Sociology in Our Times The Essentials

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-12-18
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Sharpen your sociological skills . . . connect with sociology . . . and master the concepts with Kendall's expert guidance! Vivid and compelling, Kendall's text uses real-life stories and unique Lived Experiences to introduce you to the study of sociology. Kendall takes you on an exciting journey that lets you experience sociological theory and research and see for yourself how it can be applied to everyday life and to the pressing social issues we face. As you explore body image, poverty, suicide, Hurricane Katrina and the war in Iraq, you'll see the relevance of sociology to your own life?and, you'll see how accurately the book's real-life stories mirror the diversity in society. Plus, Kendall presents ideas on how you can get involved and effect social change.

Table of Contents

Studying Society and Social Life
The Sociological Perspective and Research Processp. 2
Putting Social Life into Perspectivep. 4
Why Study Sociology?p. 4
The Sociological Imaginationp. 5
The Importance of a Global Sociological Imaginationp. 6
The Development of Sociological Thinkingp. 8
Early Thinkers: A Concern with Social Order and Stabilityp. 9
Differing Views on the Status Quo: Stability Versus Changep. 12
The Beginnings of Sociology in the United Statesp. 14
Contemporary Theoretical Perspectivesp. 15
Functionalist Perspectivesp. 15
Conflict Perspectivesp. 17
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectivesp. 18
Postmodern Perspectivesp. 20
The Sociological Research Processp. 21
The "Conventional" Research Modelp. 22
A Qualitative Research Modelp. 26
Research Methodsp. 28
Survey Researchp. 28
Secondary Analysis of Existing Datap. 31
Field Researchp. 32
Experimentsp. 33
Ethical Issues in Sociological Researchp. 34
Culturep. 38
Culture and Society in a Changing Worldp. 40
Material Culture and Nonmaterial Culturep. 41
Cultural Universalsp. 43
Components of Culturep. 46
Symbolsp. 46
Languagep. 47
Valuesp. 50
Normsp. 51
Technology, Cultural Change, and Diversityp. 53
Cultural Changep. 53
Cultural Diversityp. 54
Culture Shockp. 58
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativismp. 59
A Global Popular Culture?p. 60
High Culture and Popular Culturep. 60
Forms of Popular Culturep. 60
Sociological Analysis of Culturep. 62
Functionalist Perspectivesp. 62
Conflict Perspectivesp. 62
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectivesp. 63
Postmodernist Perspectivesp. 64
Culture in the Futurep. 66
Socializationp. 70
Why Is Socialization Important Around the Globe?p. 72
Human Development: Biology and Societyp. 72
Problems Associated with Social Isolation and Maltreatmentp. 74
Social Psychological Theories of Human Developmentp. 77
Freud and the Psychoanalytic Perspectivep. 77
Piaget and Cognitive Developmentp. 77
Kohlberg and the Stages of Moral Developmentp. 79
Gilligan's View on Gender and Moral Developmentp. 80
Sociological Theories of Human Developmentp. 81
Cooley and the Looking-Glass Selfp. 81
Mead and Role-Takingp. 81
Recent Symbolic Interactionist Perspectivesp. 84
Agents of Socializationp. 84
The Familyp. 85
The Schoolp. 86
Peer Groupsp. 87
Mass Mediap. 87
Gender and Racial/Ethnic Socializationp. 90
Socialization Through the Life Coursep. 91
Childhoodp. 92
Adolescencep. 92
Adulthoodp. 92
Late Adulthood and Ageismp. 93
Resocializationp. 94
Voluntary Resocializationp. 94
Involuntary Resocializationp. 95
Socialization in the Futurep. 95
Social Groups and Social Control
Social Structure and Interaction in Everyday Lifep. 100
Social Structure: The Macrolevel Perspectivep. 102
Components of Social Structurep. 104
Statusp. 104
Rolesp. 108
Groupsp. 111
Social Institutionsp. 112
Societies: Changes in Social Structurep. 114
Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarityp. 114
Tonnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaftp. 115
Industrial and Postindustrial Societiesp. 116
Social Interaction: The Microlevel Perspectivep. 117
Social Interaction and Meaningp. 117
