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Speech Science An Integrated Approach to Theory and Clinical Practice

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2017-01-20
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Speech Science: An Integrated Approach to Theory and Clinical Practice, 4th Edition focuses on the relationship between the scientific study of speech production and perception and the application of the material to the effective evaluation and treatment of communication disorders. Theoretical material is presented first, followed by clinical application chapters highlighting specific disorders. The organization of chapters in the new edition now more closely follows the speech subsystems approach, beginning with basic acoustics, and moving on to the respiratory system, phonatory system, articulatory/resonatory system, auditory system, and nervous system. As in previous editions, the book concludes with information on classic and current models and theories of speech production and perception. New and revised full color illustrations and larger spectrograms supplement the concepts presented by clearly depicting scientific and anatomical material and ensuring understanding of the links between the underlying science and human communicative behavior.

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Author Biography

Dr. Carole Ferrand earned her BA in English at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, and her MS and PhD in Communication Sciences and Disorders from the Pennsylvania State University. She teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in speech science, and a graduate level course in Voice Disorders. Her research focuses on acoustic attributes of normal and disordered speech production. In addition to Speech Science: An Integrated Approach to Theory and Clinical Practice, she is the author of the textbook, Voice Disorders: Scope of Theory and Practice. When not writing books, Dr. Ferrand enjoys reading historical fiction, a capella singing, and playing banjo.

Table of Contents


CHAPTER 1: The Nature of Sound

CHAPTER 2: The Respiratory System

CHAPTER 3: Clinical Application: Evaluation and Treatment of Respiratory Disorders

CHAPTER 4: The Phonatory/Laryngeal System

CHAPTER 5: Clinical Application: Evaluation and Treatment of Phonatory Disorders

CHAPTER 6: The Articulatory/Resonatory System

CHAPTER 7: Clinical Application: Evaluation and Treatment of Articulatory and Resonance Disorders

CHAPTER 8: The Auditory System

CHAPTER 9: Clinical Application: Evaluation and Treatment of Disorders Related to Hearing Impairment

CHAPTER 10: The Nervous System

CHAPTER 11: Clinical Application: Brain Imaging in the Evaluation and Treatment of Disorders of the Nervous System

CHAPTER 12: Models and Theories of Speech Production and Perception


Foreword xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

Introduction xix

Chapter 1: The Nature of Sound   1

International System of Units  2

Basic Physics Concepts  3

Mass, Force, Weight, Volume, and Density  3

Speed, Velocity, Momentum, Acceleration, (and Inertia  5

Elasticity and Stiffness  5

Work, Energy, Power, and Intensity  5

Pressure  6

Sound: Changes in Air Pressure  7

Behavior of Air  7

Air Pressure  7

Airflow  8

Relationship between Air Pressure, Air Volume, and Air Density  8

The Nature of Sound  9

Why Molecules Keep Vibrating: Elasticity, Inertia, and Friction  11

Sound Propagation  13

Wave Motion of Sound  13

Longitudinal Versus Transverse Waves  13

Mass/Spring System  15

Simple Harmonic Motion  15

Frequency, Period, Wavelength, Velocity, and Amplitude  16

Visually Depicting Sound Waves: Waveforms  18

Pure Tones and Complex Sounds  21

Pure Tones  21

Complex Sounds  21

Periodic Versus Aperiodic Complex Waves  21

Visually Depicting Sound Waves: Spectra  23

Sound Absorption, Reflection, Refraction, and Diffraction  24

Constructive and Destructive Interference  28

Attributes of Sounds  31

Frequency and Pitch  31

Frequency: Human Range of Hearing  32

Amplitude, Intensity, and Loudness  32

Decibel Scale  34

Logarithms and Ratios  34

Perception on the dB Scale  36

Advantages of the Decibel Scale  37

Applications of the Decibel Scale  38

Resonance  39

Acoustic Resonance  42
Tube Resonance and Standing Waves  44
Acoustic Resonators as Filters  47
Bandwidth  48
Cutoff Frequencies  49
Resonance Curves  49
Parameters of a Filter  49
Types of Filters  50 

Summary 53

Review Exercises 54

Chapter 2: The Respiratory System      55

Pulmonary Apparatus  55

Bronchial Tree  56

Chest Wall  59

Muscles of Respiration  62

Accessory Muscles of Respiration  62

Muscles of the Abdomen  62

Pleural Linkage  64

Moving Air Into and Out of the Lungs  66

Inhalation  66

Exhalation  67

Rate of Breathing  67

Lung Volumes and Capacities  68

Resting Expiratory Level  69

Lung Volumes  69

Tidal Volume  70

Inspiratory Reserve Volume  70

Expiratory Reserve Volume  71

Residual Volume  71

Dead Air  72

Lung Capacities  72

Vital Capacity  72

Functional Residual Capacity  72

Inspiratory Capacity  72

Total Lung Capacity  73

Differences between Breathing for Life and Breathing for Speech  75

Location of Air Intake  76

Ratio of Time for Inhalation Versus (Exhalation  77

Volume of Air Inhaled and Exhaled (per Cycle  77

Muscle Activity for Exhalation  78

Chest Wall Shape  79

Breathing Patterns for Speech  80

Speech Breathing for Isolated Vowels and Connected Speech  82

Changes in Speech Breathing Over the Life Span  83

Features of Speech Breathing in Children  83

Features of Speech Breathing in Older Adults  84

Summary 86

Review Exercises 87

Chapter 3: Clinical Application: Evaluation and Treatment of Respiratory Disorders 88

