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Society : The Basics,9780131922440

Society : The Basics

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780131922440

ISBN10:
0131922440
Media:
Paperback w/CD
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $96.20

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Summary

Placing an emphasis on global perspectives and current research, this wide praised and adopted sociology textbook introduces the reader to the field of sociology. & John Macionis, like many people, took a college course that shaped his life. His first sociology course helped him make sense of the world. John shares his enthusiasm, excitement, and teaching experience through a clear and engaging writing style and emphasis on sociology's relevance to everyday life.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
About the Author xxxi
Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method
1(33)
The Sociological Perspective
2(6)
Seeing the General in the Particular
2(1)
Seeing the Strange in the Familiar
2(2)
Seeing Individuality in Social Context
4(1)
Benefits of the Sociological Perspective
5(1)
Applied Sociology
6(1)
The Importance of a Global Perspective
6(2)
The Origins of Sociology
8(3)
Social Change and Sociology
8(1)
Science and Sociology
9(1)
Gender and Race: Marginal Voices
10(1)
Sociological Theory
11(4)
The Structural-Functional Approach
11(1)
The Social-Conflict Approach
12(1)
The Symbolic-Interaction Approach
13(2)
Three Ways to do Sociology
15(4)
Scientific Sociology
15(3)
Interpretive Sociology
18(1)
Critical Sociology
19(1)
Methods and Theory
19(1)
Research Ethics
19(1)
Gender and Research
20(1)
Research Methods
20(8)
Testing a Hypothesis: The Experiment
20(2)
Asking Questions: The Survey
22(3)
In the Field: Participant Observation
25(1)
Using Available Data: Existing Sources
26(2)
Putting it all Together: Ten Steps in Sociological Research
28(6)
Summary
30(1)
Key Concepts
30(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
31(1)
Applications and Exercises
31(1)
Sites to See
32(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
32(1)
Military Mirrors Working-Class America
33(1)
Culture
34(28)
What is Culture?
36(3)
Culture and Human Intelligence
38(1)
The Components of Culture
39(5)
Symbols
40(1)
Language
40(3)
Values and Beliefs
43(1)
Norms
44(1)
Ideal and Real Culture
44(1)
Technology and Culture
44(2)
Hunting and Gathering
45(1)
Horticulture and Pastoralism
45(1)
Agriculture
46(1)
Industry
46(1)
Postindustrial Information Technology
46(1)
Cultural Diversity
46(8)
High Culture and Popular Culture
47(1)
Subculture
48(1)
Multiculturalism
49(2)
Counterculture
51(1)
Cultural Change
51(1)
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism
52(2)
A Global Culture?
54(1)
Theoretical Analysis of Culture
54(3)
Structural-Functional Analysis
54(1)
Social-Conflict Analysis
55(1)
Sociobiology
56(1)
Culture and Human Freedom
57(5)
Summary
59(1)
Key Concepts
59(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
60(1)
Applications and Exercises
60(1)
Sites to See
60(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
60(1)
Cultural Divide over Parental Discipline
61(1)
Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age
62(24)
Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity
64(2)
Human Development: Nature and Nurture
64(1)
Social Isolation
65(1)
Understanding Socialization
66(5)
Sigmund Freud's Elements of Personality
66(1)
Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
67(1)
Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
68(1)
Carol Gilligan's Theory of Gender and Moral Development
68(1)
George Herbert Mead's Theory of the Social Self
68(2)
Erik H. Erikson's Eight Stages of Development
70(1)
