Sociology Your Compass for a New World, Brief Edition

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-12-19
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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You'll quickly learn to see the connections between yourself and society with this concise, rigorous, and contemporary book! Robert Brym and John Lie draw vivid examples from popular culture, including the hip hop music scene, comedian Chris Rock's stand-up routine, and the rituals of the Super Bowl to "hook" you to sociology instantly. Plus, the book's fun features-such as Sociology at the Movies boxes that analyze recent movies, including "Crash," "Walk the Line," and "Brokeback Mountain" from a sociological perspective-help you see and explore sociological issues all around you. This Brief Second Edition discusses pressing social issues and events such as Hurricane Katrina, immigration, hate crimes, bilingual education, the war in Iraq, and much more. Explore our social world and your place in it with Brym and Lie! Book jacket.

Table of Contents

A Sociological Compassp. xxxiv
Introductionp. 1
Robert Brym's Indirect Road to Sociologyp. 1
A Change of Mindp. 2
The Sociological Perspectivep. 3
The Sociological Explanation of Suicidep. 3
The Sociological Imaginationp. 5
Origins of the Sociological Imaginationp. 6
Sociology at the Movies: Minority Report (2002)p. 7
Sociological Theory and Theoristsp. 9
Functionalismp. 9
Conflict Theoryp. 10
Symbolic Interactionismp. 12
Feminist Theoryp. 14
Conducting Researchp. 16
The Research Cyclep. 17
Ethics in Sociological Researchp. 18
The Main Methods of Sociological Researchp. 19
Experimentsp. 19
Surveysp. 21
Field Researchp. 22
Analysis of Existing Documents and Official Statisticsp. 23
The Points of the Compassp. 24
Equality versus Inequality of Opportunityp. 26
Individual Freedom versus Individual Constraintp. 26
Where Do You Fit In?p. 27
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Are Corporate Scandals a Problem of Individual Ethics or Social Policy?p. 28
Chapter Summaryp. 28
Questions to Considerp. 29
Web Resourcesp. 30
Basic Social Processes
Culturep. 32
Culture as Problem Solvingp. 33
The Origins and Components of Culturep. 34
Symbolsp. 35
Norms and Valuesp. 35
Material and Nonmaterial Culturesp. 35
Sanctions, Taboos, Mores, and Folkwaysp. 36
Language and the Sapir-Whorf Thesisp. 37
Sociology at the Movies: Paradise Now (2005)p. 38
Culture as Freedom and Constraintp. 38
Culture and Ethnocentrism: A Functionalist Analysis of Culturep. 38
Culture as Freedomp. 40
Cultural Production and Symbolic Interactionismp. 40
Cultural Diversityp. 41
Multiculturalismp. 41
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Female Genital Mutilation: Cultural Relativism or Ethnocentrism?p. 43
The Rights Revolution: A Conflict Analysis of Culturep. 44
From Diversity to Globalizationp. 44
Aspects of Postmodernismp. 45
Mass Media and Society: English, Globalization, and the Internetp. 46
Culture as Constraintp. 50
Valuesp. 50
Consumerismp. 54
You and the Social World: Ads 'R Usp. 55
From Counterculture to Subculturep. 55
The Points of the Compassp. 56
Chapter Summaryp. 57
Questions to Considerp. 58
Web Resourcesp. 58
Socializationp. 60
Social Isolation and Socializationp. 61
The Crystallization of Self-Identityp. 62
Theories of Childhood Socializationp. 63
Freudp. 64
Cooley's Symbolic Interactionismp. 65
Meadp. 65
Gilligan and Gender Differencesp. 66
Civilizational Differencesp. 66
Agents of Socializationp. 67
Familiesp. 67
Schoolsp. 67
Sociology at the Movies: Monster (2003)p. 68
Class, Race, and Conflict Theoryp. 69
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecyp. 70
Peer Groupsp. 71
The Mass Mediap. 72
Self-Socializationp. 73
Gender Roles, the Mass Media, and the Feminist Approach to Socializationp. 74
Mass Media and Society: Learning Gender Roles through Popular Romance Novelsp. 75
Resocialization and Total Institutionsp. 75
Socialization across the Life Coursep. 76
