Sources of the Western Tradition Volume I: From Ancient Times to the Enlightenment

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-12-27
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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With a collection of over 350 sources, each accompanied by an introductory essay and review questions, this two-volume primary source reader emphasizes the intellectual history and values of the Western tradition. Sources are grouped around important themes in European history--such as religion, education, and art and culture--so that readers can analyze and compare multiple documents. The Eighth Edition features additional sources by and about women, completely revised chapters on modern Europe and its place in the contemporary world, and updates to introductions and review questions.

Table of Contents

The Ancient World
The Near East
Mesopotamian Protest against Death: Epic of Gilgamesh
Mesopotamian Concepts of Justice: Code of Hammurabi
Divine Kingship in Egypt: Hymns to the Pharaohs
Guidelines for the Ruler
Religious Inspiration of Akhenaten: Hymn to Aton
Love, Passion, and Misogyny in Ancient Egypt: Love Poetry
The Instruction of Ankhsheshonq
Empire Builders: the Assyrian Empire, Inscription of Tiglathpileser I
The Persian Empire, Inscriptions of Cyrus and Darius I
The Myth-Making Outlook of the Ancient Near East: Personification of Natural Objects
Lament for Ur, the Gods and Human Destiny
The Hebrews
Hebrew Cosmogony and Anthropology: Genesis
Human Sinfulness: Genesis, the Origins of Sin
The Covenant and the Ten Commandments: Exodus, the Covenant
Exodus, the Ten Commandments
Humaneness of Hebrew Law: Exodus, Crime and Punishment
Leviticus, Neighbor and Community
Deuteronomy, Judges, Witnesses, and Justice
God's Greatness and Human Dignity: Psalm 8
Psalm 104
The Problem of Undeserved Suffering: Job, "[God] destroys both the blameless and the wicked."
The Age of Classical Prophecy: Amos and Isaiah, Social Justice
Isaiah, Peace and Humanity
The Greeks
Homer: the Educator of Greece: Homer, the Iliad
Lyric Poetry: Sappho, Love, Passion, and Friendship
Early Greek Philosophy: the Emancipation of Thought from Myth: Aristotle, Thales of Miletus
Aristotle, Pythagoras
The Expansion of Reason: Hippocrates, the Sacred Disease, the Separation of Medicine from Myth
Thucydides, Method of Historical Inquiry
Critias, Religion as a Human Invention
Humanism: Pindar, the Pursuit of Excellence
Sophocles, Lauding Human Talents
The Persian Wars: Herodotus, the Histories
Greek Drama: Sophocles, Antigone
Athenian Greatness: Thucydides, the Funeral Oration of Pericles
The Status of Women in Classical Greek Society: Euripides, Medea
Aristophanes, Lysistrata
The Peloponnesian War: Thucydides, the Melian Dialogue and the Revolution at Corcyra
Socrates: the Rational Individual: Plato, the Apology
Plato: the Philosopher-King: Plato, the Republic
Aristotle: Science, Politics, and Ethics: Aristotle, History of Animals, Politics, and Nicomachean Ethics
Hellenistic Culture: Universalism and Individualism: Plutarch, Cultural Fusion
Epicurus, Self-Sufficiency
Greek Culture and the Jews in the Hellenistic Age: First Book of Maccabees, Jewish Resistance to Forced Hellenization
Philo of Alexandria, Appreciation of Greek Culture and Synthesis of Reason and Revelation
The Roman Republic
Rome's March to World Empire: Polybius, the Roman Army
The Punic Wars: Livy, the Second Punic War: the Threat from Hannibal
Appian of Alexandria, the Third Punic War: the Destruction of Carthage
The Spread of Greek Philosophy to Rome: Lucretius, Denunciation of Religion
Cicero, Advocate of Stoicism
Cato the Elder, Hostility to Greek Philosophy
Roman Slavery: Diodorus Siculus, Slaves: Torment and Revolt
Appian of Alexandria, the Revolt of Spartacus
Women in Republican Society: Quintus Lucretius Vespillo, a Funeral Eulogy for a Roman Wife
The Decline of the Republic: Plutarch, Tiberius Gracchus
Cicero, Justifying Caesar's Assassination
Velleius Paterculus, the Triumph of Octavian
Sallust, Moral Deterioration
The Roman Empire
The Imperial Office: Augustus, the Achievements of the Divine Augustus
Tacitus, the Imposition of One-Man Rule
Imperial Culture: Virgil, the Aeneid
Ovid, the Art of Love
Juvenal, the Satires
Roman Stoicism: Seneca, the Moral Epistles
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations
Roman Law: Justinian, Corpus Iurius Civilis
Provincial Administration: Correspondence between Pliny the Younger and Emperor Trajan
The Roman Peace: Aelius Aristides, the Roman Oration, the Blessings of the Pax Romana
Tacitus, the Other Side of the Pax Romana
Third-Century Crisis: Dio Cassius, Caracalla's Extortions
Petition to Emperor Phillip
Herodian, Extortions of Maximinus
The Demise of Rome: Ammianus Marcellinus, the Battle of Adrianople
Salvian, Political and Social Injustice
Saint Jerome, the Fate of Rome
Pope Gregory I, the End of Roman Glory
Early Christianity
The Teachings of Jesus: the Gospel According to Saint Mark
The Gospel According to Saint Matthew
The Dead Sea Scrolls: the Qumran Community, the Community Rule
Christianity and Greco-Roman Learning: Tertullian, What Has Jerusalem to Do with Athens?
