Sociology of Education, The: A Systematic Analysis

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Comprehensive, contemporary, and cross-cultural in perspective, this text provides a sociological approach to education-from several theoretical approaches and their practical application, to current educational issues, to the structure and processes that make education systems work. New to this edition is co-author Floyd Hammack from New York University who brings his expertise in secondary education and its links with higher education.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Sociology of Education: A Unique Perspective for Understanding Schoolsp. 1
Sociology and Educationp. 1
Why Study Sociology of Education?p. 2
Questions Asked by Sociologists of Educationp. 5
U.S. Schools in the Early Twenty-First Century: Applying Sociological Findingsp. 6
Demographic Trendsp. 7
Family, Economic, and Social Trendsp. 8
Schools in the New Centuryp. 10
Reform and Policy in Educational Systemsp. 11
American Sociology of Educationp. 11
Theoretical Approaches in the Sociology of Educationp. 12
Functionalist Theoryp. 13
Conflict Theoryp. 17
Interaction and Interpretive Theoriesp. 19
Recent Theories in the Sociology of Education: Critical, "New," and Postmodern Theoriesp. 21
Feminist Theories in Sociology of Educationp. 23
The Open Systems Approachp. 24
Research Methods in Sociology of Educationp. 29
Organization of the Bookp. 31
Summaryp. 31
Sample study questions in sociology of educationp. 33
Putting sociology to workp. 33
Conflicting Functions and Processes in Education: What Makes the System Work?p. 35
Conflicting Functions of Educationp. 35
Unanticipated Consequences of Functionsp. 37
The Importance of Processes in Educational Systemsp. 37
The Function of Socialization: What We Learn and How We Learn Itp. 38
The Early Childhood Education Controversyp. 38
Role of the Media and Commercials in the function of Socializationp. 41
The Function of Cultural Transmission and Process of Passing On Culturep. 45
Literacy, Illiteracy, and Cultural Transmissionp. 45
Some Factors Affecting Learningp. 47
How to Pass On Culturep. 48
What Culture to Pass Onp. 49
The Function of Social Control and Personal Developmentp. 58
Violence and Discipline in Schoolsp. 59
The Function of Selection and Allocation: The Sorting Processp. 63
The Testing Gamep. 64
Achievement Testsp. 66
The Function of Change and Innovation: Looking to the Futurep. 69
Summaryp. 72
Putting sociology to workp. 73
Education and the Process of Stratificationp. 74
The Crisis in Schoolingp. 74
Education and Stratification in Americap. 74
Education and Stratification Around the Worldp. 76
The Process of Stratification: Is Inequality Inevitable?p. 77
Determinants of Social Classp. 78
Major Explanations of Stratificationp. 81
Stratification and Equality of Educational Opportunityp. 87
The Meaning of "Equality of Educational Opportunity"p. 87
Social Class Reproduction: The Debate over Public versus Private Schoolsp. 88
The Controversial Issue of "Choice"p. 91
Ability Grouping and Teacher Expectationsp. 94
Financing Schools in the United Statesp. 105
Summaryp. 107
Putting sociology to workp. 108
Race, Class, and Gender: Attempts to Achieve Equality of Educational Opportunityp. 109
Gender and Equality of Educational Opportunityp. 109
Sex-Role Socializationp. 110
Sex Differences in the Educational Systemp. 113
Combating Gender Differencesp. 121
Class, Race, and Attempts to Rectify Inequalities in Educational Opportunityp. 122
Trends in Public School Enrollmentsp. 122
The Underclass and At-Risk Studentsp. 123
Research on Equality of Educational Opportunityp. 124
The Battle over Desegregationp. 126
Court Cases on Desegregationp. 126
Effects of Efforts to Desegregate Schoolsp. 129
Student Goals, Aspirations, and Future Prospectsp. 130
Integration Attemptsp. 134
Educational Experience of Selected Minorities in the United Statesp. 136
Hispanic Studentsp. 137
Immigrantsp. 139
Asian American Studentsp. 141
Native American Studentsp. 142
Special Education Studentsp. 143
Gifted Studentsp. 146
Improving Schools for Minority Studentsp. 147
Summaryp. 153