Adult Socialization and the Flexible Selfp. 76
Identity and the Internetp. 78
Dilemmas of Childhood and Adolescent Socializationp. 79
The Emergence of Childhood and Adolescencep. 79
Problems of Childhood and Adolescent Socialization Todayp. 80
You and the Social World: Your Adolescent Socializationp. 81
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Socialization versus Gun Controlp. 82
The Points of the Compassp. 83
Chapter Summaryp. 84
Questions to Considerp. 84
Web Resourcesp. 85
Social Interactionp. 86
What Is Social Interaction?p. 87
The Structure of Social Interactionp. 88
Case Study: Stewardesses and Their Clientelep. 89
What Shapes Social Interaction?p. 91
The Sociology of Emotionsp. 91
Laughter and Humorp. 91
Emotion Managementp. 93
Emotion Laborp. 94
Emotions in Historical Perspectivep. 94
Modes of Social Interactionp. 96
Interaction as Competition and Exchangep. 96
Exchange and Rational Choice Theoriesp. 96
You and the Social World: Competing for Attentionp. 97
Interaction as Symbolicp. 98
Sociology at the Movies: Miss Congeniality (2000)p. 100
Verbal and Nonverbal Communicationp. 101
Power and Conflict Theories of Social Interactionp. 104
Mass Media and Society: The Problem of Dominationp. 106
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Allocating Time Fairly in Class Discussionsp. 107
The Points of the Compassp. 107
Chapter Summaryp. 108
Questions to Considerp. 109
Web Resourcesp. 109
Networks, Groups, and Organizationsp. 110
Beyond Individual Motivesp. 111
The Holocaustp. 111
How Social Groups Shape Our Actionsp. 112
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Group Loyalty or Betrayalp. 114
Social Networks: It's a Small Worldp. 116
Mass Media and Society: Six Degrees of Kevin Baconp. 117
The Value of Network Analysisp. 117
You and the Social World: Social Networks and Illnessp. 120
The Building Blocks of Social Networks: The Dyad and the Triadp. 120
Groupsp. 121
Primary and Secondary Groupsp. 122
Group Conformityp. 122
Groupthinkp. 123
Inclusion and Exclusion: In-Groups and Out-Groupsp. 124
Groups and Social Imaginationp. 126
Bureaucracyp. 127
Bureaucratic Inefficiencyp. 127
Sociology at the Movies: Ikiru (1952)p. 128
Bureaucracy's Informal Sidep. 131
Leadership Stylesp. 131
Overcoming Bureaucratic Inefficiencyp. 132
Organizational Environmentsp. 133
The Points of the Compassp. 134
Chapter Summaryp. 135
Questions to Considerp. 136
Web Resourcesp. 136
Deviance, Crime, and Social Controlp. 138
The Social Definition and Social Construction of Deviancep. 139
The Difference between Deviance and Crimep. 140
Sanctionsp. 140
Types of Deviance and Crimep. 141
Power and the Social Construction of Deviancep. 142
Measuring Crimep. 144
Crime Ratesp. 145
Criminal Profilesp. 147
Social Policy: What Do You Think? The War on Drugsp. 150
Explaining Deviance and Crimep. 150
Learning the Deviant Role: The Case of Marijuana Usersp. 151
Motivational Theoriesp. 152
Constraint Theoriesp. 154
Punishmentp. 156
The Medicalization of Deviancep. 158
The Prisonp. 160
Moral Panicp. 161
You and the Social World: Moral Panicp. 162
Alternative Forms of Punishmentp. 163
Sociology at the Movies: Bowling for Columbine (2002)p. 164
The Points of the Compassp. 167
Chapter Summaryp. 168
Questions to Considerp. 169
Web Resourcesp. 169
Social Stratification: United States and Global Perspectivesp. 170
Social Stratification: Shipwrecks and Inequalityp. 171
Patterns of Social Inequalityp. 172
Wealthp. 172
Incomep. 174
Sociology at the Movies: Sweet Home Alabama (2002)p. 176
Global Inequalityp. 178
International Differencesp. 178
Mass Media and Society: The Internet and Social Stratificationp. 179
Measuring Internal Stratificationp. 179
Economic Developmentp. 180
Is Stratification Inevitable? Three Theoriesp. 183
Marxp. 183
Critical Evaluation of Marx's Conflict Theoryp. 184
Functionalism: The Davis-Moore Thesisp. 184
Critical Evaluation of Functionalismp. 184
Weberp. 186
Social Mobilityp. 187
Blau and Duncan: The Status Attainment Modelp. 187
