Society : The Basics

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  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-09-23
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

Society: The Basics is designed to help students view their everyday lives through a sociological lens. With a strong theoretical framework and a global perspective, Society offers students an accessible and relevant introduction to sociology.

In Society: The Basics, Eleventh Edition, John J. Macionis shares his enthusiasm and teaching experience with a clear and engaging approach.

This is just the standalone book.

"This text uses current events to provide examples or expansion of the concepts." -Jody Nedley Newcomb Southwestern Community College

"The Making the Grade at the end of each chapter is listed with page numbers so students can easily find the information is strength."-Jody Nedley Newcomb Southwestern Community College

"The 3 main strengths are its readability, quality and timeliness of information, and organization." -Lee Reineck Stautzenberger College

"Good relationship between theory & practice (everyday life)."-Karla McLucas Bennett College for Women

Author Biography

John J. Macionis was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He earned a bachelor’s degree from Cornell University and a doctorate in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania.


John Macionis' publications are wide-ranging, focusing on community life in the United States, interpersonal intimacy in families, effective teaching, humor, new information technology, and the importance of global education.


In addition, John Macionis and Nijole V. Benokraitis have edited the best-selling anthology Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology. Macionis and Vincent Parrillo have written the leading urban studies text, Cities and Urban Life (Pearson). Macionis’ most recent textbook is Social Problems (Pearson).


John Macionis is Professor and Distinguished Scholar of Sociology at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, where he has taught for almost thirty years. During that time, he has chaired the Sociology Department, directed the college’s multidisciplinary program in humane studies, presided over the campus senate and the college’s faculty, and taught sociology to thousands of students.


In 2002, the American Sociological Association presented Macionis with the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Teaching, citing his innovative use of global material as well as the introduction of new teaching technology in his textbooks.


Professor Macionis has been active in academic programs in other countries, having traveled to some fifty nations. He writes, “I am an ambitious traveler, eager to learn and, through the texts, to share much of what I discover with students, many of whom know little about the rest of the world. For me, traveling and writing are all dimensions of teaching. First, and foremost, I am a teacher–a passion for teaching animates everything I do.”


At Kenyon, Macionis teaches a number of courses, but his favorite class is Introduction to Sociology, which he offers every semester. He enjoys extensive contact with students and invites everyone enrolled in each of his classes to enjoy a home-cooked meal.


The Macionis family–John, Amy, and children McLean and Whitney–live on a farm in rural Ohio. In his free time, Macionis enjoys tennis, swimming, hiking, and playing oldies rock-and-roll (he recently released his first CD). Macionis is as an environmental activist in the Lake George region of New York’s Adirondack Mountains, working with a number of organizations, including the Lake George Land Conservancy, where he serves as president of the board of trustees.

Table of Contents









Chapter 1: Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method

Chapter 2: Culture

Chapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age  

Chapter 4: Social Interaction in Everyday Life

Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations

Chapter 6: Sexuality and Society

Chapter 7: Deviance

Chapter 8: Social Stratification

Chapter 9: Global Stratification

Chapter 10: Gender Stratification

Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity 

Chapter 12: Economics and Politics

Chapter 13: Family and Religion

Chapter 14: Education, Health, and Medicine

Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization, and Environment

Chapter 16: Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies





Chapter 1: Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method

The Sociological Perspective

    Seeing the General in the Particular

    Seeing the Strange in the Familiar

    Seeing Society in Our Everyday Lives

    Seeing Sociologically: Marginality and Crisis

The Importance of a Global Perspective

Applying the Sociological Perspective

    Sociology and Public Policy

    Sociology and Personal Growth

    Careers: The "Sociology Advantage"

The Origins of Sociology

    Social Change and Sociology

    Science and Sociology

Sociological Theory

    Seeing Sociology in the News "In Poor Economy, Laid-off Workers Flocking to Community Colleges"

    The Structural-Functional Approach

    The Social-Conflict Approach

    Feminism and the Gender-Conflict Approach

    The Race-Conflict Approach

    The Symbolic-Interaction Approach

Three Ways to Do Sociology

    Positivist Sociology

    Interpretive Sociology

    Critical Sociology

Research Orientations and Theory

Gender and Research

Research Ethics

Research Methods

    Testing a Hypothesis: The Experiment

    Asking Questions: Survey Research

    In the Field: Participant Observation

    Using Available Data: Existing Sources

Putting It All Together: Ten Steps in Sociological Research

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

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    Visual Summary


Chapter 2: Culture

What Is Culture?

    Culture and Human Intelligence

    How Many Cultures?

The Elements of Culture



    Values and Beliefs


    Ideal and Real Culture

Technology and Culture

    Hunting and Gathering

    Horticulture and Pastoralism



    Postindustrial Information Technology

Cultural Diversity

    High Culture and Popular Culture




    Cultural Change

    Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism

    Seeing Sociology in the News "US Troops Train for Both Combat and Conversation"

    A Global Culture?