Clement of Alexandria, in Defense of Greek Learning
Saint Augustine, Appropriating Pagan Learning and Institutions for Christian Ends
The Persecutions: Persecutions at Lyons and Vienne
Monastic Life: Saint Jerome, the Agony of Solitude in the Desert
Cassian of Marseilles, On the Dangers and Fruits of Solitude
Saint Benedict of Nursia, the Benedictine Rule
Christianity and Society: Lactantius, Acquisitiveness as the Source of Evil
Saint Benedict of Nursia, the Christian Way of Life
The Apostle Paul, the Submissive Role of Women
Jews in the Era of Early Christianity: Saint John Chrysostom, Christian Demonization of Jews
Rabbinic Judaism: Ethical Concerns
Church and State: Pope Gelasius I, Letter to Emperor Anastasius
The Christian World-View: Saint Augustine, the City of God
The Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages
The Byzantine Cultural Achievement: Theophylact Simocattes, the Value of Reason and History
Islam: the Koran
Muslim Relations with Christians and Jews: Legal Texts and Decrees: Restrictions on Dhimmis
Jihad: Sayings Attributed to the Prophet: Ibn Taymiyyah, the Religious and Moral Doctrine of Jihad
Islam and Greek Learning: Avicenna, Love of Learning
Converting the Germanic Peoples to Christianity: Bede, History of the English Church and People
Einhard, Forcible Conversion under Charlemagne
Martin of Braga, the Persistence of Paganism in the Countryside
The Transmission of Learning: Cassiodorus, the Monk as Scribe
The Carolingian Renaissance: Einhard, Charlemagne's Appreciation of Learning
Charlemagne, An Injunction to Monasteries to Cultivate Letters
The Feudal Lord: Vassal and Warrior: Galbert of Bruges, Commendation and the Oath of Fealty
Bishop Fulbert of Chartres, Obligations of Lords and Vassals
Bertran de Born, in Praise of Combat
The Burdens of Serfdom: Bishop Adalbero of Laon, the Tripartite Society
Ralph Glaber, Monk of Cluny, Famine
William of Jumi?ges and Wace, Failed Rebellion
The High and Late Middle Ages
The Revival of Trade and the Growth of Towns: How to Succeed in Business
Ordinances of the Guild Merchant of Southampton
Alliance of German Towns to Protect Merchants, 1253
Papal Supremacy: Pope Gregory VII, the Dictatus Papae
Pope Innocent III, "Royal Power Derives Its Dignity from the Pontifical Authority."
The Crusades: Robert the Monk, Appeal of Urban II to the Franks
William of Tyre, the Capture of Jerusalem
James of Vitry, "The Remission of Sins and the Reward of Eternal Life."
Religious Dissent: Thomas Aquinas, Death for Unrepentant Heretics
Bernard Gui, the Waldensian Teachings
Medieval Learning: Synthesis of Reason and Christian Faith: Adelard of Bath, a Questioning Spirit
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica
Medieval Universities: Geoffrey Chaucer, an Oxford Cleric
Student Letters
A Wandering Scholar, "In the Tavern Let Me Die."