The Social Construction of Realityp. 120
Ethnomethodologyp. 121
Dramaturgical Analysisp. 122
The Sociology of Emotionsp. 124
Nonverbal Communicationp. 124
Changing Social Structure and Interaction in the Futurep. 129
Groups and Organizationsp. 132
Social Groupsp. 134
Groups, Aggregates, and Categoriesp. 134
Types of Groupsp. 134
Group Characteristics and Dynamicsp. 138
Group Sizep. 139
Group Leadershipp. 140
Group Conformityp. 141
Groupthinkp. 143
Formal Organizations in Global Perspectivep. 144
Types of Formal Organizationsp. 144
Bureaucraciesp. 146
Problems of Bureaucraciesp. 150
Bureaucracy and Oligarchyp. 152
Alternative Forms of Organizationp. 152
Organizational Structure in Japanp. 153
Organizations in the Futurep. 155
Deviance and Crimep. 158
What Is Deviance?p. 160
Who Defines Deviance?p. 161
What Is Social Control?p. 162
Functionalist Perspectives on Deviancep. 163
What Causes Deviance, and Why Is It Functional for Society?p. 163
Strain Theory: Goals and Means to Achieve Themp. 164
Opportunity Theory: Access to Illegitimate Opportunitiesp. 165
Conflict Perspectives on Deviancep. 166
Deviance and Power Relationsp. 167
Deviance and Capitalismp. 167
Feminist Approachesp. 167
Approaches Focusing on Race, Class, and Genderp. 168
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives on Deviancep. 168
Differential Association Theory and Differential Reinforcement Theoryp. 169
Control Theory: Social Bondingp. 169
Labeling Theoryp. 170
Postmodernist Perspectives on Deviancep. 171
Crime Classifications and Statisticsp. 172
How the Law Classifies Crimep. 172
Other Crime Categoriesp. 172
Crime Statisticsp. 177
Terrorism and Crimep. 178
Street Crimes and Criminalsp. 178
Crime Victimsp. 181
The Criminal Justice Systemp. 181
The Policep. 182
The Courtsp. 183
Punishment and Correctionsp. 184
Deviance and Crime in the United States in the Futurep. 186
The Global Criminal Economyp. 187
3 Social Inequality
Class and Stratification in the United Statesp. 192
What Is Social Stratification?p. 194
Systems of Stratificationp. 194
Slaveryp. 195
The Caste Systemp. 198
The Class Systemp. 198
Classical Perspectives on Social Classp. 198
Karl Marx: Relationship to the Means of Productionp. 199
Max Weber: Wealth, Prestige, and Powerp. 200
Contemporary Sociological Models of the U.S. Class Structurep. 202
The Weberian Model of the U.S. Class Structurep. 202
The Marxian Model of the U.S. Class Structurep. 205
Inequality in the United Statesp. 208
Distribution of Income and Wealthp. 208
Consequences of Inequalityp. 211
Poverty in the United Statesp. 216
Who Are the Poor?p. 217
Economic and Structural Sources of Povertyp. 219
Solving the Poverty Problemp. 219
Sociological Explanations of Social Inequality in the United Statesp. 220
Functionalist Perspectivesp. 220
Conflict Perspectivesp. 220
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectivesp. 221
U.S. Stratification in the Futurep. 223
Global Stratificationp. 226
Wealth and Poverty in Global Perspectivep. 228
Problems in Studying Global Inequalityp. 231
The "Three Worlds" Approachp. 231
The Levels of Development Approachp. 231
Classification of Economies by Incomep. 232
Low-Income Economiesp. 232
Middle-Income Economiesp. 233
High-Income Economiesp. 235
Measuring Global Wealth and Povertyp. 235
Absolute, Relative, and Subjective Povertyp. 235
The Gini Coefficient and Global Quality-of-Life Issuesp. 236
Global Poverty and Human Development Issuesp. 236
Life Expectancyp. 237
Healthp. 238
Education and Literacyp. 238
Persistent Gaps in Human Developmentp. 239
Theories of Global Inequalityp. 239
Development and Modernization Theoryp. 239
Dependency Theoryp. 244
World Systems Theoryp. 244
The New International Division of Labor Theoryp. 246
Global Inequality in the Futurep. 247
Race and Ethnicityp. 252
Race and Ethnicityp. 254
The Social Significance of Race and Ethnicityp. 256
Racial Classifications and the Meaning of Racep. 257
Dominant and Subordinate Groupsp. 258
Prejudicep. 258
Stereotypesp. 258
Racismp. 259
Theories of Prejudicep. 260
Discriminationp. 260
Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relationsp. 262
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectivesp. 262
Functionalist Perspectivesp. 263
Conflict Perspectivesp. 266
An Alternative Perspective: Critical Race Theoryp. 268
Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United Statesp. 268
Native Americansp. 268
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (British Americans)p. 272
African Americansp. 273
White Ethnic Americansp. 275
Asian Americansp. 276
Latinos/as (Hispanic Americans)p. 278
Middle Eastern Americansp. 280
Global Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the Futurep. 281
Worldwide Racial and Ethnic Strugglesp. 281
Growing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the United Statesp. 281
Sex and Genderp. 286
Sex: The Biological Dimensionp. 288
Hermaphrodites/Transsexualsp. 289
Sexual Orientationp. 290
Gender: The Cultural Dimensionp. 292
The Social Significance of Genderp. 293
Sexismp. 294
Gender Stratification in Historical and Contemporary Perspectivep. 294
Hunting and Gathering Societiesp. 294
Horticultural and Pastoral Societiesp. 295
Agrarian Societiesp. 295
Industrial Societiesp. 296
Postindustrial Societiesp. 297
Gender and Socializationp. 298
Parents and Gender Socializationp. 298
Peers and Gender Socializationp. 299
Teachers, Schools, and Gender Socializationp. 300
Sports and Gender Socializationp. 301
Mass Media and Gender Socializationp. 302
Adult Gender Socializationp. 302
Contemporary Gender Inequalityp. 303
Gendered Division of Paid Workp. 303
Pay Equity (Comparable Worth)p. 305
Paid Work and Family Workp. 308
Perspectives on Gender Stratificationp. 309
Functionalist and Neoclassical Economic Perspectivesp. 309
Conflict Perspectivesp. 310
Feminist Perspectivesp. 311
Gender Issues in the Futurep. 313
Social Institutions
Families and Intimate Relationshipsp. 316
Families in Global Perspectivep. 318
Family Structure and Characteristicsp. 319
Marriage Patternsp. 321
Patterns of Descent and Inheritancep. 322
Power and Authority in Familiesp. 323
Residential Patternsp. 324
Theoretical Perspectives on Familiesp. 325
Functionalist Perspectivesp. 326
Conflict and Feminist Perspectivesp. 326
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectivesp. 327
Postmodernist Perspectivesp. 327
Developing Intimate Relationships and Establishing Familiesp. 328
Love and Intimacyp. 328
Cohabitation and Domestic Partnershipsp. 329
Marriagep. 330
Housework and Child-Care Responsibilitiesp. 330
Child-Related Family Issues and Parentingp. 332
Deciding to Have Childrenp. 332
Adoptionp. 333
Teenage Pregnanciesp. 334
Single-Parent Householdsp. 334
Two-Parent Householdsp. 335
Remaining Singlep. 336
Transitions and Problems in Familiesp. 336
Family Transitions Based on Age and the Life Coursep. 336
Family Violencep. 338
Children in Foster Carep. 339
Elder Abusep. 339
Divorcep. 340
Remarriagep. 342
Family Issues in the Futurep. 343
Education and Religionp. 346
An Overview of Education and Religionp. 348
Sociological Perspectives on Educationp. 348
Functionalist Perspectives on Educationp. 349
Conflict Perspectives on Educationp. 353
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives on Educationp. 357
Problems Within Elementary and Secondary Schoolsp. 359
Unequal Funding of Public Schoolsp. 359
School Violencep. 359
Dropping Outp. 360
Racial Segregation and Resegregationp. 360
Opportunities and Challenges in Colleges and Universitiesp. 361
Opportunities and Challenges in Community Colleges 361 Opportunities and Challenges in Four-Year Colleges and Universitiesp. 363
The Soaring Cost of a College Educationp. 363
Racial and Ethnic Differences in Enrollmentp. 364
Religion in Historical Perspectivep. 365
Religion and the Meaning of Lifep. 365
Religion and Scientific Explanationsp. 366
Sociological Perspectives on Religionp. 368
Functionalist Perspectives on Religionp. 368
Conflict Perspectives on Religionp. 369
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives on Religionp. 371
Types of Religious Organizationp. 371
Ecclesiap. 371
The Church-Sect Typologyp. 372
Cultsp. 373