Agents of Socialization
71(4)
The Family
71(1)
The School
72(1)
The Peer Group
72(1)
The Mass Media
72(3)
Socialization and the Life Course
75(6)
Childhood
75(1)
Adolescence
76(1)
Adulthood
76(1)
Old Age
77(2)
Death and Dying
79(1)
The Life Course: Patterns and Variations
80(1)
Resocialization: Total Institutions
81(5)
Summary
82(1)
Key Concepts
83(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
83(1)
Applications and Exercises
84(1)
Sites to See
84(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
84(1)
Elderly Immigrants Embrace Nursing Homes
85(1)
Social Interaction in Everyday Life
86(22)
Social Structure: A Guide to Everyday Living
88(1)
Status
89(1)
Ascribed and Achieved Status
89(1)
Master Status
89(1)
Role
90(2)
Role Conflict and Role Strain
90(1)
Role Exit
90(2)
The Social Construction of Reality
92(3)
``Street Smarts''
92(1)
The Thomas Theorem
93(1)
Ethnomethodology
93(1)
Reality Building: Class and Culture
94(1)
Dramaturgical Analysis: ``The Presentation of Self''
95(4)
Performances
95(1)
Nonverbal Communication
96(1)
Gender and Performances
97(1)
Idealization
98(1)
Embarrassment and Tact
98(1)
Interaction in Everyday Life: Three Applications
99(9)
Emotions: The Social Construction of Feeling
99(2)
Language: The Social Construction of Gender
101(2)
Reality Play: The Social Construction of Humor
103(3)
Summary
106(1)
Key Concepts
106(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
107(1)
Applications and Exercises
107(1)
Sites to See
107(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
107(1)
Groups and Organizations
108(26)
Social Groups
110(8)
Primary and Secondary Groups
110(2)
Group Leadership
112(1)
Group Conformity
113(1)
Reference Groups
114(1)
In-Groups and Out-Groups
115(1)
Group Size
115(1)
Social Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender
116(1)
Networks
116(2)
Formal Organizations
118(5)
Types of Formal Organizations
119(1)
Origins of Bureaucracy
119(1)
Characteristics of Bureaucracy
120(1)
Organizational Environment
120(1)
The Informal Side of Bureaucracy
121(1)
Problems of Bureaucracy
122(1)
The Evolution of Formal Organizations
123(7)
Scientific Management
123(1)
The First Challenge: Race and Gender
124(1)
The Second Challenge: The Japanese Work Organization
125(1)
The Third Challenge: The Changing Nature of Work
125(2)
The ``McDonaldization'' of Society
127(3)
The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends
130(4)
Summary
130(1)
Key Concepts
131(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
132(1)
Applications and Exercises
132(1)
Sites to See
132(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
132(1)
Snoop Software Gains Power and Raises Privacy Concerns
133(1)
Sexuality and Society
134(26)
Understanding Sexuality
136(4)
Sex: A Biological Issue
136(1)
Sex and the Body
137(1)
Sex: A Cultural Issue
138(1)
The Incest Taboo
139(1)
Sexual Attitudes in the United States
140(3)
The Sexual Revolution
140(1)
The Sexual Counterrevolution
141(2)
Premarital Sex
143(1)
Sex between Adults
143(1)
Extramarital Sex
143(1)
Sexual Orientation
143(3)
What Gives Us a Sexual Orientation?
144(1)
How Many Gay People Are There?
145(1)
The Gay Rights Movement
146(1)
Sexual Controversies
146(6)
Teen Pregnancy
146(1)
Pornography
147(1)
Prostitution
148(2)
Sexual Violence: Rape and Date Rape
150(2)
Theoretical Analysis of Sexuality
152(8)
Structural-Functional Analysis
152(1)
Symbolic-Interaction Analysis
153(1)
Social-Conflict Analysis
154(2)
Summary
156(1)
Key Concepts
157(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
157(1)
Applications and Exercises
158(1)
Sites to See
158(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
158(1)
The Skin Wars Start Earlier and Earlier
159(1)
Deviance
160(30)
What is Deviance?
