Current Strategies for Addressing Povertyp. 179
A Strong Market and Family Systemp. 179
Social Insurance Programsp. 179
Public Assistance Programsp. 182
In-Kind Benefits and Tax Creditsp. 183
Other Anti-Poverty Programsp. 183
Basic Political Perspectivesp. 183
The New Millennium: 2000 and Beyondp. 185
Homelessnessp. 189
Composition of the Homeless Populationp. 190
Policies and Programs That Address Homelessnessp. 199
The Roles of Social Workers in the Fight against Povertyp. 200
Summaryp. 201
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 201
Discussion Questionsp. 202
On the Internetp. 202
Referencesp. 202
Suggested Further Readingsp. 206
Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Developmental Disabilitiesp. 208
Mental Healthp. 211
Mental Health and Mental Illness: Definitionsp. 212
Categorizing Mental Illnessp. 213
Mental Health: A Matter of Viewpointp. 215
The Development of Mental Health Problemsp. 215
Types of Mental Health Problemsp. 219
Depressionp. 219
Bipolar Disorderp. 220
Schizophreniap. 220
Anxiety Disordersp. 220
Suicidep. 221
Impacts of Mental Health Status on At-Risk Populationsp. 222
Alcoholism and Substance Abusep. 223
Commonly Abused Substancesp. 225
Social and Economic Costs of Substance Abusep. 227
At-Risk Populations and Substance Abusep. 228
Developmental Disabilitiesp. 232
Factors Associated with Developmental Disabilitiesp. 235
Changing Views Toward Mental Health Problems, Substance Abuse and Developmental Disabilitiesp. 236
The First Revolution: From Inhumane to Moral Treatmentp. 236
The Second Revolution: The Introduction of Psychoanalysisp. 238
The Third Revolution: A Shift to Community Mental Health Programsp. 238
The Fourth Revolution: Legal Rights of Clients and Consumer Advocacyp. 240
Neurobiology and Implications for Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Developmental Disabilitiesp. 243
Availability of Resources and Responsibility for Carep. 244
Deinstitutionalizationp. 244
Wide-Ranging Program Alternativesp. 246
Interventions for Substance Abusers and Their Familiesp. 247
Interventions for Persons with Developmental Disabilities and Their Familiesp. 248
The Americans with Disabilities Actp. 248
Other Disabilities Legislationp. 252
Individuals with Disabilities Education Actp. 252
Prevention versus Treatmentp. 253
Trends in Services and Treatmentp. 254
Managed Carep. 254
Insurance Legislationp. 254
Deficit Reduction Actp. 255
Evolving Therapiesp. 256
Roles and Opportunities for Social Workersp. 258
Historical Backgroundp. 258
Career Opportunities in Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Disability Servicesp. 259
Summaryp. 261
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 261
Discussion Questionsp. 261
On the Internetp. 262
Referencesp. 262
Suggested Further Readingsp. 265
Health Carep. 266
The State of Health in the United Statesp. 267
Moral and Ethical Issuesp. 268
A Systems/Ecological Approach to Health Carep. 269
Factors Affecting Healthp. 270
Applying a Systems/Ecological Perspectivep. 275
The Evolution of Health Care in Americap. 275
Critical Issues in Current Health-Care Deliveryp. 277
Funding and Costs of Health Carep. 277
Health Insurance Plans and Managed Carep. 279
Comparing Health-Care Costs to Outcomesp. 283
Reasons for Rising Health-Care Costsp. 284
Current Major Health Problemsp. 288
HIV and AIDSp. 288
Other Illnesses and Health Problemsp. 290
Catastrophic Illnessp. 292
Teen Pregnancyp. 294
Environmental Factorsp. 294
Prevention and Wellness Programsp. 295
Ethical Issuesp. 295
Baby Doe Casesp. 297
Right-to-Die Casesp. 297
Bioethicsp. 299
Alternative Medicinep. 300
Health Planningp. 300
Hill-Burton Actp. 300
Medicare and Medicaidp. 300
Maternal and Child Health Actp. 303
Healthy Steps for Young Children Programp. 303
Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)p. 303
Other Child Health Provisions under the Balanced Budget Act of 1997p. 304
Comprehensive Health Planning Actp. 304
Health Maintenance Organization Legislationp. 305
CARE Actp. 305
Future Legislation: Health-Care Reformp. 305
Social Work Roles in the Delivery of Health Servicesp. 308
