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The St. Martin's Guide to Writing

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Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9781457604423

ISBN10:
1457604426
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/11/2013
Publisher(s):
Bedford/St. Martin's
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Summary

The best-selling college rhetoric for over 25 years, The St. Martin's Guide has achieved an unmatched record of success by providing practical innovations for the ever-changing composition course. The acclaimed step-by-step Guides to Writing offer sure-fire invention strategies to get students started, sentence strategies to get and keep students writing, and thoughtful revision strategies to help students make their writing their own. With more hands-on activities for critical reading and working with sources, greater emphasis on the rhetorical situation, a revamped design that helps students see what they need to do at a glance, and a greater variety of formats (cloth, paper, loose-leaf, and e-books), the Guide is better than ever. The print text is now integrated with e-Pages for The St. Martin's Guide, designed to take advantage of what the Web can do.

Author Biography

Rise B. Axelrod is McSweeney Professor of Rhetoric and Teaching Excellence, Emeritus, at the University of California, Riverside, where she was also director of English Composition. She has previously been professor of English at California State University, San Bernardino; director of the College Expository Program at the University of Colorado, Boulder; and assistant director of the Third College (now Thurgood Marshall College) Composition Program at the University of California, San Diego. She is the co-author, with Charles R. Cooper, of the best-selling textbook The St. Martin's Guide to Writing as well as The Concise Guide to Writing and Reading Critically, Writing Well.

Charles R. Cooper is an emeritus professor at the University of California, San Diego. He served as coordinator of the Third College (now Thurgood Marshall College) Composition Program at the University of California, San Diego, and co-director of the San Diego Writing Project, one of the National Writing Project Centers. He advised the National Assessment of Educational Progress—Writing (1973-1981) and coordinated the development of California's first statewide writing assessment (1986-1991). He taught at the University of California, Riverside; the State University of New York at Buffalo; and the University of California, San Diego. He is co-editor, with Lee Odell, of Evaluating Writing and Research on Composing: Points of Departure, and he is co-author, with Rise Axelrod, of the best-selling textbook The St. Martin's Guide to Writing as well as The Concise Guide to Writing and Reading Critically, Writing Well.

Table of Contents

e-Pages (online only) are labeled in the contents below. Students receive automatic access to e-Pages with the purchase of a new book. If the code in a book or card is expired, they can purchase access here.

Chapter 1 Introduction: Thinking about Writing

Why Write?

Write to communicate effectively in different rhetorical situations.

Write to think.

Write to learn.

Write to succeed.

Write to know yourself and connect to other people.

How The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing Helps You Learn to Write

Learn to write by using the Guides to Reading.

Learn to write by using the Guides to Writing.

Thinking Critically

     Reflection: A Literacy Story

PART 1 WRITING ACTIVITIES

Chapter 2 Remembering an Event

     Practicing the Genre: Telling a Story

GUIDE TO READING

Analyzing Remembered Event Essays

Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.

Assess the genre’s basic features: A well-told story, vivid description of people and places, autobiographical significance.

Readings

Jean Brandt, Calling Home

*e-Pages: Shannon Lewis, We Were Here [student essay]

Annie Dillard, An American Childhood

*Jenée Desmond-Harris, Tupac and My Non-Thug Life

*Tom Ruprecht, In Too Deep

*e-Pages: Juliane Koepcke, How I Survived a Plane Crash [article and podcast interview]

*e-Pages: Andrew Lam, Waterloo

Playing with Genre: Graphic Memoirs

     *e-Pages [annotated cartoon]

GUIDE TO WRITING

The Writing Assignment

     Starting Points: Remembering an Event

Writing a Draft: Invention, Planning, and Composing

Choose an event to write about.

Shape your tale.

     Ways In: Bringing Your Story into Focus

Organize your story to enhance the drama.

Choose your tense, and plan time cues.

Use dialogue to tell your story.

Develop and refine your descriptions.

     Ways In: Describing People and Places

Incorporate descriptive details throughout your story.

     Ways In: Working Descriptions into Action Sequences

Consider ways to convey your event’s autobiographical significance.

     Ways In: Conveying Autobiographical Significance

Write the opening sentences.

Draft your story.

Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading

     A Critical Reading Guide

Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading

Revise your draft.

     A Troubleshooting Guide

Think about design.

Edit and proofread your draft.

     Using the Right Word or Expression.

     Dialogue Issues

     Using the Past Perfect

A WRITER AT WORK

Jean Brandt’s Essay from Invention to Revision

Invention

The First Draft

Critical Reading and Revision

THINKING CRITICALLY

Reflecting on What You Have Learned

Reflecting on the Genre

Chapter 3 Writing Profiles

     Practicing the Genre: Conducting an Interview

GUIDE TO READING

Analyzing Profiles

Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.

Assess the genre’s basic features: Detailed information about the subject; a clear, logical organization; the writer’s role; a perspective on the subject.

Readings

Brian Cable, The Last Stop

*e-Pages: Briana O’Leary, Fatty’s Custom Tattooz and Body Piercing [student essay]

John T. Edge, I’m Not Leaving Until I Eat This Thing

Amanda Coyne, The Long Good-Bye: Mother’s Day in Federal Prison

*Gabriel Thompson, A Gringo in the Lettuce Fields

*e-Pages: Sam Dillon, 4,100 Students Prove "Small Is Better" Rule [article and slide show]

*e-Pages: Veronica Chambers, The Secret Latina

Playing with Genre: TV and Film Documentaries

     *e-Pages [video]

GUIDE TO WRITING

The Writing Assignment

     Starting Points: Writing a Profile

Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing

Choose a subject to profile.

     Test Your Choice

Conduct your field research.

     Ways In: Managing Your Time

     Ways In: Setting Up and Conducting Interviews and Observations

Integrate quotations from your interviews.

Create an outline that will organize your profile effectively for your readers.

Consider document design.

Determine your role in the profile.

     Ways In: Advantages and Drawbacks of Participant-Observer, Spectator, and Alternating Roles

Develop your perspective on the subject.

     Ways In: Developing and Clarifying Your Perspective

Write the opening sentences.

Draft your profile.

Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading

     A Critical Reading Guide

Improving the Draft: Revising, Formatting, Editing, and Proofreading

Revise your draft.

     A Troubleshooting Guide

Think about design.

Edit and proofread your draft.

     Checking the Punctuation of Quotations

     Integrating Participial Phrases

     A Common Problem for Multilingual Writers: Adjective Order

A WRITER AT WORK

Brian Cable’s Interview Notes and Write-Up

The Interview Notes

The Interview Write-Up

THINKING CRITICALLY

Reflecting on What You Have Learned

Reflecting on the Genre

Chapter 4 Explaining a Concept

     Practicing the Genre: Explaining an Academic Concept

GUIDE TO READING

Analyzing Concept Explanations

Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.

Assess the genre’s basic features: A focused explanation; a clear, logical organization; appropriate explanatory strategies; smooth integration of sources

Readings

*Patricia Lyu, Attachment: Someone to Watch over You

*e-Pages: Ammar Rana, Jihad: The Struggle in the Way of God [student essay]

Anastasia Toufexis, Love: The Right Chemistry

*Dan Hurley, Can You Make Yourself Smarter?

*Susan Cain, Shyness: Evolutionary Tactic?

*e-Pages: Slate, What Extremely Walkable and Unwalkable Neighborhoods Look Like [interactive maps and chart]

*e-Pages: Melinda Beck, What Cocktail Parties Teach Us

Playing with Genre: Infographics and Other Concept Explanations Online

     *e-Pages [Interactive Web pages]

GUIDE TO WRITING

The Writing Assignment

     Starting Points: Explaining a Concept

Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing

Choose a concept to write about.

     Test Your Choice

Conduct initial research on the concept.

     Ways In: Determining What You Know and What You Need to Learn

Focus your explanation of the concept.

     Ways In: Making the Concept Interesting to You and Your Readers

     Test Your Choice

Conduct further research on your focused concept.

Draft your working thesis, and organize your explanation.

Organize your concept explanation effectively for your readers.

Design your writing project.

Consider the explanatory strategies you should use.

     Ways In: Using Writing Strategies to Explain Your Focused Concept

Use summaries, paraphrases, and quotations from sources to support your points.

Use visuals or multimedia illustrations to enhance your explanation.