Theoretical Analysis of Culture

    The Functions of Culture: Structural-Functional Analysis

    Inequality and Culture: Social-Conflict Analysis

    Evolution and Culture: Sociobiology

Culture and Human Freedom

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

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    Visual Summary


Chapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age

Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity

    Human Development: Nature and Nurture

    Social Isolation

Understanding Socialization

    Sigmund Freuds's Elements of Personality

    Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

    Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development

    Carol Gilligan's Theory of Gender and Moral Development

    George Herbert Mead's Theory of the Social Self

    Erik H. Erikson's Eight Stages of Development

Agents of Socialization

    The Family

    The School

    The Peer Group

    The Mass Media

    Seeing Sociology in the News "The Children of Cyberspace: Old Fogies by Their Twenties"

Socialization and the Life Course




    Old Age

    Death and Dying

    The Life Course: Patterns and Variations

Resocialization: Total Institutions

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

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    Visual Summary


Chapter 4: Social Interaction in Everyday Life

Social Structure: A Guide to Everyday Living


    Ascribed and Achieved Status

    Master Status


    Role Conflict and Role Strain

    Role Exit

The Social Construction of Reality

    Seeing Sociology in the News "For Teenagers, Hello Means 'How about a Hug?'"

    "Street Smarts"

    The Thomas Theorem


    Reality Building: Class and Culture

Dramaturgical Analysis: The "Presentation of Self"


    Nonverbal Communication

    Gender Performances


    Embarrassment and Tact

Interaction in Everyday Life: Three Applications

    Emotions: The Social Construction of Feeling

    Language: The Social Construction of Gender

    Reality Play: The Social Construction of Humor

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

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    Visual Summary


Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations

Social Groups

    Primary and Secondary Groups

    Group Leadership

    Group Conformity

    Reference Groups

    In-Groups and Out-Groups

    Group Size

    Social Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender


Formal Organizations

    Types of Organizations

    Origins of Formal Organizations

    Characteristics of Bureaucracy

    Organizational Environment

    The Informal Side of Bureaucracy

    Problems of Bureaucracy

    Seeing Sociology in the News "Professor Suspended after Joke about Killing Students on Facebook"

The Evolution of Formal Organizations

    Scientific Management

    The First Challenge: Race and Gender

    The Second Challenge: The Japanese Work Organization

    The Third Challenge: The Changing Nature of Work

    The "McDonaldization" of Society

The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

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Chapter 6: Sexuality and Society

Understanding Sexuality

    Sex: A Biological Issue

    Sex and the Body

    Sex: A Cultural Issue

    The Incest Taboo

Sexual Attitudes in the United States

    The Sexual Revolution

    The Sexual Counterrevolution

    Premarital Sex

    Sex Between Adults

    Extramarital Sex

    Sex over the Life Course

Sexual Orientation

    What Gives Us a Sexual Orientation?

    How Many Gay People Are There?

    The Gay Rights Movement

    Seeing Sociology in the News "Making a Prom Date Changes His Fate"

Sexual Issues and Controversies

    Teen Pregnancy



    Sexual Violence: Rape and Date Rape

Theoretical Analysis of Sexuality

    Structural-Functional Analysis

    Symbolic-Interaction Analysis

    Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

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    Visual Summary

    Sample Test Questions


Chapter 7: Deviance

What is Deviance?

    Social Control

    The Biological Context

    Personality Factors

    The Social Foundation of Deviance

The Functions of Deviance: Structural-Functional Analysis

    Durkheim's Basic Insight

    Merton's Strain Theory

    Deviant Subcultures

Labeling Deviance: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis

    Seeing Sociology in the News "Ex-Employees Turn to Cyber Crime after Layoffs"

    Labeling Theory

    The Medicalization of Deviance

    Sutherland's Differential Association Theory

    Hirschi's Control Theory

Deviance and Inequality: Social-Conflict Analysis

    Deviance and Power

    Deviance and Capitalism

    White-Collar Crime

    Organized Crime

Deviance, Race, and Gender

    Hate Crimes

    The Feminist Perspective: Deviance and Gender


    Types of Crime

    Criminal Statistics

    The Street Criminal: A Profile

    Crime in Global Perspective

The U.S. Criminal Justice System

    Due Process




    The Death Penalty

    Community-Based Corrections

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

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    Visual Summary


Chapter 8: Social Stratification

What is Social Stratification?

Caste and Class Systems

    The Caste System

    The Class System

    Caste and Class: The United Kingdom

    Classless Societies? The Former Soviet Union

    China: Emerging Social Classes

    Ideology: The Power Behind Stratification

The Functions of Social Stratification

    The Davis-Moore Thesis

Stratification and Conflict

    Karl Marx: Class Conflict

    Why No Marxist Revolution?

