Sources of The Making of the West, Volume I: To 1750 Peoples and Cultures

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-01-12
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Sources of The Making of the Westprovides written and visual documents closely aligned with each chapter of The Making of the West. This two-volume collection reinforces the major political, economic, social, and cultural developments in the textbook by allowing students to engage directly with the voices of those who experienced them. Over thirty new documents and visual sources highlight the diversity of historical voices including both notable figures and ordinary individuals that shaped each period. To aid students in approaching and interpreting documents, each chapter contains an introduction, document headnotes, and questions for discussion.

Author Biography

Katharine J. Lualdi (Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania) is coeditor of Penitence in the Age of Reformations (Ashgate, 2000) and Handbook for Curates: A Late Medieval Manual of Pastoral Care (The Catholic University of America Press, forthcoming). She has also authored numerous articles and book chapters on sixteenth-century French Catholicism. She teaches history and religion at the University of Southern Maine.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. v
Introduction: Working with Historical Sourcesp. 1
Early Western Civilization, 4000-1000 B.C.E.p. 15
Denning Humanity: Epic of Gilgamesh (c. 2000 B.C.E.)p. 15
Establishing Law and Justice: King Hammurabi, The Code of Hammurabi (Early Eighteenth Century B.C.E.)p. 18
Praising the One God: Hymn to the Aten (Fourteenth Century B.C.E.)p. 26
Writing Experiences: Egyptian Scribal Exercise Book (Twelfth Century B.C.E.)p. 28
Allying for Peace: The "Eternal Treaty" between the Egyptians and Hittites (c. 1259 B.C.E.)p. 32
Empires in the Near East and the Reemergence of Civilization in Greece, 1000-500 B.C.E.p. 37
Empires and Divine Right: Inscription Honoring Cyrus, King of Persia (r. c. 557-530 B.C.E.)p. 37
Monotheism and Mosaic Law: The Book of Exodus, Chapters 19-20 (c. Tenth-Sixth Centuries B.C.E.)p. 39
The Quest for Individual Excellence (Arete): Homer, The Odyssey (Eighth Century B.C.E.)p. 42
Two Visions of the City-State: Tyrtaeus of Sparta and Solon of Athens, Poems (Seventh-Sixth Centuries B.C.E.)p. 51
Economics and the Expansion of Slavery: Xenophon, Revenues (Fourth Century B.C.E.)p. 54
The Greek Golden Age, c. 500-c. 400 B.C.E.p. 57
The Golden Age of Athens: Thucydides, The Funeral Oration of Pericles (429 B.C.E.)p. 57
Movement in Stone: Myron of Eleutherai, Discus Thrower (c. 450 B.C.E.)p. 60
The Emergence of Philosophy: Plato, The Apology of Socrates (399 B.C.E.)p. 62
The Advance of Science: Hippocrates of Cos, On the Sacred Disease (400 B.C.E.)p. 66
Domestic Boundaries: Euphiletus, A Husband Speaks in His Own Defense (c. 400 B.C.E.) and Overhead Views of a House on the North Slope of the Areopagus (Fifth Century B.C.E.)p. 69
Protesting War, Performing Satire: Aristophanes, Lysistrata (411 B.C.E.)p. 75
From the Classical to the Hellenistic World, 400-30 B.C.E.p. 84
The Conquest of New Lands: Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander the Great (Fourth Century B.C.E.)p. 84
Imperial Bureaucracy: Zeno, Egyptian Official, Records (259-250 B.C.E.)p. 88
Everyday Life: Funerary Inscriptions and Epitaphs (Fifth-First Centuries B.C.E.)p. 92
In Pursuit of Happiness: Epicurus, Letter to a Friend (Late Third Century B.C.E.)p. 95