Measurement of Respiratory Variables  88

Pulmonary Function Testing  89

Respiratory Kinematic Analysis  92

Air Pressures  94

Airflow  95

Classification of Respiratory Problems  96

Symptoms of Respiratory Disorders  97

Respiratory Function and Speech Production in Selected Disorders  98

Principles of Clinical Management of Speech Breathing Disorders  98

Neurological Disorders  99

Parkinson’s Disease  99
Cerebellar Disease  101
Cervical Spinal Cord Injury  102
Cerebral Palsy  103
Mechanical Ventilation  104
Voice Disorders  106
Stuttering  108
Asthma  111
Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion  113

Summary 115

Review Exercises 115

Integrative Case Studies 116

Chapter 4: The Phonatory/Laryngeal System 118

Laryngeal Skeleton  118

Bones, Cartilages, and Membranes  118

Joints of the Larynx  123

Valves within the Larynx  127

Aryepiglottic Folds  127

False Vocal Folds  127

True Vocal Folds  127

Cover–Body Model  129

Glottis  130

Muscles of the Larynx  130

Extrinsic Muscles  130

Intrinsic Muscles  131

Myoelastic–Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation  137

Models of Vocal Fold Vibration  138

Features of Vocal Fold Vibration  139

Changes in the Phonatory/Laryngeal System Over the Life Span  144

Infancy and Childhood  144

Puberty  144

Adulthood  145

Vocal Quality  147

Normal Voice Quality  148

Abnormal Voice Qualities  149

Vocal Registers  151

Physiologic and Acoustic Characteristics of Registers  152

Use of Different Registers in Singing and Speaking  153

Summary 154

Review Exercises 154

Chapter 5: Clinical Application: Evaluation and Treatment of Phonatory Disorders 155

Measurement of Phonatory Variables  155

Acoustic Analysis  155

Perturbation Measures  160

Noise Measures  162

Laryngeal Visualization Methods  163

Electroglottography  163

EGG and Register  167

EGG Slope Quotients  167

Techniques for Visualizing the Larynx  170

Advantages of Acoustic and Visual Analysis of Phonatory Function  174

Evaluation and Treatment of Communication Disorders Involving the Phonatory System  176

Neurological Disorders  176

Benign Mucosal Lesions  181

Laryngeal Cancer  183

Hearing Impairment  186

Transsexual Voice  187

Stuttering  188

Summary 191

Review Exercises 192

Integrative Case Studies 192

Chapter 6: The Articulatory/Resonatory System      195

Articulators of the Vocal Tract  195

Oral Cavity  196

Lips  197

Mandible  198

Maxilla  199

Teeth  200

Hard Palate  203

Soft Palate  203

Tongue  207

Pharynx  211

Muscles of the Pharynx  212

Nasal Cavities  213

Valves of the Vocal Tract  214

Traditional Classification System of Consonants and Vowels  215

Place of Articulation of English (Consonants  215

Manner of Articulation of English (Consonants  216

Voicing  221

Vowel Classification  221

Vocal Tract Resonance  223

Characteristics of the Vocal Tract Resonator  224

Source-Filter Theory of Vowel Production  226

Formant Frequencies Related to Oral and Pharyngeal Volumes  228

Vowel Formant Frequencies  231

F 1/F 2 Plots  233

Spectrographic Analysis  234

Narrowband and Wideband Spectrograms  235

Relationship Between Articulation and Spectrographic Characteristics of Vowels and Consonants  235

Vowels  236

Diphthongs  236

Nasals  238

Glides  239

Liquids  239

Stops  240

Fricatives  244

Affricates  246

The Production of Speech Sounds in Context  246

Coarticulation  247

Speaking Rate  249

Suprasegmentals  249

Summary 253

Review Exercises 253

Chapter 7: Clinical Application: Evaluation and Treatment of Articulatory and Resonance Disorders 255

Articulation, Intelligibility, and Instrumental Measurement  255

Ultrasound  256

Electropalatography and Glossometry  257

Magnetic Resonance Imaging  258

Electromagnetic Articulography  258

Evaluation and Treatment of Communication Disorders Involving Articulation and Resonation  260