The Jews in the Middle Ages: Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle, Massacre of the Jews of Mainz
A Decree by Pope Innocent III
The Libel of Ritual Murder
Philip II Augustus, Expulsion of the Jews from France
Maimonides, Jewish Learning
Troubadour Love Songs: Love as Joyous, Painful, and Humorous
The Status of Women in Medieval Society: Jacopone da Todi, Praise of the Virgin Mary, "O Thou Mother, Fount of Love"
Christine de Pisan, the City of Ladies
A Merchant of Paris, On Love and Marriage
Sexual Nonconformity: Satan's Lures: Robert of Flamborough, Prohibition of Sexual Sins
Peter Damian, Condemnation of Homosexuality
Medieval Contributions to the Tradition of Liberty: John of Salisbury, Policraticus, a Defense of Tyrannicide
Magna Carta
The Fourteenth Century: An Age of Adversity: Jean de Venette, the Black Death
Sir John Froissart, the Peasant Revolt of 1381
John Wycliffe, Concerning the Pope's Power
Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay, Exterminating the Cathars
Marsilius of Padua, Attack on the Worldly Power of the Church
The Medieval World-View: Lothario dei Segni (Pope Innocent III), On the Misery of the Human Condition
The Vanity of This World
Dante Alighieri, the Divine Comedy
Early Modern Europe
The Renaissance
The Humanists' Fascination with Antiquity: Petrarch, the Father of Humanism
Leonardo Bruni, Study of Greek Literature and a Humanist Educational Program
Petrus Paulus Vergerius, the Importance of Liberal Studies
Human Dignity: Pico della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man
Break with Medieval Political Theory: Niccol? Machiavelli, the Prince
The Ideal Gentleman: Baldassare Castiglione, the Book of the Courtier
Renaissance Art and Science: Leonardo da Vinci, Observation and Mathematical Perspective
Leonardo on His Own Genius
The Spread of the Renaissance: Fran?ois Rabelais, Celebration of the Worldly Life
William Shakespeare, Human Nature and the Human Condition
The Reformation
A Catholic Critic of the Church: Desiderius Erasmus, in Praise of Folly
The Lutheran Reformation: Martin Luther, On Papal Power, Justification by Faith, the Interpretation of the Bible, and the Nature of the Clergy
Ulrich von Hutten, Resentment of Rome
The German Peasants' Revolt: Anonymous, to the Assembly of the Common Peasantry
Martin Luther, Against the Peasants
Luther and the Jews: Martin Luther, On the Jews and Their Lies
The Calvinist Reformation: John Calvin, the Institutes of the Christian Religion
The Catholic Response to Protestantism: Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent
Religious Persecution: Chronicle of King Francis I, Burning of Protestants in Paris
The Persecution of Anabaptists: the Examination of Elizabeth Dirks
Menno Simons, An Anabaptist Rejection of the Use of Force
Early Modern Society and Politics
The Age of Exploration and Conquest: Bernal D?az del Castillo, the Discovery and Conquest of Mexico
Spanish Oppression of Amerindians: Juan Lopez de Palacios Rubios, Justifying Spanish Domination of Amerindians
Bartolom? de las Casas, the Tears of the Indians
Toward the Modern Economy: the Example of Holland: William Carr, the Dutch East India Company
The Jews of Spain and Portugal: Expulsion, Forced Conversion, Inquisition: Proceedings of the Spanish Inquisition: the Torture of Elvira del Campo
Dami?o de Gois, the Forced Conversion of Portuguese Jews
The Atlantic Slave Trade: Seventeenth-Century Slave Traders, Buying and Transporting Africans
Malachy Postlethwayt, Slavery Defended
John Wesley, Thoughts Upon Slavery
Olaudah Equiano, Memoirs of a Former Slave
The Witch Craze: Jakob Sprenger and Heinrich Kr?mer, the Hammer of Witches
Johannes Junius, a Confession of Witchcraft Explained
Nicholas Malebranche, Search After Truth
The Court of Louis XIV: Duc de Saint-Simon, An Assessment of Louis XIV
Liselotte von der Pfalz (Elizabeth Charlotte d'Orleans), a Sketch of Court Life
Justification of Absolute Monarchy by Divine Right: Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture
A Secular Defense of Absolutism: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
The Triumph of Constitutional Monarchy in England: the Glorious Revolution: the English Declaration of Rights
The Scientific Revolution
The Copernican Revolution: Nicolaus Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
Cardinal Bellarmine, Attack on the Copernican Theory
Galileo: Confirming the Copernican System: Galileo Galilei, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican
Galileo Before the Inquisition
Prophet of Modern Science: Francis Bacon, Attack on Authority and Advocacy of Experimental Science
The Circulation of the Blood: Validating the Empirical Method: William Harvey, the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals
The Autonomy of the Mind: Ren? Descartes, Discourse on Method
The Mechanical Universe: Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica
The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment Outlook: Immanuel Kant, What is Enlightenment?
Political Liberty: John Locke, Second Treatise on Government
Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence
Attack on Religion: Voltaire, a Plea for Tolerance and Reason
Thomas Paine, the Age of Reason
Baron d'Holbach, Good Sense
Epistemology and Education: John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Claude Helv?tius, Essays on the Mind and a Treatise on Man
Compendium of Knowledge: Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia
Rousseau: Political Reform: Jean Jacques Rousseau, the Social Contract
Humanitarianism: Caesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishments
John Howard, Prisons in England and Wales
Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia "Men and Their Liberty are Not Objects of Commerce?"
Marquis de Condorcet, the Evils of Slavery
Literature as Satire: Critiques of European Society: Voltaire, Candide
Denis Diderot, Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville
Montesquieu, the Persian Letters
On the Progress of Humanity: Marquis de Condorcet, Progress of the Human Mind
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