Exacting Science: Archimedes, Letter to Eratosthenes (Third Century B.C.E.) and Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, Archimedes' "Eureka!"Moment (c. 30-20 B.C.E.)p. 97
The Rise of Rome and Its Republic, 753-44 B.C.E.p. 101
Formalizing Roman Law: The Twelve Tables (451-449 B.C.E.)p. 101
Artistic Influences: Etruscan Statuette of a Rider (c. 434-400 B.C.E.) and Roman Bust of Lucius Junius Brutus (c. 300 B.C.E.)p. 107
Status and Discrimination: Roman Women Demonstrate against the Oppian Law (195 B.C.E.)p. 110
"Cultivating Justice and Piety": Cicero, On the Commonwealth (54 B.C.E.)p. 114
Failure and Factionalism: The Gracchan Reforms (133 B.C.E.)p. 117
Toward Empire: Julius Caesar, The Gallic War (52 B.C.E.)p. 120
The Creation of the Roman Empire, 44 B.C.E.-284 C.E.p. 124
An Empire Foretold: Virgil, The Aeneid (First Century B.C.E.)p. 124
An Urban Empire: Notices and Graffiti Describe Life in Pompeii (First Century C.E.)p. 128
New Influences to the North: Tacitus, Germania (c. 98 C.E.)p. 131
The Making of a New Religion: Paul of Tarsus, Letter to the Galatians (First Century C.E.)p. 134
The Cult of Isis: Apulieus, The Golden Ass (c. 170 c.E.)p. 137
The Transformation of the Roman Empire, 284-600 C.E.p. 141
The Establishment of Roman Christian Doctrine: Arius, Letter to Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria (c. 320 C.E.) and The Nicene Creed (325 C.E.)p. 141
The Struggle of Conversion: Augustine of Hippo, Confessions (c. 397)p. 143
The Development of Monasticism: Benedict of Nursia, The Rule of Saint Benedict (c. 540)p. 146
Germanic Law in the Roman Empire: The Burgundian Code (c. 475-525 C.E.)p. 149
Emergence of Byzantium: Procopius, Secret History (550 C.E.)p. 154
The Heirs of Rome: Islam, Byzantium, and Europe, 600-750p. 158
The Foundations of Islam: QurĈan, Suras 1, 53, 98 (c. 610-632)p. 158
Jihad and Jizya: Islamic Terms of Peace (633-643)p. 161
Byzantine Life: The Life of St. Theodore of Sykeon (Early Seventh Century)p. 164
A Noblewoman's Life: The Life of Lady Balthild, Queen of the Franks (Late Seventh Century)p. 167
Roman Christian Missions: Pope Gregory the Great, Letters (598-601)p. 172
From Centralization to Fragmentation, 750-1050p. 175
The Rule of Charlemagne: General Capitulary for the Missi (802)p. 175
Resistance from Constantinople: Liutprand of Cremona, Report to Otto I (968)p. 179
The Macedonian Renaissance: Harbaville Triptych (c. 950)p. 183
A New Islamic Dynasty: Ahmad al-Ya'qubi, Kitdb al-buldan (Ninth Century)p. 184
Advances in Medicine: Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyu Al-razi, A Treatise on the Small-Pox and Measles (c. 910)p. 187
The Faithful Vassal: Fulbert of Chartres, Letter to William of Aquitaine (1020)p. 190
Commercial Quickening and Religious Reform, 1050-1150p. 193
Medieval Business: Commenda Contracts (Eleventh-Twelfth Centuries)p. 193
Sources of the Investiture Conflict: Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII, Letter and Excommunication (1076)p. 197
Calling the First Crusade: Fulcher of Chartres, Pope Urban II's Speech at Clermont (1095)p. 199
Arab Response to the First Crusade: Ibn al-Athir, A Muslim Perspective (1097-1099)p. 201
The Power of William I: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1085-1086) and Domesday Book (1086-1087)p. 206
The Flowering of the Middle Ages, 1150-1215p. 211
New Learning: Peter Abelard, The Story of My Misfortunes (c. 1132)p. 211
Scholarly Pursuits and Youthful Frolics: Medieval University Life (Twelfth-Early Thirteenth Centuries)p. 215