Use appositives to integrate sources.

Use descriptive verbs in signal phrases to introduce information from sources.

Write the opening sentences.

Draft your explanation.

Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading

     A Critical Reading Guide

Improving the Draft: Revising, Formatting, Editing, and Proofreading

Revise your draft.

     A Troubleshooting Guide

Think about design.

Edit and proofread your draft.

     Avoiding Mixed Constructions

     Using Punctuation with Adjective Clauses

     Using Commas with Interrupting Phrases

A WRITER AT WORK

     Patricia Lyu’s Use of Sources

THINKING CRITICALLY

Reflecting on What You Have Learned

Reflecting on the Genre

Chapter 5 Finding Common Ground

     Practicing the Genre: Finding Common Ground

GUIDE TO READING

Analyzing Opposing Positions to Find Common Ground

Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.

Assess the genre’s basic features: An informative introduction to the issue and opposing positions; a probing analysis; a fair and impartial presentation; a clear, logical organization

Readings

Jeremy Bernard, Lost Innocence

*Betsy Samson, Does Mother Know Best?

Melissa Mae, Laying Claim to a Higher Morality

*e-pages: Chris Sexton: Virtual Reality? [student essay]

Playing with Genre: Talk Shows and Blogs

     *e-Pages [video/audio file]

GUIDE TO WRITING

The Writing Assignment

     Starting Points: Finding Common Ground

Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing

Choose opposing argument essays to write about.

Analyze the opposing argument essays.

     Ways In: Analyzing the Argument Essays

     Test Your Choice

Think about your readers.

Research the issue.

Present the issue to your readers.

Develop your analysis.

     Ways In: Presenting Your Analysis

     Test Your Analysis

Formulate a working thesis statement.

Define your purpose for your readers.

Consider your tone.

Weave quoted material into your own sentences.

Create an outline that will organize your analysis effectively for your readers.

Write the opening sentences.

Draft your essay finding common ground.

Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading

     A Critical Reading Guide

Improving the Draft: Revising, Formatting, Editing, and Proofreading

Revise your draft.

     A Troubleshooting Guide

Think about design.

Edit and proofread your draft.

     Using Commas around Interrupting Phrases

     Correcting Vague Pronoun Reference

A WRITER AT WORK

Betsy Samson’s Analysis of Opposing Argument Essays

     Annotations

     Charting the Annotations

THINKING CRITICALLY

Reflecting on What You Have Learned

Reflecting on the Genre

APPENDIX

Issue 1: Understanding the Issue of Parenting Style

*Amy Chua, Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior

*Hanna Rosin, Mother Inferior?

*Don Aucoin, For Some Helicopter Parenting Delivers Benefits

Issue 2: Understanding the Issue of Helmet Use

*Nate Jackson, The NFL’s Head Cases

*David Weisman, Disposable Heroes

*Lane Wallace, Do Sports Helmets Help or Hurt

Issue 3: Compensating Organ Donors

*Sally Satel, Yuan a Kidney?

*National Kidney Foundation, Financial Incentives for Organ Donation

*Scott Carney, Inside the Business of Selling Human Body Parts

*e-Pages: Issue 4: Unpaid Internships

Raphael Pope-Sussman, Let’s Abolish This Modern-Day Coalmine

David Lat, Why Mess with a Win-Win Situation?

Camille Olsen, Internships Are Valuable If They Follow the Law

*e-Pages: Issue 5: Global Warming

David McCandless, The Global Warming Skeptics vs. the Scientific Consensus [infographic]

Chapter 6 Arguing a Position

     Practicing the Genre: Debating a Position

GUIDE TO READING

Analyzing Position Arguments

Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.

Assess the genre’s basic features: A focused, well-presented issue; a well-supported position; an effective response to opposing views; a clear logical organization

Readings

Jessica Statsky, Children Need to Play, Not Compete

*e-Pages: Michael Niechayev, It’s Time to Ban Head First Tackles and Blocks [student essay]

Richard Estrada, Sticks and Stones and Sports Teams Names

Amitai Etzioni, Working at McDonald’s

*Daniel J. Solove, Why Privacy Matters Even If You Have "Nothing to Hide"

*e-Pages: Farhad Manjoo, Troll Reveal Thyself [annotated Web page and podcast interview]

*e-Pages: Laurie Fendrich, Sex for Tuition

Playing with Genre: Public Service Announcements

GUIDE TO WRITING

The Writing Assignment

     Starting Points: Arguing a Position

Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing

Choose a controversial issue on which to take a position.

