Solar Heating Systems for Houses

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2003-11-01
  • Publisher: ROUTLEDGE

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This is the must-have book for leaders in business, organizations and government scrambling to get a grip on sustainability while improving performance in the era of climate change.Renowned business and sustainability consultant Alan AtKisson distils d

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Solar combisystems and the global energy challengep. 1
Towards a sustainable energy futurep. 1
The contribution of solar thermal energy to the overall heat demand in Europep. 3
Collector area in operation in the year 2000 in Europep. 3
Current and medium-term energy supply from solar heating systemsp. 5
Solar combisystems--a promising solutionp. 6
Referencesp. 9
The solar resourcep. 10
Solar radiation and ambient temperaturep. 10
Availability of climatic datap. 15
Test Reference Yearsp. 15
Weather data generatorsp. 16
Referencesp. 16
Internet sites for climatic datap. 16
Heat demand of buildingsp. 17
Thermal quality of buildingsp. 17
The reference buildings of Task 26p. 20
Space heating demandp. 22
Hot water consumptionp. 28
DHW load profiles on a 1 minute timescalep. 29
DHW load profiles on a 6 minute timescalep. 33
DHW load profiles on an hourly timescalep. 35
Final remarksp. 35
Referencesp. 36
Generic solar combisystemsp. 38
Basic features of solar combisystems--a short summaryp. 38
Comparison of combisystems with solar water heatersp. 38
Stratification in water storage devicesp. 39
Classification of solar combisystemsp. 41
The generic solar combisystems consideredp. 43
Technical description of the generic systemsp. 48
General remarksp. 48
The symbols usedp. 49
System #1: basic direct solar floor (France)p. 51
System #2: heat exchanger between collector loop and space heating loop (Denmark)p. 53
System #3a: advanced direct solar floor (France)p. 55
System #4: DHW tank as a space heating storage device (Denmark and the Netherlands)p. 57
System #5: DHW tank as space heating storage device with drainback capability (the Netherlands)p. 59
System #6: heat storage in DHW tank and in collector drainback tank (the Netherlands)p. 61
System #7: space heating store with a single load-side heat exchanger for DHW (Finland)p. 62
System #8: space heating store with double load-side heat exchanger for DHW (Switzerland)p. 64
System #9: small DHW tank in space heating tank (Switzerland, Austria and Norway)p. 66
System #10: advanced small DHW tank in space heating tank (Switzerland)p. 69
System #11: space heating store with DHW load-side heat exchanger(s) and external auxiliary boiler (Finland and Sweden)p. 71
System #12: space heating store with DHW load-side heat exchanger(s) and external auxiliary boiler (advanced version) (Sweden)p. 73
System #13: two stores (series) (Austria)p. 75
System #14: two stores (parallel) (Austria)p. 77
System #15: two stratifiers in a space heating storage tank with an external load-side heat exchanger for DHW (Germany)p. 79
System #16: conical stratifer in space heating store with load-side heat exchanger for DHW (Germany)p. 81
System #17: tank open to the atmosphere with three heat exchangers (Germany)p. 83
System #18: finned-tube load-side DHW heat exchanger in stratifier (Germany)p. 85
System #19: centralized heat production, distributed heat load, stratified storage (Austria)p. 87
Large systems for seasonal heat storagep. 90
Referencep. 92
Building-related aspects of solar combisystemsp. 93
Space requirementsp. 93
Is a low space requirement always desirable?p. 93
How to achieve a low space requirement?p. 94
Space requirements of the 20 generic combisystemsp. 95
Architectural integration of collector arraysp. 99
Roof integrationp. 101
Facade integrationp. 107
Aesthetic aspectsp. 119
Project planning and boiler roomp. 122
Referencesp. 123
Further readingp. 124
Performance of solar combisystemsp. 125
Reference conditionsp. 125
Boiler parametersp. 126
Collector parametersp. 128
Pipe parametersp. 128
Storage parametersp. 129
Electricity consumption of system componentsp. 130
Combined total energy consumptionp. 134
Fractional energy savingsp. 135
Target functionsp. 136
Penalty functionsp. 137
Combisystems characterizationp. 141
FSC methodp. 141
Cost analysisp. 154
Referencesp. 162
Durability and reliability of solar combisystemsp. 163
General considerationsp. 163
Durable materialsp. 163
Reliable components and systemsp. 165
Quantitative assessment of system reliabilityp. 168
Stagnation behaviourp. 171
Stagnation in solar combisystemsp. 171
Stagnation in pressurized collector loops with expansion vesselsp. 173
Drainback technologyp. 182
Referencesp. 189
Dimensioning of solar combisystemsp. 191
Dimensioning guidelinesp. 192
Collector slope and orientationp. 192
Collector and store sizep. 194
Climate and loadp. 197
The boiler and the annual energy balancep. 198
Design of the heat storep. 201
Design of the collector circuitp. 206
Planning and design toolsp. 208
The Task 26 nomogramp. 211
The Task 26 design toolp. 213
Simulation of system performancep. 218
TRNSYS simulationsp. 219
Simulation of Task 26 systemsp. 220
Numerical models for solar combisystemsp. 222
Models used in Task 26p. 223
Parameter identification and verificationp. 229
Referencesp. 230
Simulation programsp. 230
Built examplesp. 231
Single-family house, Wildon, Austriap. 231
The Gneis-Moos Housing Estate, Salzburg, Austriap. 234
Single-family house, Koege, Denmarkp. 237
Multi-family house, Evessen, Germanyp. 239
Multi-family house with office, Frankfurt/Main, Germanyp. 243
Single-family house, Colbe, Germanyp. 246
Factory-made systems, Dordrecht, the Netherlandsp. 248
Single-family house, Saint Baldoph, Francep. 251
Single-family house, Saint Alban Leysse, Francep. 254
Single-family house, Falun, Swedenp. 257
Single-family house, Orebro, Swedenp. 260
Single-family house, Dombresson, Switzerlandp. 263
Single-family house, Buus, Switzerlandp. 266
Single-family house, Oslo, Norwayp. 269
Klosterenga Ecological Dwellings: multi-family house, Oslo, Norwayp. 272
Referencesp. 276
Testing and certification of solar combisystemsp. 277
European standardsp. 277
Classification of solar heating systemsp. 278
Current status of the European standardsp. 279
Testing of solar thermal componentsp. 280
Collectorsp. 280
Testing of hot water storesp. 281
Testing of solar heating systemsp. 282
The CSTG test methodp. 283
The DST methodp. 283
The CTSS methodp. 284
The DC and the CCT methodsp. 284
Certification of solar heating systemsp. 286
Referencesp. 287
Reference libraryp. 289
Contents of the reference library sorted by authorp. 289
Vocabularyp. 296
Terms and definitionsp. 296
Symbols and abbreviationsp. 301
Terms and definitions specific to Chapters 6 and 8p. 302
Referencesp. 303
IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programmep. 304
Completed Tasksp. 305
Completed Working Groupsp. 305
Current Tasksp. 305
Current Working Groupp. 306
Task 26p. 307
Participantsp. 308
Industry participantsp. 309
Indexp. 311
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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