Sources of Crossroads and Cultures, Volume I: To 1450 A History of the World's Peoples

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  • Copyright: 2012-01-30
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
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Designed to accompany Crossroads and Cultures: A History of the World's Peoples, this two-volume primary source reader extends the textbook's emphasis on the human dimension of global history through the voices of both notable figures and everyday individuals. Carefully developed by the esteemed author team of its parent text, Sources of Crossroads and Culturesreflects the geographic and thematic breadth and the key social, cultural, and political developments in each chapter of the textbook. With a blend of major works and fresh perspectives, each chapter contains approximately six sources, an introduction, document headnotes, and questions for discussion.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. iii
Introduction for Studentsp. xiv
The Ancient World, from Human Origins to 500, c.e.
Peopling the World, to 4000 b.c.e.p. 1
Theories of Human Evolution
The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871)p. 2
Tracing Ancestry with MtDNA (2002)p. 4
Finding Fossils
Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind (1981)p. 8
Oldest Skeleton of Human Ancestor Found (2009)p. 10
Interpreting Paleolithic Art
A Meeting in Lascaux: Civilized Man Rediscovers the Man of Desire (1953)p. 14
Ethnography as a Source of Historical Research
The Aborigines of Western Australia (1894)p. 17
Temples and Palaces: Birth of the City, 5000-1200 b.c.e.p. 22
The King Guarantees Justice in the Land
Hammurabi of Babylon, The Law Code of Hammurabi (c. 1755 B.c.E.)p. 22
The Importance of Scribes in Egypt and Mesopotamia
Advice to Egyptian Scribes (Thirteenth to Twelfth Centuries b.c.e.)p. 25
Dialogue between a Mesopotamian Schoolboy and an Adult (Eighteenth Century b.c.e.)p. 27
Marriage as Earliest International Diplomacy
Kadashman-Enlil of Babylon, The King of Babylonia Complains He Cannot Get an Egyptian Princess as Wife (1350 b.c.e.)p. 28
Puduhepa of Hatti, The Queen of the Hittites Explains Why Her Daughter Has Not Yet Gone to Egypt (c. 1260 b.c.e.)p. 29
The Egyptian Concern with Death
Unas Pyramid Texts (c. 2345 b.c.e.)p. 31
Contrasting Views: Can Humans Attain Immortality?
The Epic of Gilgamesh (Eighteenth or Seventeenth Century b.c.e.) and The Epic of Gilgamesh (Seventh Century b.c.e.)p. 35
Sargon of Assyria, The King Boasts of His Building a New Capital City (c. 710 b.c.e.)p. 38
Settlers and Migrants: The Creation of States in Asia, 5000-500 b.c.e.p. 41
Undeciphered Writing
Indus Valley Clay Tablet (2600-1900 b.c.e.)p. 41
Sacred Knowledge
Hymns from The Rig Veda (1500-900 b.c.e.)p. 43
A Vedic View on the Role of Women
The Laws of Manu (c. 100 b.c.e.-200 c.e.)p. 47
The Earliest Evidence of Chinese Writing Oracle Bones (c. 1200-1050 b.c.e.)p. 50
Life in Early China
The Book of Songs (c. 1027-771 b.c.e.)p. 53
Creation of Empire: North Africa and Southwest Asia, 1550-330 b.c.e.p. 59
Life in the Egyptian Empire
A Military Career in Egypt's New Kingdom (c. 1550 b.c.e.)p. 59
The Biography of a High Priest of Amun Bakenkhons (c. 1275 b.c.e.)p. 62
Foreign Conquerers in Egypt
The Nubian Conquest of Egypt (727 b.c.e.)p. 64
Assyrians Predict the Future by Reading the Signs of the Gods
Mesopotamian Omens (c. 650 b.c.e.)p. 67
The Persians Honor the God Ahuramazda
Gathas (1700-500 b.c.e.)p. 70
Life in the Jewish Community at Egyptian Elephantine
The Yedoniah Archive (c. 419-407 b.c.e.)p. 73
The Greeks and the Wider World, 1200-30 b.c.e.p. 77
Description of a Farmer's Life
Hesiod, Works and Days (c 700 b.c.e.)p. 77
What Law to Obey: Human or Divine?