Putting sociology to workp. 154
The School as an Organizationp. 155
Social System of the Schoolp. 156
Goals of the School Systemp. 157
Societal, Community, and Educators' Goalsp. 158
School Goalsp. 160
Individual Goalsp. 161
The School as an Organizationp. 162
The School as a Bureaucracyp. 162
Characteristics of Bureaucracyp. 163
Development of Schools as Bureaucraciesp. 168
Problems in Educational Bureaucraciesp. 169
Understanding Schools as Modern Organizations: Structures and Modelsp. 171
Centralized versus Decentralized Decision Making: The Fight over Control of Schoolsp. 175
Centralization of Decision Makingp. 175
Decentralization of Decision Makingp. 177
Small Schools and Classrooms: Are They Better for Student Achievement?p. 178
Summaryp. 180
Putting sociology to workp. 181
Formal School Statuses and Roles: "The Way It Spozed to Be"p. 183
The Meaning of Rolesp. 183
Statuses and Roles in the Systemp. 183
The School Organization and Rolesp. 184
Role Expectations and Conflictp. 184
Professionals in the Educational Systemp. 185
Roles in Schoolsp. 187
School Boards: Liaison Between School and Communityp. 187
Superintendent: Manager of the School Systemp. 193
The Principal: School Boss-in-the-Middlep. 195
Teachers: The Front Linep. 199
Support Roles in the School: Behind the Scenesp. 211
Summaryp. 214
Putting sociology to workp. 215
Students: The Core of the Schoolp. 216
Student Characteristicsp. 216
Expectations for the Student Rolep. 218
Learning the Student Rolep. 220
Conflicting Expectations for the Student Rolep. 221
Student Coping Mechanismsp. 222
School Failures and Dropoutsp. 223
Who Drops Out?p. 223
Why Students Drop Outp. 227
Gangs and Schoolsp. 228
School Crime and Violencep. 230
Retention and Suspension: School Reactions to Problem Studentsp. 231
Adolescent Employment and Dropping Out of Schoolp. 232
The Future for Dropoutsp. 233
Criticisms of the Student Rolep. 235
Students and the Informal Systemp. 237
Student's Self-Conceptp. 237
School Value Climate and Student Achievementp. 238
Teacher and Student Expectationsp. 240
Peer Groups and Student Culturep. 240
Student Coping Strategiesp. 244
Students and Their Environmentsp. 247
Effects of Home Environment on Educational Achievementp. 247
Family Background and Parental Involvementp. 249
Social Class Backgroundp. 250
Parenting Stylesp. 251
Family Aspirationsp. 251
Single-Parent Homesp. 252
The Role of Mothersp. 252
The Number of Siblingsp. 253
Summaryp. 254
Putting sociology to workp. 256
The Informal System and the "Hidden Curriculum": What Really Happens in School?p. 257
The Open Systems Approach and the Informal Systemp. 258
The Hidden Curriculump. 259
Reproduction Theory and the Informal Systemp. 260
The Educational "Climate" and School Effectivenessp. 262
The Value Climatep. 263
The School Climate and Effective Schoolsp. 264
Classroom Learning Climatep. 266
Student Friendship and Interaction Patterns in the Classroomp. 268
Power Dynamics and Roles in the Informal Systemp. 275
Theoretical Explanations of Power Dynamics in the Classroomp. 275
Teacher Strategies and the Informal Systemp. 277
Summaryp. 280
Putting sociology to workp. 281
The Educational System and the Environment: A Symbiotic Relationshipp. 282
The Environment and the Educational Systemp. 283
Types of Environmentsp. 284
The School Systems' Environments: Interdependence Between Institutionsp. 286
Home and Family Influences on Schoolsp. 286
The Institution of Religion: Church and Statep. 288
The Economics of Education: Financing Schoolsp. 295
The Political and Legal Institutionsp. 301
Communities and Their Schoolsp. 304
Summaryp. 306
Putting sociology to workp. 307
The System of Higher Educationp. 308
History and Development of Higher Educationp. 308
Historical Functions of Higher Educationp. 309
Trends in Development of Higher Educationp. 310
Theoretical Approaches to Higher Educationp. 315
The Expansion of Higher Educationp. 315
Access to Higher Educationp. 316
Stratification and Equal Opportunity in Higher Educationp. 317
Elite versus Public Collegesp. 318
Admissions and the Courtsp. 319
Characteristics of Higher Education in the United Statesp. 321