162(2)
The Biological Context
163(1)
Personality Factors
164(1)
The Social Foundations of Deviance
164(1)
The Functions of Deviance: Structural-Functional Analysis
164(3)
Durkheim's Basic Insight
165(1)
Merton's Strain Theory
165(1)
Deviant Subcultures
166(1)
Labeling Deviance: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis
167(4)
Labeling Theory
167(1)
Primary and Secondary Deviance
167(1)
Stigma
168(1)
Labeling Difference as Deviance
169(1)
The Medicalization of Deviance
169(1)
Sutherland's Differential Association Theory
170(1)
Hirschi's Control Theory
170(1)
Deviance and Inequality: Social-Conflict Analysis
171(2)
Deviance and Power
171(1)
Deviance and Capitalism
171(1)
White-Collar Crime
172(1)
Corporate Crime
172(1)
Organized Crime
172(1)
Deviance, Race, and Gender
173(2)
Hate Crimes
173(1)
Deviance and Gender
174(1)
Crime
175(4)
Types of Crime
175(2)
Criminal Statistics
177(1)
The Street Criminal: A Profile
177(1)
Crime in Global Perspective
178(1)
The U.S. Criminal Justice System
179(11)
Due Process
180(1)
Police
181(1)
Courts
181(1)
Punishment
182(2)
Community-Based Corrections
184(2)
Summary
186(2)
Key Concepts
188(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
188(1)
Applications and Exercises
188(1)
Sites to See
189(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
189(1)
Social Stratification
190(34)
What is Social Stratification?
192(1)
Caste and Class Systems
193(5)
The Caste System
193(2)
The Class System
195(1)
Classless Societies?
196(2)
Ideology: The Power behind Stratification
198(1)
The Functions of Social Stratification
198(2)
The Davis-Moore Thesis
199(1)
Stratification and Conflict
200(3)
Karl Marx: Class Conflict
200(1)
Why No Marxist Revolution?
201(1)
Max Weber: Class, Status, and Power
202(1)
Stratification and Technology: A Global Perspective
203(2)
Inequality in the United States
205(3)
Income, Wealth, and Power
205(1)
Occupational Prestige
206(1)
Schooling
206(1)
Ancestry, Race, and Gender
207(1)
Social Class in the United States
208(2)
The Upper Class
208(1)
The Middle Class
209(1)
The Working Class
209(1)
The Lower Class
210(1)
The Difference Class Makes
210(1)
Health
210(1)
Values and Attitudes
210(1)
Politics
210(1)
Family and Gender
211(1)
Social Mobility
211(4)
Myth versus Reality
211(1)
Mobility by Income Level
212(1)
Mobility: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender
212(1)
The American Dream: Still a Reality?
213(2)
The Global Economy and the U.S. Class Structure
215(1)
Poverty in the United States
215(9)
The Extent of Poverty
216(1)
Who Are the Poor?
216(1)
Explaining Poverty
217(3)
Homelessness
220(1)
Class, Welfare, Politics, and Values
220(1)
Summary
221(1)
Key Concepts
221(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
222(1)
Applications and Exercises
222(1)
Sites to See
222(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
222(1)
Are Those Leaving Welfare Better Off Now? Yes and No
223(1)
Global Stratification
224(26)
Global Stratification: An Overview
227(4)
A Word about Terminology
227(1)
High-Income Countries
228(1)
Middle-Income Countries
229(1)
Low-Income Countries
229(2)
Global Wealth and Poverty
231(7)
The Severity of Poverty
231(2)
The Extent of Poverty
233(1)
Poverty and Children
234(1)
Poverty and Women
234(1)
Slavery
235(1)
Correlates of Global Poverty
236(2)
Global Stratification: Theoretical Analysis
238(6)
Modernization Theory
238(3)
Dependency Theory
241(3)
Global Stratification: Looking Ahead
244(6)
Summary
247(1)
Key Concepts
247(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
248(1)
Applications and Exercises
248(1)
Sites to See
248(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
248(1)
Brazilian Slums Seen as Pawns in Political Games
249(1)
Gender Stratification
250(28)
Gender and Inequality
252(4)
Male-Female Differences
252(1)
Gender in Global Perspective
253(1)
Patriarchy and Sexism
254(2)
Gender and Socialization
256(2)
Gender and the Family
256(1)
Gender and the Peer Group
257(1)
Gender and Schooling
257(1)
Gender and the Mass Media
257(1)
Gender and Social Stratification
258(10)
Working Women and Men
258(3)
Housework: Women's ``Second Shift''
261(1)
Gender, Income, and Wealth
261(2)
Gender and Education
263(1)
Gender and Politics
263(1)
Gender and the Military
264(1)
Are Women a Minority?