Antigone (c 441 b.c.e.)p. 80
Contrasting Views: Is Democracy Good or Bad?
Thucydides, The Peloponnesian Wars (431 b.c.e.)p. 84
Plato, The Republic (c 380 b.c.e.)p. 86
An Athenian Court in Action
The Trial of Neaira (c 350 b.c.e.)p. 89
Representing Foreigners
A Classical Greek Depiction of a Dying Gaul (c 230-220 b.c.e.)p. 91
Peoples and World Empires: Classical India, the Kushan Empire, and China, 500 b.c.e.-500 c.e.p. 93
Contrasting Views: The Concept of Dharma in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism
The Bhagavad Gita (c. 300 b.c.e.-300 c.e.)p. 94
King Ashoka, Inscriptions (c. 260 b.c.e.)p. 95
Mahavira Vardhamana (attrib.), The Book of Good Conduct (c. 540 B.C.E.-500 c.e.)p. 96
The Power of Love
Shakuntala (c. 450 c.e.)p. 97
Advice on Proper Behavior
Analects (c. 479-100 b.c.e.)p. 102
Government Monopolies
The Debate on Salt and Iron (81 b.c.e.)p. 107
A Description of the Nomad's Lifestyle
Records of the Grand Historian (c. 100 b.c.e.)p. 110
The Unification of Western Eurasia, 500 b.c.e.-500 c.e.p. 114
The Decline of Roman Moral Values
Roman Women Protest Against the Oppian Law (195 b.c.e.)p. 114
A Glorification of Emperor Augustus
The Aeneid (19 b.c.e.)p. 118
Merging Biblical and Roman Ideas
City of God (413-426 c.e.)p. 121
Rome Meets the East
The Story of Queen Zenobia (c 395 c.e.)p. 124
Religious Debates in the Early Centuries c.e.
The Three Great Founders (c. 250 c.e.)p. 127
The Deeds of Archelaos (c 350 c.e.)p. 129
Reading the Unwritten Record: Peoples of Africa, the Americas, and the Pacific Islands, 3000 b.c.e.-500 c.e.p. 131
An Early Ethnographic Description of Sub-Saharan Africa Ibn Battuta, Travels (1353-1355 c.e.)p. 131
Weaving as Visual Expression
The Paracas Mantle (c. 100-300 c.e.)p. 135
Tales of Andean Origins
Huarochiri Manuscript (c 1600 c.e.)p. 137
Women and Writing in Ancient China
Lessons for Women (c. 100 c.e.)p. 143
The Power of Writing
Odes (23 b.c.e.)p. 145
A Eulogy to Dead Authors (c 1200 b.c.e.)p. 146
The Formation of Regional Societies, 500-1450 c.e.
The Worlds of Christianity and Islam, 400-1000p. 149
The Making of a Christian Saint
The Life of Saint Eligius (609-686)p. 149
The Pastoral Mission
Pope Gregory the Great, Letters (591-597)p. 153
Tyrannical Rule of Justinian and Theodora
Procopius, The Secret History (c. 550-c. 560)p. 156
Contrasting Views: The Debate over Divine Images in Byzantine Christianity
John of Damascus, From On Holy Images (c 730)p. 161
The Council of 754 Condemns Iconsp. 162
John of Jerusalem on the Origins of the Iconoclasm Movement (787)p. 165
Muhammad Begins His Public Preaching
The Life of the Messenger of God (Eighth Century)p. 166
The Caliph Relieves an Honorable Jurist of His Debts
The Table-Talk of a Mesopotamian Judge (Tenth Century)p. 169
Religion and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Asia, 400-1000
Travels of the Buddhist Pilgrim Xuanzang in Sogdia and Afghanistan
The Life of Xuanzang (688)p. 173
Ibn Fadlan's Travels Among the Turks and Khazars
Journey to Russia (921-922)p. 177
Instructions for My Sons
Family Instructions of the Yan Clan (589)p. 180
Contrasting Views: The Reception of Buddhism in East Asia
Yan Zhitui, A Confucian Scholar's Dedication to Buddhism (589)p. 185
Han Yu, Memorial on the Bone of the Buddha (819)p. 187
The Chronicle of Japan (Nihongi) (720)p. 189
Conduct of the Well-Bred Townsman
Kama Sutra (c. 400)p. 193
Scenes from Eighth-Century Java
Central Java (c. 760-820)p. 197
Societies and Networks in the Americas and the Pacific, 300-1200p. 201
