Sprayed Concrete Lined Tunnels

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-11-24
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Practising engineers on site, in the design office or in client organizations will find this book an excellent introduction to the design and construction of sprayed concrete lined (SCL) tunnels. The complex behaviour of the early age behaviour of the sprayed concrete requires careful management. This book covers all aspects of SCL tunnelling from the constituents of sprayed concrete to detailed design and management during construction. Although there is a close interdependence between all the facets of sprayed concrete, few engineers have the right breadth of experience and expertise, and this urgently needs to be transferred to the wider engineering community. Disseminating essential information for tunnelling engineers, Sprayed Concrete Lined Tunnelsis key reading for all involved in or studying the process.

Author Biography

Alun McDonald is a senior engineer at mott MacDonald Ltd.

Table of Contents

List of illustrationsp. xi
Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgementsp. xviii
List of abbreviations and symbolsp. xx
What is a SCL tunnel?p. 1
Sprayed concrete - the early daysp. 3
Why use sprayed concrete linings?p. 4
Development of SCL tunnellingp. 5
Sprayed concretep. 9
Constituents and mix designp. 9
Cementp. 11
Waterp. 12
Sand and aggregatep. 12
Acceleratorsp. 12
Admixturesp. 13
Microsilicap. 14
Mix designp. 14
Material properties and behaviourp. 14
Strength in compressionp. 15
Strength in tensionp. 22
Strength in other modes of loadingp. 26
Stress-strain relationship in compressionp. 28
Stress-strain relationship in tensionp. 35
Shrinkage and temperature effectsp. 37
Creepp. 44
Variation in properties with environmental conditionsp. 47
Durability and construction defectsp. 49
Construction methodsp. 53
Soft groundp. 54
Method of excavationp. 54
Support and excavation sequencesp. 55
Special casesp. 58
Blocky rockp. 59
Method of excavationp. 60
Support and excavation sequencesp. 60
Special casesp. 61
Hard rockp. 63
Method of excavationp. 63
Support and excavation sequencesp. 64
Special casesp. 66
Modern sprayed concretep. 67
Dry mix sprayed concretep. 67
Wet mix sprayed concretep. 69
Pumpingp. 72
Sprayingp. 73
Design approachesp. 79
Observation vs predictionp. 79
Risk-based designsp. 81
General loadingp. 81
Basic Principlesp. 82
Ground loadsp. 84
Excavation and support sequencep. 86
Waterp. 87
Primary plus secondary lining - two pass liningp. 94
Single shell lining - one pass liningp. 97
Design Toolsp. 101
Empirical toolsp. 101
Analytical toolsp. 102
Numerical modellingp. 102
Physical toolsp. 104
Code compliancep. 105
Continuity between design and constructionp. 108
Modelling sprayed concretep. 109
Linear elastic modelsp. 110
Hypothetical Modulus of Elasticity (HME)p. 113
Nonlinear stress-strain behaviourp. 115
Nonlinear elastic modelsp. 115
Plastic modelsp. 119
Tensile strengthp. 123
Unreinforced sprayed concretep. 124
Reinforced sprayed concretep. 125
Shrinkagep. 125
Creep modelsp. 126
Rheological modelsp. 127
Generalised Kelvin modelp. 128
Burgers modelp. 136
Viscoplastic modelp. 137
Rate of flow modelp. 138
Other creep modelsp. 139
Ageingp. 142
Thermo-chemo-mechanically coupled modelp. 143
Construction sequencep. 146
Construction defectsp. 151
Summaryp. 153
Detailed designp. 157
Design for tunnels in soft groundp. 157
Key behaviour of sprayed concretep. 158
Determining the loading on the sprayed concretep. 158
Lining designp. 158
Design for tunnels in blocky rockp. 160
Key behaviour of sprayed concretep. 160
Determining the loading on the sprayed concretep. 162
Lining designp. 162
Design for tunnels in hard rockp. 163
Lining designp. 164
Shaftsp. 165
Junctionsp. 166
Key behaviour of sprayed concretep. 166
Determining the loading on the sprayed concretep. 167
General arrangement and construction sequencep. 167
Lining designp. 169
Tunnels in close proximityp. 170
Portalsp. 171
Special casesp. 172
Seismic designp. 172
Squeezing groundp. 174
Swelling groundp. 174
Creeping groundp. 175
Rockburstp. 176
Compressed air tunnellingp. 176
Frozen ground and cold weatherp. 177
Hot ground and hot weatherp. 178
Fire resistancep. 178
Specificationsp. 179
Detailingp. 181
Steel reinforcementp. 181
Structural continuity at jointsp. 182
Waterproofing at jointsp. 183
Construction managementp. 184
Quality controlp. 184
Pre-construction testingp. 184
Testing during constructionp. 185
Instrumentation and monitoringp. 189
Instrumentationp. 189
Trigger valuesp. 194
Designer's Representative on sitep. 196
Daily Review Meetings (DRM)p. 197
Appendicesp. 201
Bibliographyp. 223
Indexp. 237
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