Trends in Religion in the United Statesp. 373
Education and Religion in the Futurep. 375
Politics and the Economy in Global Perspectivep. 378
Politics, Power, and Authorityp. 380
Power and Authorityp. 381
Ideal Types of Authorityp. 383
Political Systems in Global Perspectivep. 385
Monarchyp. 385
Authoritarianismp. 386
Totalitarianismp. 386
Democracyp. 386
Perspectives on Power and Political Systemsp. 387
Functionalist Perspectives: The Pluralist Modelp. 387
Conflict Perspectives: Elite Modelsp. 389
The U.S. Political Systemp. 391
Political Parties and Electionsp. 391
Political Participation and Voter Apathyp. 392
Governmental Bureaucracyp. 392
Economic Systems in Global Perspectivep. 394
Preindustrial, Industrial, and Postindustrial Economiesp. 394
Capitalismp. 396
Socialismp. 400
Mixed Economiesp. 402
Work in the Contemporary United Statesp. 402
Professionsp. 402
Other Occupationsp. 403
Contingent Workp. 405
Unemploymentp. 406
Labor Unions and Worker Activismp. 407
Employment Opportunities for Persons with a Disabilityp. 408
Politics and the Economy in the Futurep. 408
Health, Health Care, and Disabilityp. 414
Health in Global Perspectivep. 416
Health in the United Statesp. 420
Social Epidemiologyp. 420
Lifestyle Factorsp. 421
Health Care in the United Statesp. 424
The Rise of Scientific Medicine and Professionalismp. 424
Medicine Todayp. 425
Paying for Medical Care in the United Statesp. 426
Paying for Medical Care in Other Nationsp. 427
Social Implications of Advanced Medical Technologyp. 430
Holistic Medicine and Alternative Medicinep. 430
Sociological Perspectives on Health and Medicinep. 431
A Functionalist Perspective: The Sick Rolep. 431
A Conflict Perspective: Inequalities in Health and Health Carep. 433
A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: The Social Construction of Illnessp. 434
A Postmodernist Perspective: The Clinical Gazep. 436
Disabilityp. 436
Sociological Perspectives on Disabilityp. 439
Social Inequalities Based on Disabilityp. 439
Health Care in the Futurep. 441
Social Dynamics and Social Change
Population and Urbanizationp. 444
Demography: The Study of Populationp. 446
Fertilityp. 447
Mortalityp. 449
Migrationp. 450
Population Compositionp. 451
Population Growth in Global Contextp. 452
The Malthusian Perspectivep. 452
The Marxist Perspectivep. 452
The Neo-Malthusian Perspectivep. 456
Demographic Transition Theoryp. 456
Other Perspectives on Population Changep. 457
A Brief Glimpse at International Migration Theoriesp. 459
Urbanization in Global Perspectivep. 460
Emergence and Evolution of the Cityp. 460
Preindustrial Citiesp. 461
Industrial Citiesp. 462
Postindustrial Citiesp. 462
Perspectives on Urbanization and the Growth of Citiesp. 463
Functionalist Perspectives: Ecological Modelsp. 463
Conflict Perspectives: Political Economy Modelsp. 465
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives: The Experience of City Lifep. 467
Problems in Global Citiesp. 469
Urban Problems in the United Statesp. 470
Divided Interests: Cities, Suburbs, and Beyondp. 471
The Continuing Fiscal Crises of the Citiesp. 473
Population and Urbanization in the Futurep. 473
Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Social Changep. 478
Collective Behaviorp. 480
Conditions for Collective Behaviorp. 480
Dynamics of Collective Behaviorp. 483
Distinctions Regarding Collective Behaviorp. 483
Types of Crowd Behaviorp. 484
Explanations of Crowd Behaviorp. 485
Mass Behaviorp. 487
Social Movementsp. 492
Types of Social Movementsp. 493
Stages in Social Movementsp. 495
Social Movement Theoriesp. 495
Relative Deprivation Theoryp. 495
Value-Added Theoryp. 495
Resource Mobilization Theoryp. 496
Social Constructionist Theory: Frame Analysisp. 497
New Social Movement Theoryp. 498
Social Change in the Futurep. 500
The Physical Environment and Changep. 500
Population and Changep. 502
Technology and Changep. 502
Social Institutions and Changep. 503
A Few Final Thoughtsp. 504
Glossaryp. 509
Referencesp. 519
Photo Creditsp. 541
Name Indexp. 543
Subject Indexp. 551
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