A Maya Sculpted Tablet
Inscription of the Temple of the Tree of Yellow Corn (690)p. 201
Origins of the Human Race in Maya Mythology
The Sacred Book of the Maya (c. mid-1500s)p. 205
Peoples and Customs of the Lake Titicaca Region
Cronica del Peru (1553)p. 277
Zuni Oral Traditions on the Origins and Dispersal of the Clans
The Mythic World of the Zuni (1891-1892)p. 214
Images of Divine Power
Hawaiian Gods of Agriculture and War (Late Eighteenth-Early Nineteenth Century)p. 278
The Rise of Commerce in Eurasia and Africa, 900-1300p. 223
Guidelines for Estate Management
The Rules (c. 1240)p. 223
The Market Inspector at Seville
The Markets of Seville (c. 1100)p. 227
Splendors of Hangzhou
A Memoir of the Splendors of the Capital (c. 1235)p. 230
Angkor and Java: Lands Across the Sea
A Gazetteer of Lands Across the Sea (1225)p. 234
Business Partnerships in Florence
Diary (1375-1406)p. 238
Centers of Learning and the Transmission of Culture, 900-1300p. 243
A Controversial Christian Theologian
The Story of My Misfortunes (c. 1132)p. 243
Spiritual Quest of a Female Mystic
The Book of Margery Kempe (c. 1436-1438)p. 247
The Education of Ibn Sina
The Life of Ibn Sina, from The History of Learned Men (c. 1227)p. 251
Contrasting Views Reason Versus Revelation in Islamic Learning
Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, Deliverance from Error (c. 1110)p. 255
On the Harmony of Religion and Philosophy (c. 1190)p. 257
Sharafuddin Ahmad Yahya Maneri, Letters (1346-1347)p. 258
Fate and Fortune in China's Civil Service Examinations
Tales of the Listener (1160-1180)p. 261
Court Life in Japan from a Woman's Perspective
The Pillow Book (c. 1002)p. 264
Crusaders, Mongols, and Eurasian Integration, j 1050-1350p. 270
The Great Schism in the Christian Church
Reciprocal Excommunications (1054)p. 270
The Crusaders in Captivity John of Joinville, The Life of Saint Louis (1309)p. 274
I The Christian Conquest of Valencia
The Chronicle of Jaime I of Aragon (1238) and the Charter Issued by Jaime I (1242)p. 278
Contrasting Views: European and Muslim Depictions of the Mongol Khans
The History of the World Conqueror (c. 1252-1260)p. 282
The Journey of Friar William of Rubruck (c. 1255)p. 284
Marco Polo, The Description of the World (c. 1307)p. 286
Mongol Rule in Russia
Medieval Russian Chronicles (c. 1257-1409)p. 289
Collapse and Revival in Afro-Eurasia. 1300-1450p. 293
The Plague in Florence and Its Economic Effects
Florentine Chronicle (c. 1370-1380)p. 293
The English Peasant Revolt
Chronicles of England, France, Spain, and the Adjoining Countries (1400)p. 297
The Ming Emperor's Rules for Village Government
The Placard of the People's Instructions (1398)p. 300
Religious Allegory in Persian Manuscript Illuminations
Prince Humay Meets the Lady Humayun in Her Garden by Moonlight (Early Fifteenth Century)p. 304
The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks
Tale of the Capture of Constantinople (c. 1500)p. 306
The Sultan of Mali
Rihla (1356)p. 309
Glorious Venice
In Praise of the City of Venice (1493)p. 373
The Early Modern World, 1450-1750
Empires and Alternatives in the Americas, 1430-1530p. 317
Aztec Sacrifice
Florentine Codex (c. 1540-1560)p. 377
Aztec Child Rearing
Codex Mendoza (c. 1540)p. 327
The Inca Huayna Capac's Final Days
Narrative of the Incas (1557)p. 324
Andean Religion
Huarochiri Manuscript (c. 1600)p. 327
Jesuit Views on Huron Society
Jesuit Relations (1632-1637)p. 330
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