Group Barriers: Race and Genderp. 189
Noneconomic Dimensions of Classp. 190
Prestige and Powerp. 190
Politics and the Plight of the Poorp. 191
Government Policy and the Poverty Rate in the United Statesp. 192
Poverty Mythsp. 194
Perception of Class Inequality in the United Statesp. 195
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Redesigning Welfarep. 196
You and the Social World: Your Attitudes to Social Inequalityp. 197
The Points of the Compassp. 198
Chapter Summaryp. 198
Questions to Considerp. 199
Web Resourcesp. 199
Globalization, Inequality, and Developmentp. 200
Introductionp. 201
The Creation of a Global Villagep. 201
The Triumphs and Tragedies of Globalizationp. 202
Globalizationp. 205
Globalization in Everyday Lifep. 205
The Sources of Globalizationp. 206
A World Like the United States?p. 208
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Should the United States Promote World Democracy?p. 209
Mass Media and Society: Globalization or Cultural Imperialism?p. 210
Globalization and Its Discontents: Antiglobalization and Anti-Americanismp. 211
Global Inequalityp. 213
Levels of Global Inequalityp. 214
Theories of Development and Underdevelopmentp. 217
Modernization Theory: A Functionalist Approachp. 217
Dependency Theory: A Conflict Approachp. 217
Effects of Foreign Investmentp. 219
Core, Periphery, and Semiperipheryp. 220
Neoliberal versus Democratic Globalizationp. 221
Globalization and Neoliberalismp. 221
Globalization Reformp. 223
You and the Social World: Foreign Aid and Personal Responsibilityp. 224
Sociology at the Movies: Syriana (2005)p. 226
The Points of the Compassp. 226
Chapter Summaryp. 227
Questions to Considerp. 227
Web Resourcesp. 228
Race and Ethnicityp. 230
Defining Race and Ethnicityp. 231
Race, Biology, and Societyp. 231
Prejudice, Discrimination, and Sportsp. 232
The Social Construction of Racep. 233
Ethnicity, Culture, and Social Structurep. 235
Race and Ethnic Relationsp. 236
Labels and Identityp. 236
The Formation of Racial and Ethnic Identitiesp. 236
Case Study: The Diversity of the "Hispanic American" Communityp. 237
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Bilingual Educationp. 240
Ethnic and Racial Labels: Choice versus Impositionp. 240
Theories of Race and Ethnic Relationsp. 241
Ecological Theoryp. 241
Internal Colonialism and the Split Labor Marketp. 242
Sociology at the Movies: Crash (2005)p. 243
Some Advantages of Ethnicityp. 248
Economic Advantagesp. 248
Political Advantagesp. 249
Emotional Advantagesp. 250
The Future of Race and Ethnicityp. 250
The Declining Significance of Race?p. 251
Mass Media and Society: Minority Representation on Televisionp. 253
Immigration and the Renewal of Racial and Ethnic Groupsp. 254
A Vertical Mosaicp. 256
The Points of the Compassp. 257
Chapter Summaryp. 258
Questions to Considerp. 259
Web Resourcesp. 259
Sexuality and Genderp. 260
Sex versus Genderp. 261
Is It a Boy or a Girl?p. 261
Gender Identity and Gender Rolep. 262
Theories of Genderp. 263
Essentialismp. 264
Functionalism and Essentialismp. 264
A Critique of Essentialism from the Conflict and Feminist Perspectivesp. 264
Social Constructionism and Symbolic Interactionismp. 266
The Mass Media and Body Imagep. 269
Mass Media and Society: Why Thinner?p. 271
Male-Female Interactionp. 273
Homosexualityp. 273
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Hate Crime Law and Homophobiap. 276
Sociology at the Movies: Brokeback Mountain (2005)p. 277
Gender Inequalityp. 278
The Earnings Gap Todayp. 278
Male Aggression against Womenp. 280
Toward 2050p. 283
Child Carep. 285
Comparable Worthp. 285
The Women's Movementp. 286
The Points of the Compassp. 288
Chapter Summaryp. 289
Questions to Considerp. 290
Web Resourcesp. 290
Familiesp. 292
Introductionp. 293
Is the Family in Decline?p. 294
Sociology at the Movies: Walk the Line (2005)p. 295
Functionalism and the Nuclear Idealp. 297
Functional Theoryp. 297
Functions of the Nuclear Familyp. 298