Dysarthria/Apraxia  260

Hearing Impairment  267

Cochlear Implantation  270

Speech Sound Disorders  272

Cleft Palate  274

Stuttering  275

Resonance Problems  76

Summary 278

Review Exercises 278

Integrative Case Studies 279

Chapter 8: The Auditory System 282

Anatomy of the Ear  282

Outer Ear  282

Tympanic Membrane  284

Middle Ear  284

Inner Ear  288

Perception of Speech  293

Segmentation Problem  293

Role of Redundancy in Speech (Perception  294

Instrumental Analysis of Vowel and Consonant Perception  294

Perception of Vowels and Diphthongs  295

Formant Frequency Relationships  295

Diphthongs  297

Consonants  298

Categorical Perception  298

Multiple Acoustic Cues  299

Influence of Coarticulation  299

Perception of Consonants  300

Liquids  300

Glides  300

Nasals  300

Stops  301

Fricatives  303

Affricates  303

Summary 304

Review Exercises 304

Chapter 9: Clinical Application: Evaluation and Treatment of Disorders Related to Hearing Impairment 305

Types of Hearing Loss  305

Diagnosis of Hearing Impairment  306

Immittance Audiometry  306

Tympanometry  307

Static-Acoustic Middle Ear Admittance  311

Acoustic Reflex Testing  311

Otoacoustic Emissions Testing  312

Auditory Brain Stem Response Testing  313

Hearing Loss and Speech Perception  314

Clinical Application  314

Phoneme Recognition in Speakers with Hearing Loss  315

Acoustic Cues Used in Phoneme (Recognition  316

Vowel Perception  316

Consonant Perception  317

Cochlear Implants  317

Clinical Application  320

Otitis Media and Speech Perception  320

Language and Reading Disability and Speech Perception  321

Temporal Processing Problems  322

Developmental Dyslexia and Speech Perception  324

Articulatory Problems and Speech Perception  324

Clinical Application  326

Summary 326

Review Exercises 327

Integrative Case Studies 327Chapter 10

Chapter 10: The Nervous System 328

Brain Tissue  329

Glial Cells  329

Neurons  330

Neuronal Function  333

Neurotransmission  333

Central and Peripheral Nervous (Systems  338

Central Nervous System  339

Functional Brain Anatomy  342

Cortex  342

Cortical Connections  344

Lobes of the Brain  345

Subcortical Areas of the Brain  350

Basal Nuclei  350

Thalamus  352

Hypothalamus  353

Brain Stem  354

Midbrain  355

Pons  355

Medulla  355

Cerebellum  356

Spinal Cord  357

Spinal Nerves  361

Cranial Nerves  362

CN V: Trigeminal  363

CN VII: Facial  365

CN VIII: Vestibulocochlear  365

CN IX: Glossopharyngeal  365

CN X: Vagus  365

CN XII: Hypoglossal  367

Blood Supply to the Brain  368

Motor Control Systems Involved in Speech Production  369

Motor Cortex  370

Upper and Lower Motor Neurons  372

Direct and Indirect Systems  375

Motor Units  375

Principals of Motor Control  378

Role of Feedback and Feedforward in Speech Motor Control  378

Role of Sensory Information in Speech Motor Control  379

Efference Copy  379

Summary 380

Review Exercises 380

Chapter 11: Clinical Application: Brain Imaging in the Evaluation and Treatment of Disorders of the Nervous System 381

Techniques for Imaging Brain (Structure  382

Computerized Tomography  382

Magnetic Resonance Imaging  383

Techniques for Imaging Brain Function  384

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  384

Positron Emission Tomography  385

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography  385

Electroencephalography and Evoked Potentials  386

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  388

Use of Brain Imaging Techniques in Communication Disorders  390

Stuttering  390

Stroke  391

Parkinson’s Disease  392

Multiple Sclerosis  393

Alzheimer’s Disease  394

Summary 395

Review Exercises 395

Integrative Case Studies 396

Chapter 12:  Models and Theories of Speech Production and Perception  397

Models and Theories  398

Models  398

Theories  399

Issues Related to Organization and Regulation of Speech Motor Control  400

The Serial-Order Issue  400

Degrees of Freedom  401

Context-Sensitivity Problem  401

Models and Theories of Speech Production  401

Dynamic Systems Models  401

Connectionist Models  402

Spatial and Articulatory Target Models  402

Feedback and Feedforward Models  404

The DIVA Model  405

Speech Perception  406

Specialization of Speech Perception  406

Infant Perception  407

Models and Theories of Speech Perception  408

Acoustic Invariance Theory  408

Direct Realism  409

TRACE Model  409

Logogen Theory  410

Cohort Theory  410

Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception  410

Native Language Magnet Theory  411

Motor Theory  411

Summary 413

Review Exercises 414

Glossary 415

References 431

Index 459

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