     Test Your Choice

Frame the issue for your readers.

     Ways In: Exploring the Issue, Considering What Your Readers Think, and Framing the Issue Effectively

     Test Your Choice

Formulate a working thesis stating your position.

     Ways In: Devising an Arguable Thesis

Develop the reasons supporting your position.

     Ways In: Devising Reasons That Support Your Position

Research your position.

Use sources to reinforce your credibility.

Identify your readers’ likely reasons and objections.

     Ways In: Figuring Out Readers’ Concerns

Respond to your readers’ likely reasons and objections.

     Ways In: Responding to Readers’ Reasons and Objections

Create an outline that will organize your argument effectively for your readers.

Consider document design.

Write the opening sentences.

Draft your position argument.

Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading

     A Critical Reading Guide

Improving the Draft: Revising, Formatting, Editing, and Proofreading

Revise your draft.

     A Troubleshooting Guide

Think about design.

Edit and proofread your draft.

     Editing for tone

     Using Commas before Coordinating Conjunctions

     Avoiding Comma Splices When Using Conjunctive Adverbs to Link Independent Clauses

     A Common Problem for Multilingual Writers: Subtle Differences in Meaning

A WRITER AT WORK

Jessica Statsky’s Response to Opposing Positions

     Listing Reasons for the Opposing Position

     Conceding a Plausible Reason

     Refuting an Implausible Reason

THINKING CRITICALLY

Reflecting on What You Have Learned

Reflecting on the Genre

Chapter 7 Proposing a Solution

     Practicing the Genre: Arguing That a Solution Is Feasible

GUIDE TO READING

Analyzing Proposals

Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.

Assess the genre’s basic features: A focused, well-defined problem; a well-argued solution; an effective response to objections and alternative solutions; a clear, logical organization

Readings

Patrick O’Malley, More Testing, More Learning

*e-Pages: Molly Coleman, Missing the Fun [student essay]

*David Bornstein, Fighting Bullying with Babies

*Kelly D. Brownell and Thomas R. Frieden, Ounces of Prevention: The Public Policy Case for Taxes on Sugared Beverages

Karen Kornbluh, Win-Win Flexibility

*e-Pages: TempoHousing, Keetwonen (Amsterdam Student Housing) [interactive Web page]

*e-Pages: Zach Youngerman, Did Bad Neighborhood Design Doom Trayvon Martin?

Playing with Genre: Proposals in Public Service Announcements

     *e-Pages [interactive PSA]

GUIDE TO WRITING

The Writing Assignment

     Starting Points: Proposing a Solution

Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing

Choose a problem for which you can propose a solution.

     Test Your Choice

Frame the problem for your readers

     Ways In: Identifying the Problem and Figuring Out Why Readers Will Care

     Test Your Choice

Use statistics to establish the problem’s existence and seriousness.

Assess how the problem has been framed, and reframe it for your readers.

     Ways In: Framing and Reframing the Problem

Develop a possible solution.

     Ways In: Solving the Problem

Explain your solution.

     Ways In: Explaining the Solution and Showing Its Feasibility

Research your proposal.

Develop a response to objections and alternative solutions.

     Ways In: Drafting a Refutation or Concession

Create an outline that will organize your proposal effectively for your readers.

Write the opening sentences.

Draft your proposal.

Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading

     A Critical Reading Guide

Improving the Draft: Revising, Formatting, Editing, and Proofreading

Revise your draft.

     A Troubleshooting Guide

Think about design.

Edit and proofread your draft.

     Avoiding Ambiguous Use of This and That

     Revising Sentences That Lack an Agent

A WRITER AT WORK

Patrick O’Malley’s Revision Process

THINKING CRITICALLY

Reflecting on What You Have Learned

Reflecting on the Genre

Chapter 8 Justifying an Evaluation

     Practicing the Genre: Choosing Appropriate Criteria and Examples

GUIDE TO READING

Analyzing Evaluations

Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.