The American Middle Class in the 1950sp. 298
Conflict and Feminist Theoriesp. 301
Power and Familiesp. 302
Love and Mate Selectionp. 302
Marital Satisfactionp. 304
Divorcep. 306
Reproductive Choicep. 308
Reproductive Technologiesp. 308
You and the Social World: The Abortion Issuep. 309
Housework and Child Carep. 310
Domestic Violencep. 311
Family Diversityp. 313
Heterosexual Cohabitationp. 313
Same-Sex Unions and Partnershipsp. 314
Single-Mother Families: Racial and Ethnic Differencesp. 316
Zero-Child Familiesp. 318
Social Policy: What Do You Think? The Pro-Fatherhood Campaignp. 319
Family Policyp. 319
Crossnational Differences: The United States and Swedenp. 320
The Points of the Compassp. 322
Chapter Summaryp. 323
Questions to Considerp. 324
Web Resourcesp. 324
Religion and Educationp. 326
Religionp. 327
Classical Approaches in the Sociology of Religionp. 328
Durkheim: A Functionalist Approachp. 328
Religion, Conflict Theory, and Feminist Theoryp. 329
Weber and the Problem of Social Change: A Symbolic Interactionist Interpretationp. 332
The Rise, Decline, and Partial Revival of Religionp. 333
Secularizationp. 333
Religious Revivalp. 334
Religious Fundamentalism in the United Statesp. 335
Sociology at the Movies: Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2005)p. 336
Religious Fundamentalism Worldwidep. 337
Fundamentalism and Extremist Politics in the Arab Worldp. 337
The Revised Secularization Thesisp. 338
The Structure of Religion in the United States and the Worldp. 339
Types of Religious Organizationp. 339
Religiosityp. 342
The Future of Religionp. 343
Educationp. 343
Affirmative Action and Meritocracyp. 344
You and the Social World: Affirmative Actionp. 345
Macrosociological Processesp. 345
The Functions of Educationp. 345
The Effect of Economic Inequality from the Conflict Perspectivep. 346
Standardized Testsp. 347
Case Study: Functionalist versus Conflict Theories of the American Community Collegep. 350
Gender and Education: The Feminist Contributionp. 351
Microsociological Processesp. 351
The Stereotype Threat: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspectivep. 351
Cultural Capitalp. 352
Education and Globalizationp. 353
Crisis and Reform in U.S. Schoolsp. 354
Social Policy: What Do You Think? The No Child Left Behind Actp. 355
The Points of the Compassp. 358
Chapter Summaryp. 358
Questions to Considerp. 359
Web Resourcesp. 359
Politics, Work, and the Economyp. 360
Politicsp. 361
The Tobacco Warp. 361
Politics, Social Structure, and Political Institutionsp. 363
Power and Authorityp. 363
Types of Authorityp. 364
Types of Political Systemp. 364
Sociology at the Movies: Gangs of New York (2002)p. 367
Mass Media and Society: Television and Politicsp. 368
Theories of Democracyp. 369
Pluralist Theoryp. 369
Elite Theoryp. 369
The Elitist Critique of Pluralismp. 370
Power Resource Theoryp. 370
State-Centered Theoryp. 372
Politics by Other Meansp. 375
Warp. 375
Terrorism and Related Forms of Political Violencep. 376
World and the Economyp. 378
Economic Sectorsp. 378
The Division and Hierarchy of Laborp. 379
The Quality of Workp. 379
The Deskilling Thesisp. 380
A Critique of the Deskilling Thesisp. 380
Worker Resistance and Management Responsep. 381
Labor Market Segmentationp. 382
Free versus Regulated Marketsp. 384
Economic Systemsp. 384
Capitalismp. 384
Social Policy: What Do You Think? The Minimum wagep. 385
Communismp. 386
Democratic Socialismp. 387
The Corporationp. 387
Globalizationp. 388
Globalization and the Less Developed Countriesp. 390
The Future of Work and the Economyp. 391
The Points of the Compassp. 391
Chapter Summaryp. 392
Questions to Considerp. 393
Web Resourcesp. 393
Health, Medicine, Disability, and Agingp. 394
Health and Medicinep. 395
The Black Deathp. 395
Sociological Issues of Health, Medicine, Disability, and Agingp. 396
Defining and Measuring Healthp. 397
The Social Causes of Illness and Deathp. 398
Global Health Inequalitiesp. 399
Class Inequalities and Health Carep. 401