Growth of Higher Educationp. 323
The School-to-Work Transition and the Credential Crisisp. 323
Functions of the Higher Education Systemp. 324
The University as a Communityp. 324
The Function of Researchp. 325
The Function of Teachingp. 325
The Function of Servicep. 326
The Function of the "National Security State"p. 326
Conflicts over the University's functionp. 327
The Academic Function of Universities versus Business Functionsp. 327
What Type of Curriculum?p. 329
Higher Education as an Organizationp. 331
Higher Education Structure and the Bureaucratic Model: Does It Work?p. 331
Roles in Higher Educationp. 334
Roles in Higher Education: The Clientsp. 334
Gender and Race in Higher Educationp. 335
The Graying of College Graduatesp. 342
Roles in Higher Education: The Facultyp. 343
Faculty Issues in Higher Educationp. 345
Roles in Higher Education: Administratorsp. 348
Environmental Pressures on Higher Educationp. 349
Funding of Higher Educationp. 350
The Courts and Affirmative Actionp. 352
Environmental Feedback and Organizational Changep. 354
Outcomes of Higher Educationp. 355
Higher Education: Attitudes, Values, and Behaviorsp. 355
The Value of a College Educationp. 356
Problems and Reform in Higher Educationp. 358
Summaryp. 359
Putting sociology to workp. 361
Educational Systems Around the World: A Comparative Viewp. 362
Cross-cultural Educational Studiesp. 364
Comparative Education as a Field of Studyp. 365
Comparative Education and the Systems Approachp. 366
Cross-cultural Studies of Educational Systems: Achievement Studiesp. 367
Comparative International Studies of Achievementp. 368
Theoretical Perspectives in Comparative Educationp. 372
Human Capital Perspectivesp. 374
"Legitimation of Knowledge" Perspectivep. 377
Rich versus Poor: An Educational Typologyp. 378
World System Analysisp. 381
Global Institutional Interdependencep. 383
Education and the Institution of Religionp. 384
Family, Social Class, and Educationp. 385
Education and Economic Institutionsp. 386
Political-Economic Divisions Between Societal Systemsp. 389
Higher Education Around the Worldp. 392
Summaryp. 396
Putting sociology to workp. 397
Educational Systems Around the World: Britain, China, and Postcolonial Africap. 398
Education in Britainp. 399
Development of Education in Britainp. 400
Control and Decision Making in British Educationp. 402
Structure of the British Educational Systemp. 402
Composition of British Schoolsp. 403
Exams and Credentialsp. 403
Inequality in Education and Occupational Mobilityp. 404
Higher Education in Great Britain: Elite versus Mass Educationp. 404
Education in the People's Republic of Chinap. 406
Recent Historical Events Affecting Educationp. 406
The Drive Toward Modernizationp. 407
Equality of Educational Opportunityp. 408
Status and Structure of Education in Chinap. 408
Higher Education in the PRCp. 409
Formal Education in Colonial Africap. 411
Education in Ghanap. 412
History of Education in Ghanap. 413
Forms of Educationp. 414
Nonformal Education in Africap. 415
Structure of the Ghanaian Educational Systemp. 416
Equality of Opportunity in Ghanaian Educationp. 416
Higher Education in Postcolonial Africap. 417
Summaryp. 419
Putting sociology to workp. 419
Educational Movements and Reformp. 420
The Nature of Educational Movementsp. 422
Early Educational Movementsp. 425
Early European Education: Purpose and Function for Societyp. 425
Educational Movements in the United Statesp. 426
Alternative Education and Related Movementsp. 429
Third World Alternative Educational Movementsp. 430
English Primary Schoolsp. 431
Open Classroomsp. 432
Back to Basicsp. 433
Private Schoolsp. 434
Accountability Movementsp. 435
Effective Schools and Educational Reformp. 437
Structural and Curricular Changes in the Schoolsp. 438
The "School Choice" Movementp. 438
"Multiculturalism" and "Political Correctness"p. 440
Technology and the Classroomp. 442
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001p. 443
Other Movements, Reforms, and Fadsp. 444
A Look Into the Futurep. 446
Summaryp. 447
Putting sociology to workp. 448
Referencesp. 450
Indexp. 484
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