    Max Weber: Class, Status, and Power

Stratification and Interaction

Stratification and Technology: A Global Perspective

    Hunting and Gathering Societies

    Horticultural, Pastoral, and Agrarian Societies

    Industrial Societies

    The Kuznets Curve

Inequality in the United States

    Income, Wealth, and Power

    Occupational Prestige


    Ancestry, Race, and Gender

Social Classes in the United States

    The Upper Class

    The Middle Class

    The Working Class

    The Lower Class

The Difference Class Makes


    Values and Attitudes


    Family and Gender

Social Mobility

    Myth versus Reality

    Mobility by Income Level

    Mobility: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender

    Mobility and Marriage

    The American Dream: Still a Reality?

    Seeing Sociology in the News "Waking Up from American Dreams"

    The Global Economy and U.S. Class Structure

Poverty in the United States

    The Extent of Poverty

    Who Are the Poor?

    Explaining Poverty

    The Working Poor


    Class, Welfare, Politics, and Values

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    Visual Summary


Chapter 9: Global Stratification

Global Stratification: An Overview

    A World about Terminology

    High-Income Countries

    Middle-Income Countries

    Low-Income Countries

Global Wealth and Poverty

    The Severity of Poverty

    The Extent of Poverty

    Poverty and Children

    Seeing Sociology in the News "The Child Catchers"

    Poverty and Women


    Explanations of Global Poverty

Global Stratification: Theoretical Analysis

    Modernization Theory

    Dependency Theory

Global Stratification: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

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Chapter 10: Gender Stratification

Gender and Inequality

    Male-Female Differences

    Gender in Global Perspective

    Patriarchy and Sexism

Gender and Socialization

    Gender and the Family

    Gender and the Peer Group

    Gender and Schooling

    Gender and the Mass Media

Gender and Social Stratification

    Working Women and Men

    Seeing Sociology in the News "Women on Board: Breaking the 'Bamboo Ceiling'"

    Gender, Income, and Wealth

    Housework: Women's "Second Shift"

    Gender and Education

    Gender and Politics

    Gender and the Military

    Are Women a Minority?

    Minority Women: Intersection Theory

    Violence against Women

    Violence against Men

    Sexual Harassment


Theoretical Analysis of Gender

    Structural-Functional Analysis

    Social-Conflict Analysis


    Basic Feminist Ideas

    Types of Feminism

    Opposition to Feminism

Gender: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

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    Visual Summary


Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity




Prejudice and Stereotypes

    Measuring Prejudice: The Social Distance Scale


    Theories of Prejudice


    Seeing Sociology in the News "In Job Hunt, College Degree Can't Close Racial Gap"

    Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination

    Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Circle

Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction





Race and Ethnicity in the United States

    Native Americans

    White Anglo-Saxon Protestants

    African Americans

    Asian Americans

    Hispanic Americans/Latinos

    Arab Americans

    White Ethnic Americans

Race and Ethnicity: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

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    Visual Summary


Chapter 12: Economics and Politics

The Economy: Historical Overview

    The Agricultural Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution

    The Information Revolution and Postindustrial Society

    Sectors of the Economy

    The Global Economy

Economic Systems: Paths to Justice



    Welfare Capitalism and State Capitalism

    Relative Advantages of Capitalism and Socialism

    Changes in Socialist and Capitalist Countries

Work in the Postindustrial U.S. Economy

    The Changing Workplace

    Labor Unions



    Unemployment and Underemployment

    Workplace Diversity: Race and Gender

    New Information Technology and Work


    Economic Concentration

    Conglomerates and Corporate Linkages

    Corporation: Are They Competitive?

    Corporations and the Global Economy

The Economy: Looking Ahead

Politics: Historical Overview

Politics in Global Perspective





    A Global Political System?

Politics in the United States

    U.S. Culture and the Rise of the Welfare State

    The Political Spectrum

    Party Identification

    Special-Interest Groups

    Voter Apathy

    Should Convicted Criminals Vote?

Theoretical Analysis of Power in Society

    The Pluralist Mode: The People Rule

    The Power-Elite Model: A Few People Rule

    The Marxist Model: The System Is Biased

Power beyond the Rules



War and Peace

    The Causes of War

    Social Class and the Military

    Seeing Sociology in the News "GI Jane Breaks the Combat Barrier"

    Is Terrorism a New Kind of War?