264(1)
Minority Women: Intersection Theory
264(1)
Violence against Women
265(3)
Theoretical Analysis of Gender
268(2)
Structural-Functional Analysis
268(1)
Social-Conflict Analysis
269(1)
Feminism
270(3)
Basic Feminist Ideas
270(1)
Types of Feminism
271(1)
Opposition to Feminism
271(2)
Looking Ahead: Gender in the Twenty-First Century
273(5)
Summary
274(1)
Key Concepts
275(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
275(1)
Applications and Exercises
276(1)
Sites to See
276(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
276(1)
Still a Gender Wage Gap
277(1)
Race and Ethnicity
278(30)
The Social Meaning of Race and Ethnicity
280(10)
Race
280(2)
Ethnicity
282(1)
Minorities
282(1)
Prejudice and Stereotypes
283(1)
Measuring Prejudice: The Social Distance Scale
284(3)
Racism
287(1)
Theories of Prejudice
287(2)
Discrimination
289(1)
Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination
289(1)
Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Circle
290(1)
Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction
290(3)
Pluralism
290(1)
Assimilation
291(1)
Segregation
291(1)
Genocide
292(1)
Race and Ethnicity in the United States
293(10)
Native Americans
293(1)
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants
294(1)
African Americans
295(2)
Asian Americans
297(3)
Hispanic Americans
300(3)
White Ethnic Americans
303(1)
Race and Ethnicity: Looking Ahead
303(5)
Summary
306(1)
Key Concepts
306(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
307(1)
Applications and Exercises
307(1)
Sites to See
307(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
307(1)
Economics and Politics
308(36)
The Economy: Historical Overview
310(4)
The Agricultural Revolution
310(1)
The Industrial Revolution
311(1)
The Information Revolution and Postindustrial Society
312(1)
Sectors of the Economy
312(1)
The Global Economy
313(1)
Economic Systems: Paths to Justice
314(3)
Capitalism
314(1)
Socialism
315(1)
Welfare Capitalism and State Capitalism
316(1)
Relative Advantages of Capitalism and Socialism
316(1)
Changes in Socialist Countries
317(1)
Work in the Postindustrial Economy
317(4)
The Changing Workplace
317(1)
Labor Unions
318(1)
Professions
318(1)
Self-Employment
319(1)
Unemployment
319(1)
Workplace Diversity: Race and Gender
320(1)
New Information Technology and Work
320(1)
Corporations
321(3)
Economic Concentration
322(1)
Corporate Linkages
322(1)
Corporations: Are They Competitive?
322(1)
Corporations and the Global Economy
322(2)
Looking Ahead: The Economy of the Twenty-First Century
324(1)
Politics: Historical Overview
324(1)
Global Political Systems
325(4)
Monarchy
326(1)
Democracy
326(1)
Authoritarianism
326(2)
Totalitarianism
328(1)
A Global Political System?
328(1)
Politics in the United States
329(3)
U.S. Culture and the Rise of the Welfare State
329(1)
The Political Spectrum
329(1)
Party Identification
330(1)
Special-Interest Groups
331(1)
Voter Apathy
331(1)
Nonvoting by Convicted Criminals
332(1)
Theoretical Analysis of Politics
332(2)
The Pluralist Model: The People Rule
332(1)
The Power-Elite Model: A Few People Rule
333(1)
The Marxist Model: Bias in the System Itself
333(1)
Power Beyond the Rules
334(1)
Revolution
334(1)
Terrorism
335(1)
War and Peace
335(9)
The Causes of War
336(1)
Is Terrorism a New Kind of War?