Racial and Ethnic Inequalities in Health Carep. 402
Gender Inequalities in Health Care: The Feminist Contributionp. 403
Health and Politics: The United States from Conflict and Functionalist Perspectivesp. 404
Social Policy: What Do You Think? The High Cost of Prescription Drugsp. 405
Problems with Private Health Insurance and Health Maintenance Organizationsp. 406
Advantages of Private and For-Profit Health Care Institutionsp. 406
You and the Social World: What Kind of Health System Do You Prefer?p. 407
The Professionalization of Medicinep. 408
Recent Challenges to Traditional Medical Sciencep. 409
Patient Activismp. 409
Alternative Medicinep. 410
Holistic Medicinep. 410
Disabilityp. 411
The Social Construction of Disabilityp. 411
Rehabilitation and Eliminationp. 412
Ablismp. 413
Challenging Ablism: The Normality of Disabilityp. 413
Sociology at the Movies: Shallow Hal (2001)p. 415
Agingp. 415
Age Stratificationp. 416
Theories of Age Stratificationp. 417
The Functionalist Viewp. 417
Conflict Theoryp. 417
Symbolic Interactionist Theoryp. 418
Social Problems of Elderly Peoplep. 418
Aging and Povertyp. 419
A Shortage of Caregiversp. 419
Ageismp. 419
Death and Dyingp. 421
Euthanasiap. 421
The Business of Dyingp. 422
The Points of the Compassp. 423
Chapter Summaryp. 423
Questions to Considerp. 424
Web Resourcesp. 424
Social Change
Collective Action and Social Movementsp. 426
How to Spark a Riotp. 427
The Study of Collective Action and Social Movementsp. 428
Nonroutine Collective Actionp. 429
The Lynching of Claude Nealp. 429
Breakdown Theoryp. 431
Deprivation, Crowds, and the Breakdown of Normsp. 431
Assessing Breakdown Theoryp. 432
Social Organization and Collective Actionp. 435
Social Movementsp. 437
Solidarity Theoryp. 437
Case Study: Strikes and the Union Movement in the United Statesp. 438
Social Policy: What Do You Think? Government Surveillance of Social Movementsp. 439
Strikes and Resource Mobilizationp. 441
Strikes and Political Opportunitiesp. 442
Framing Discontentp. 444
Examples of Frame Alignmentp. 444
An Application of Frame Alignment Theory: Back to 1968p. 445
Sociology at the Movies: The Day after Tomorrow (2004)p. 446
The Future of Social Movementsp. 446
You and the Social World: Organizing for Changep. 448
Goals of New Social Movementsp. 449
Membership in New Social Movementsp. 450
Globalization Potential of New Social Movementsp. 450
An Environmental Social Movementp. 450
Mass Media and Society: "The First Postmodern Revolution"p. 451
The Points of the Compassp. 452
Chapter Summaryp. 452
Questions to Considerp. 452
Web Resourcesp. 453
Population, Urbanization, and the Environmentp. 454
The City of Godp. 455
Populationp. 456
The Population "Explosion"p. 456
Social Policy: What Do You Think? How Can We Find 100 Million Missing Women?p. 458
Theories of Population Growthp. 459
The Malthusian Trapp. 459
A Critique of Malthusp. 460
Demographic Transition Theoryp. 461
A Critique of Demographic Transition Theoryp. 462
Population and Social Inequalityp. 463
Karl Marxp. 463
Gender Inequality and Overpopulationp. 463
Class Inequality and Overpopulationp. 464
Summing Upp. 464
Urbanizationp. 465
From the Preindustrial to the Industrial Cityp. 466
The Chicago School and the Industrial Cityp. 467
After Chicago: A Critiquep. 468
Mass Media and Society: The Mass Media and the Establishment of Communityp. 469
The Conflict View and New Urban Sociologyp. 470
The Corporate Cityp. 470
Sociology at the Movies: 8 Mile (2002)p. 472
The Postmodern Cityp. 472
The Environmentp. 475
Environmental Degradationp. 475
The Social Construction of Environmental Problemsp. 477
The Case of Global Warmingp. 478
The Social Distribution of Environmental Riskp. 479
What Is to Be Done?p. 482
The Market and High-Tech Solutionsp. 482
The Cooperative Alternativep. 483
The Points of the Compassp. 485
Chapter Summaryp. 486
Questions to Considerp. 487
Web Resourcesp. 487
Glossaryp. 489
Referencesp. 499
Creditsp. 535
Indexesp. 537
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