Historical Backgroundp. 308
Contemporary Roles in Health-Care Settingsp. 309
Hospital Settingsp. 310
Long-Term Care Facilities and Nursing Homesp. 310
Community-Based Health Care Programsp. 310
Home Health Carep. 311
State Department of Health and Health-Planning Agenciesp. 311
Other Health-Care Settingsp. 312
Summaryp. 313
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 313
Discussion Questionsp. 314
On the Internetp. 314
Referencesp. 314
Suggested Further Readingsp. 319
The Needs of Children, Youth, and Familiesp. 320
What Is a Family?p. 322
How Are Families of Today Viewed?p. 323
What Is a Healthy Family?p. 323
How Are Family Problems Defined?p. 323
What Causes Families to Have Problems?p. 325
How Do Cultural and Gender Differences Affect Family Problems?p. 325
Changing Family Situationsp. 327
Divorce and Separationp. 328
Single Parentingp. 330
Gay and Lesbian Parentingp. 332
Stepparenting and Blended Familiesp. 332
Family Problems Affecting Childrenp. 334
Substance Abusep. 334
Spouse Abusep. 337
Child Maltreatmentp. 340
Problems Associated with Adolescentsp. 349
Summaryp. 353
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 354
Discussion Questionsp. 354
On the Internetp. 354
Referencesp. 355
Suggested Further Readingsp. 357
Services to Children, Youth, and Familiesp. 358
Current Philosophical Issuesp. 359
The Right to a Permanent, Nurturing Familyp. 359
Best Interests of the Childp. 360
Considerations before State Interventionp. 360
Preventing Family Disruption and Dysfunctionp. 361
How Accountable Are Parents?p. 361
Defining Services to Children, Youth, and Familiesp. 362
The History of Services to Children, Youth, and Familiesp. 364
Colonial Timesp. 364
The 19th Centuryp. 364
The Early 20th Centuryp. 365
The 1960s and 1970sp. 366
The Mid-1980s and the 1990sp. 368
Moving into the 21st Centuryp. 370
Preventive Services to Childrenp. 374
Natural Support Systemsp. 374
Home-Based Servicesp. 374
Parent Educationp. 375
Child Development and Child-Care Programsp. 375
Recreational, Religious, and Social Programsp. 376
Health and Family-Planning Programsp. 376
Educational Opportunitiesp. 376
School Social Workp. 377
Services to Children and Families at Riskp. 378
Health and Hospital Outreach Programsp. 379
Child Carep. 380
Homemaker Servicesp. 382
Crisis Intervention Programsp. 382
Counselingp. 382
Support and Self-Help Groupsp. 383
Volunteer and Outreach Programsp. 383
Child Protective Servicesp. 386
Investigations of Child Maltreatmentp. 386
Determination of Interventionp. 386
Typical Services Providedp. 387
Family Preservation Servicesp. 388
Substitute Carep. 389
Foster Carep. 390
Residential Treatmentp. 392
Adoptionp. 392
Child Welfare and Cultural Diversityp. 395
Child Welfare and the Futurep. 397
The Role of Social Workers in Providing Services to Children, Youth, and Familiesp. 398
Summaryp. 400
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 400
Discussion Questionsp. 400
On the Internetp. 401
Referencesp. 401
Suggested Further Readingsp. 404
Older Adults: Needs and Servicesp. 405
Physiological Agingp. 407
Behavior and Adaptation to Old Agep. 408
Theories of Agingp. 408
Continuity Theoryp. 409
Activity Theoryp. 409
Developmental Theoryp. 409
Exchange Theoryp. 409
Attitudes toward Growing Oldp. 410
Retirementp. 410
The Families of Older Adultsp. 414
Dying and Deathp. 416
Aging and Mental Healthp. 417
Income Securityp. 418
Health and Health-Care Servicesp. 421
Abuse and Neglectp. 421
Long-Term Carep. 423
Housingp. 426
Transportationp. 427
Older People of Colorp. 427
Services for Older Adultsp. 428
Social Work with Older Adultsp. 429
Summaryp. 430
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 430
Discussion Questionsp. 430
On the Internetp. 431
Referencesp. 431
Suggested Further Readingsp. 432
Criminal Justicep. 433
The Criminal Justice Systemp. 434
Legislative Componentp. 434
Law Enforcement Componentp. 435
Judicial Componentp. 435
Corrections Componentp. 438
The Juvenile Justice Systemp. 440
The Gault Decisionp. 440
Juvenile Justice Agenciesp. 441
Juvenile Courtsp. 441
Juvenile Correctionsp. 441
Dual System of Justicep. 442