336(1)
The Costs and Causes of Militarism
337(1)
Nuclear Weapons
337(1)
Mass Media and War
337(1)
Pursuing Peace
338(1)
Looking Ahead: Politics in the Twenty-First Century
338(2)
Summary
340(1)
Key Concepts
340(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
341(1)
Applications and Exercises
341(1)
Sites to See
342(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
342(1)
Rewards of a 90-Hour Week: Poverty and Dirty Laundry
343(1)
Family and Religion
344(36)
The Family: Basic Concepts
346(1)
The Family: Global Variations
347(2)
Marriage Patterns
347(2)
Residential Patterns
349(1)
Patterns of Descent
349(1)
Patterns of Authority
349(1)
Theoretical Analysis of the Family
349(2)
Functions of the Family: Structural-Functional Analysis
349(1)
Inequality and the Family: Social-Conflict Analysis
350(1)
Constructing Family Life: Micro-Level Analysis
350(1)
Stages of Family Life
351(3)
Courtship and Romantic Love
351(2)
Settling In: Ideal and Real Marriage
353(1)
Child Rearing
353(1)
The Family in Later Life
354(1)
U.S. Families: Class, Race, and Gender
354(3)
Social Class
354(1)
Ethnicity and Race
355(1)
Gender
356(1)
Transitions and Problems in Family Life
357(2)
Divorce
357(1)
Remarriage
358(1)
Family Violence
358(1)
Alternative Family Forms
359(4)
One-Parent Families
359(1)
Cohabitation
359(1)
Gay and Lesbian Couples
360(1)
Singlehood
360(1)
New Reproductive Technology
361(1)
Looking Ahead: The Family in the Twenty-First Century
361(2)
Religion: Basic Concepts
363(1)
Theoretical Analysis of Religion
364(2)
Functions of Religion: Structural-Functional Analysis
364(1)
Constructing the Sacred: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis
365(1)
Inequality and Religion: Social-Conflict Analysis
365(1)
Religion and Social Change
366(1)
Max Weber: Protestantism and Capitalism
366(1)
Liberation Theology
367(1)
Church, Sect, and Cult
367(2)
Religion in History
369(1)
Religion in the United States
369(3)
Religious Commitment
369(1)
Religion: Class, Ethnicity, and Race
370(2)
Religion in a Changing Society
372(8)
Secularization
372(1)
Civil Religion
372(1)
``New Age'' Seekers: Spirituality without Formal Religion
373(1)
Religious Revival: ``Good Ol'-Time Religion''
374(1)
Looking Ahead: Religion in the Twenty-First Century
375(1)
Summary
376(1)
Key Concepts
377(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
377(1)
Applications and Exercises
378(1)
Sites to See
378(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
378(1)
Putting the American in ``American Muslim''
379(1)
Education and Medicine
380(36)
Education: A Global Survey
382(3)
Schooling and Economic Development
382(1)
Schooling in India
383(1)
Schooling in Japan
384(1)
Schooling in the United States
384(1)
The Functions of Schooling
385(1)
Schooling and Social Inequality
385(4)
Public and Private Education
386(1)
Access to Higher Education
386(2)
Greater Opportunity: Expanding Higher Education
388(1)
Community Colleges
388(1)
Privilege and Personal Merit
389(1)
Problems in the Schools
389(4)
Discipline and Violence
389(1)
Student Passivity
390(1)
Dropping Out
391(1)
Academic Standards
392(1)
Grade Inflation
392(1)
Recent Issues in U.S. Education
393(2)
School Choice
393(1)
Home Schooling
394(1)
Schooling People with Disabilities
394(1)
Adult Education
395(1)
The Teacher Shortage
395(1)
Looking Ahead: Schooling in the Twenty-First Century
395(1)
Medicine and Health
395(1)
Health and Society
395(1)
Health: A Global Survey
396(1)
Health in Low-Income Countries
396(1)
Health in High-Income Countries
397(1)
Health in the United States
397(7)
Who Is Healthy? Age, Gender, Class, and Race
397(2)
Cigarette Smoking