Courtly Love: Chretien de Troyes, Lancelot: The Knight of the Cart (c. 1170s)p. 220
Franciscan Piety: St. Francis and St. Clare of Assisi, Selected Writings (Thirteenth Century)p. 226
The Sack of Constantinople: Annals of Niketas Choniates (1204)p. 231
The Medieval Synthesis - and Its Cracks, 1215-1340p. 235
Reconciling Faith and Reason: Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae (1273)p. 235
A Female Mystic: Hadewijch of Brabant, Letters and Poems (1220-1240)p. 240
Defining Outsiders: Thomas of Monmouth, The Life and Martyrdom of St. William of Norwich (c. 1173)p. 243
Imagining Hell: Dante Alighieri, Divine Comedy (1313-1321)p. 246
The New Power of Medieval States: Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam (1302) and King Philip IV of France, General Assembly of Paris (1303)p. 250
Crisis and Renaissance, 1340-1492p. 254
Demographic Catastrophe: The Black Death (Fourteenth Century)p. 254
Crisis and Change: Thomas Walsingham: Peasant Rebels in London (1381)p. 259
Satirizing the Church: Geoffrey Chaucer, The Pardoner's Prologue (1387-1400)p. 262
Preaching Reform: Jan Hus, Letters (1408-1415)p. 266
Extolling Humanism: Giovanni Rucellai and Leonardo Bruni, Florence in the Quattrocento (1427 and 1457)p. 271
Women's Place in Renaissance Italy: Alessandra, Letters from a Widow and Matriarch of a Great Family (1450-1465)p. 274
Global Encounters and the Shock of the Reformation, 1492-1560p. 278
Worlds Collide: Bernal Diaz del Castillo, The True History of the Conquest of New Spain (c. 1567)p. 278
Illustrating a Native Perspective: Lienzo de Tlaxcala (c. 1560)p. 283
Defending Native Humanity: Bartolomé de Las Casas, In Defense of the Indians (c. 1548-1550)p. 284
Scripture and Salvation: Martin Luther, Freedom of a Christian (1520)p. 287
Reforming Christianity: John Calvin, Articles Concerning Predestination (c. 1560) and The Necessity of Reforming the Church (1543)p. 289
Responding to Reformation: St. Ignatius of Loyola, A New Kind of Catholicism (1546, 1549, 1553)p. 291
Wars of Religion and Clash of Worldviews, 1560-1648p. 296
Legislating Tolerance: Henry IV, Edict of Nantes (1598)p. 296
Barbarians All: Michel de Montaigne, Of Cannibals (1580s)p. 300
Defending Religious Liberty: Apology of the Bohemian Estates (May 25, 1618)p. 302
The Scientific Challenge: Galileo, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina (1615)p. 306
The Persecution of Witches: The Trial of Suzanne Gaudry (1652)p. 310
Absolutism, Constitutionalism, and the Search for Order, 1640-1715p. 317
Mercantilism in the Colonies: Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Instructions (1667, 1668) and A Royal Ordinance (1669)p. 317
Regime Change: The Trial of Charles I (January 1649)p. 321
Civil War and Social Contract: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651)p. 326
The Consent of the Governed: John Locke, The Second Treatise of Government (1690)p. 331
Opposing Serfdom: Ludwig Fabritius, The Revolt of Stenka Razin (1670)p. 335
The Atlantic System and Its Consequences, 1700-1750p. 338
Captivity and Enslavement: Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Written by Himself (1789)p. 338
A "Sober and Wholesome Drink": A Brief Description of the Excellent Vertues of That Sober and Wholesome Drink, Called Coffee (1674)p. 341
Westernizing Russian Culture: Peter I, Decrees and Statutes (1701-1723)p. 345
Early Enlightenment: Voltaire, Letters Concerning the English Nation (1733)p. 348
Questioning Women's Submission: Mary Astell, Reflections upon Marriage (1706)p. 352
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