Differential Treatment of Minority Youth in the Justice Systemp. 444
Alternatives to Get-Tough Policiesp. 446
Rehabilitationp. 448
Vocational Trainingp. 449
Work Releasep. 449
Financial Assistancep. 449
Prison Industriesp. 449
Treatmentp. 450
Issues in Rehabilitationp. 450
Crime Preventionp. 450
Views of Criminal Behaviorp. 452
Psychological Views of the Criminal Personalityp. 452
Social Views of Criminal Behaviorp. 452
Economic Rationale of Crimep. 453
Program Alternativesp. 453
The Role of Social Work in the Criminal Justice Systemp. 454
Summaryp. 455
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 455
Discussion Questionsp. 455
On the Internetp. 456
Referencesp. 456
Suggested Further Readingsp. 458
Social Work in Rural Settingsp. 459
Operational Definitionsp. 450
Limitations of Rural and Urban Classification Systemsp. 460
Defining What Is Ruralp. 461
Characteristics of Rural Populationsp. 461
Social Organization of Rural Communitiesp. 463
Support Services in Rural Communitiesp. 464
Social Problems and Needs in Rural Areasp. 465
Mental Healthp. 466
Health Carep. 468
Povertyp. 469
Older Adultsp. 469
Ethnic Compositionp. 469
The Rural Familyp. 471
The Crisis of the Small Farmerp. 471
Social Welfare in Rural Communitiesp. 472
Social Work in Rural Settingsp. 473
Rural Social Work as Generalist Practicep. 475
The Baccalaureate Social Worker and Rural Social Work Practicep. 476
Summaryp. 478
Key Terms and InfoTrac College Editionp. 478
Discussion Questionsp. 478
On the Internetp. 479
Referencesp. 479
Suggested Further Readingsp. 480
Social Work in the Workplacep. 481
A Historical Perspective on Work and Family Relationshipsp. 483
The Current Workforcep. 484
More Women in the Workforcep. 484
Single-Parent Familiesp. 485
Emerging Issuesp. 485
Greater Ethnic Diversity within the Workforcep. 486
Types of Jobs Availablep. 487
The Changing Nature of Work and the Workplacep. 488
Unemployment and Underemploymentp. 489
Changing Attitudes and Values toward Workp. 490
The Impact of Changes on Employees and Their Familiesp. 492
Balancing Work and Family Lifep. 493
Increased Stressp. 494
Relocationp. 494
Financial Problemsp. 495
Family and Medical Leave Actp. 496
Accidents and Other Occupational Hazardsp. 496
Violence in the Workplacep. 497
Sexual Harassmentp. 498
Child Care for Working Parentsp. 499
Care of Elderly Parentsp. 500
Changing Expectations about Work and Family Lifep. 501
Implications for the Mental Health of Employees and Their Familiesp. 501
Implications for the Workplacep. 501
Increased Demands on Employersp. 502
Affiliation Needsp. 502
Addressing Work and Family Problems: Whose Responsibility?p. 502
Employee Assistance Programsp. 503
Dependent-Care Programsp. 505
Social Work in the Workplacep. 507
Industrial Social Workp. 507
Occupational Social Workp. 509
Social Work in the Changing Workplacep. 510
Applying a Systems/Ecological Perspectivep. 511
Service Modelsp. 511
Summaryp. 513
Key Terms and Infotrac College Editionp. 513
Discussion Questionsp. 514
On the Internetp. 514
Referencesp. 514
Suggested Further Readingsp. 517
The Globalization of Social Workp. 518
A Changed Worldp. 519
International Social Welfare and Globalizationp. 520
Responding to the Challenge of Globalizationp. 521
Children and Human Rightsp. 526
Povertyp. 527
Armed Conflictp. 527
HIV/AIDSp. 527
Other Risks Faced by Childrenp. 527
International Efforts to Alleviate the Plight of Childrenp. 528
The Plight of World Refugeesp. 529
Immigration in the United Statesp. 530
Lawful Entryp. 530
Unlawful Entryp. 531
A Brief History of U.S. Immigration Policy and Legislationp. 531
The International Federation of Social Workersp. 534
International Social Work Organizations and Agenciesp. 536
A Look to the Futurep. 538
The Past as Prologuep. 538
The Challenges of Todayp. 539
Trends in Social Work Careersp. 542
Summaryp. 544
Key Terms and Infotrac College Editionp. 545
Discussion Questionsp. 545
On the Internetp. 546
Referencesp. 546
Suggested Further Readingsp. 548
A Final Word to Our Readersp. 549
Glossaryp. 550
Indexp. 568
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