399(1)
Eating Disorders
399(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
400(3)
Ethical Issues Surrounding Death
403(1)
The Medical Establishment
404(4)
The Rise of Scientific Medicine
404(1)
Holistic Medicine
404(1)
Paying for Medical Care: A Global Survey
405(1)
Paying for Medical Care: The United States
406(1)
The Nursing Shortage
407(1)
Theoretical Analysis of Medicine
408(8)
Structural-Functional Analysis
408(1)
Symbolic-Interaction Analysis
408(1)
Social-Conflict Analysis
409(3)
Looking Ahead: Health in the Twenty-First Century
412(1)
Summary
412(1)
Key Concepts
413(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
413(1)
Applications and Exercises
414(1)
Sites to See
414(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
414(1)
Good and Bad Marriage, Boon and Bane to Health
415(1)
Population, Urbanization, and Environment
416(32)
Demography: The Study of Population
418(4)
Fertility
418(1)
Mortality
419(1)
Migration
420(1)
Population Growth
420(1)
Population Composition
421(1)
History and Theory of Population Growth
422(3)
Malthusian Theory
423(1)
Demographic Transition Theory
423(1)
Global Population Today: A Brief Survey
424(1)
Urbanization: The Growth of Cities
425(5)
The Evolution of Cities
426(2)
The Growth of U.S. Cities
428(1)
Suburbs and Urban Decline
428(1)
Postindustrial Sunbelt Cities
429(1)
Megalopolis: The Regional City
429(1)
Edge Cities
429(1)
The Rural Rebound
430(1)
Urbanism as a Way of Life
430(3)
Ferdinand Tonnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
430(1)
Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity
430(1)
Georg Simmel: The Blase Urbanite
431(1)
The Chicago School: Robert Park and Louis Wirth
431(1)
Urban Ecology
432(1)
Urban Political Economy
432(1)
Urbanization in Poor Societies
433(1)
Environment and Society
434(9)
The Global Dimension
434(1)
Technology and the Environmental Deficit
435(1)
Culture: Growth and Limits
436(1)
Solid Waste: The Disposable Society
437(1)
Water and Air
437(3)
The Rain Forests
440(2)
Environmental Racism
442(1)
Looking Ahead: Toward a Sustainable Society and World
443(5)
Summary
444(1)
Key Concepts
445(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
446(1)
Applications and Exercises
446(1)
Sites to See
447(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
447(1)
Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies
448(28)
What is Social Change?
451(1)
Causes of Social Change
452(3)
Culture and Change
452(1)
Conflict and Change
452(1)
Ideas and Change
453(1)
Demographic Change
453(1)
Social Movements and Change
453(2)
Modernity
455(4)
Ferdinand Tonnies: The Loss of Community
456(1)
Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor
457(1)
Max Weber: Rationalization
458(1)
Karl Marx: Capitalism
459(1)
Structural-Functional Analysis: The Theory of Mass Society
459(2)
The Mass Scale of Modern Life
459(2)
The Ever-Expanding State
461(1)
Social-Conflict Analysis: The Theory of Class Society
461(2)
Capitalism
462(1)
Persistent Inequality
462(1)
Modernity and the Individual
463(2)
Mass Society: Problems of Identity
463(1)
Class Society: Problems of Powerlessness
464(1)
Modernity and Progress
465(1)
Modernity: Global Variation
466(1)
Postmodernity
467(3)
Looking Ahead: Modernization and Our Global Future
470(6)
Summary
471(1)
Key Concepts
471(2)
Critical-Thinking Questions
473(1)
Applications and Exercises
474(1)
Sites to See
474(1)
Investigate with Research Navigator™
474(1)
Indian Soybean Farmers Join the Global Village
475(1)
Glossary 476(6)
References 482(21)
Photo Credits 503(2)
Name Index 505(3)
Subject Index 508


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