    The Costs and Causes of Militarism

    Nuclear Weapons

    Mass Media and War

    Pursuing Peace

Politics: Looking Ahead

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    Visual Summary


Chapter 13: Family and Religion

Family: Basic Concepts

Family: Global Variations

    Marriage Patterns

    Residential Patterns

    Patterns of Descent

    Patterns of Authority

Theoretical Analysis of Families

    Functions of Family: Structural-Functional Analysis

    Inequality and Family: Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis

    Constructing Family Life: Micro-Level Analysis

Stages of Family Life

    Courtship and Romantic Love

    Seeing Sociology in the News "Prenuptial Agreements: Unromantic, but Necessary"

    Settling In: Ideal and Real Marriage

    Child Rearing

    The Family in Later Life

U.S. Families: Class, Race, and Gender

    Social Class

    Ethnicity and Race


Transitions and Problems in Family Life


    Remarriage and Blended Families

    Family Violence

Alternative Family Forms

    One-Parent Families


    Gay and Lesbian Couples


New Reproductive Technologies and Family

Families: Looking Ahead

Religion: Basic Concepts

Theoretical Analysis of Religion

    Functions of Religion: Structural-Functional Analysis

    Constructing the Sacred: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis

    Inequality and Religion: Social-Conflict Analysis

Religion and Social Change

    Max Weber: Protestantism and Capitalism

    Liberation Theology

Types of Religious Organization




Religion in History

Religion in the United States

    Religious Commitment

    Religion: Class, Ethnicity, and Race

Religion in a Changing Society

    Changing Affiliation


    Civil Religion

    "New Age" Seekers: Spirituality without Formal Religion

    Religious Revival: "Good Old-Time Religion"

Religion: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

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Chapter 14: Education, Health, and Medicine

Education: A Global Survey

    Schooling and Economic Development

    Schooling in India

    Schooling in Japan

    Schooling in the United States

The Functions of Schooling

Schooling and Social Interaction

    The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Schooling and Social Inequality

    Public and Private Education

    Access to Higher Education

    Greater Opportunity: Expanding Higher Education

    Seeing Sociology in the News "New Meaning for Night Classes at Two-Year Colleges"

    Privilege and Personal Merit

Problems in the Schools

    Discipline and Violence

    Student Passivity

    Dropping Out

    Academic Standards

    Grade Inflation

Issues in U.S. Education

    School Choice

    Home Schooling

    Schooling People with Disabilities

    Adult Education

    The Teacher Shortage

Schooling: Looking Ahead

Health and Medicine

    Health and Society

Health: A Global Survey

    Health in Low-Income Countries

    Health in High-Income Countries

Health in the United States

    Who Is Healthy? Age, Gender, Class, and Race

    Cigarette Smoking

    Eating Disorders


    Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Ethical Issues Surrounding Death

The Medical Establishment

    The Rise of Scientific Medicine

    Holistic Medicine

    Paying for Medical Care: The United States

    The Nursing Shortage

Theoretical Analysis of Health and Medicine

    Structural-Functional Analysis: Role Theory

    Symbolic-Interaction Analysis: The Meaning of Health

    Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis

Health and Medicine: Looking Ahead

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life

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    Visual Summary


Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization, and Environment

Demography: The Study of Population




    Population Growth

    Population Composition

History and Theory of Population Growth

    Malthusian Theory

    Demographic Transition Theory

    Global Population Today: A Brief Summary

Urbanization: The Growth of Cities

    The Evolution of Cities

    The Growth of U.S. Cities

    Suburbs and Urban Decline

    Sunbelt Cities and Urban Sprawl

    Megalopolis: The Regional City

    Edge Cities

    The Rural Rebound

Urbanism as a Way of Life

    Ferdinand Tönnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft      

    Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity

    Georg Simmel: The Blasé Urbanite      

    The Chicago School: Robert Park and Louis Wirth

    Urban Ecology

    Urban Political Economy

Urbanization in Poor Nations

Environment and Society

    The Global Dimension

    Technology and the Environmental Deficit

    Seeing Sociology in the News "Boyz Under the Hood"

    Culture: Growth and Limits

    Solid Waste: The Disposable Society

    Water and Air

    The Rain Forests

    Environmental Racism

Looking Ahead: Toward a Sustainable Society and World

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Chapter 16: Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies

What Is Social Change?

Causes of Social Change

    Culture and Change

    Conflict and Change

    Ideas and Change

    Demographic Change

    Social Movements and Change

    Seeing Sociology in the News "Facebook Helps Spark Movements"

    Disasters: Unexpected Change


    Ferdinand Tönnies: The Loss of Community

    Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor

    Max Weber: Rationalization

    Karl Marx: Capitalism

Structural-Functional Analysis: Modernity as Mass Society

    The Mass Scale of Modern Life

    The Ever Expanding State

Social-Conflict Analysis: Modernity as Class Society


    Persistent Inequality

Modernity and the Individual

    Mass Society: Problems of Identity

    Class Society: Problems of Powerlessness

Modernity and Progress

Modernity: Global Variation


Looking Ahead: Modernization and Our Global Future

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

The Used, Rental and eBook copies of this book are not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

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