Assess the genre’s basic features: A well-presented subject; a well-supported judgment; an effective response to objections or alternative judgments; a clear, logical organization

Readings

*William Akana, Scott Pilgrim vs. the World: A Hell of a Ride

*e-Pages: Brittany Lemus, Requiem for a Dream: Fantasy versus Reality [student essay]

*Steve Boxer, LA Noire Review (Online Game)

*Malcolm Gladwell, What College Rankings Really Tell Us

Christine Rosen, The Myth of Multitasking

*e-Pages: Marlon Bishop, Gig Alert: Bright Eyes [interactive Web page with sound file]

*e-Pages: Jean M. Twenge and W. Keith Campbell, Isn’t Narcissicism Beneficial, Especially in a Competitive World?

Playing with Genre: Crowd-Sourced Evaluations

     *e-Pages [interactive Web page]

GUIDE TO WRITING

The Writing Assignment

     Starting Points: Justifying an Evaluation

Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing

Choose a subject to evaluate.

     Test Your Choice

Assess your subject and consider how to present it to your readers.

Ways In: Determining What You and Your Readers Think

Formulate a working thesis stating your overall judgment.

     Ways In: Asserting a Tentative Overall Judgment

Develop the reasons and evidence supporting your judgment.

     Ways In: Devising Reasons and Evidence to Support Your Judgment

Research your evaluation.

Respond to a likely objection or alternative judgment.

     Ways In: Responding Effectively to Readers

Organize your draft to appeal to your readers.

Write the opening sentences.

Draft your evaluation.

Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading

     A Critical Reading Guide

Improving the Draft: Revising, Formatting, Editing, and Proofreading

Revise your draft.

     A Troubleshooting Guide

Think about design.

Edit and proofread your draft.

     Making Complete, Logical, and Grammatically Correct Comparisons

Combining Sentences

A WRITER AT WORK

William Akana’s Thesis and Response to Objections

THINKING CRITICALLY

Reflecting on What You Have Learned

Reflecting on the Genre

Chapter 9 Speculating about Causes

     Practicing the Genre: Arguing that a Cause Is Plausible

GUIDE TO READING

Analyzing Texts Speculating about Causes

Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.

Assess the genre’s basic features: A well-presented subject; a well-supported causal analysis; an effective response to objections and alternative causes; a clear, logical organization

Readings

Sheila McClain, The Fitness Culture

*e-Pages: Michele Cox, The Truth about Lying [student essay]

*Shankar Vedantam, The Telescope Effect

Stephen King, Why We Crave Horror Movies

Erica Goode, The Gorge-Yourself Environment

*e-Pages: On the Media, The Reel Sounds of Violence [podcast interview]

*e-Pages: Shirley S. Wang, A Field Guide to the Middle-Class U.S. Family

Playing with Genre: Graphics and Other Visuals

     *e-Pages [video]

GUIDE TO WRITING

The Writing Assignment

     Starting Points: Speculating about Causes

Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing

Choose a subject to analyze.

     Test Your Choice

Present the subject to your readers.

     Ways In: Figuring Out What You and Your Readers Think

Analyze possible causes.

     Ways In: Analyzing Possible Causes

Conduct research.

Cite a variety of sources to support your causal analysis.

Formulate a Working Thesis stating your preferred cause(s).

     Ways In: Asserting a Thesis

Draft a response to objections readers are likely to raise.

     Ways In: Responding Effectively to Readers Objections

Draft a response to the causes your readers are likely to favor.

     Ways In: Responding to Readers’ Preferred Causes

Create an outline that will organize your causal analysis effectively for your readers.

Write the opening sentences.

Draft your causal analysis.

Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading

     A Critical Reading Guide

Improving the Draft: Revising, Designing, Editing, and Proofreading

Revise your draft.

     A Troubleshooting Guide

Think about design.

Edit and proofread your draft.

     Checking Your Use of Numbers

     Checking for Reason Is Because Constructions

A WRITER AT WORK

Sheila McClain’s Analysis of Possible Causes

THINKING CRITICALLY

Reflecting on What You Have Learned

Reflecting on the Genre

Chapter 10 Analyzing Stories

     Practicing the Genre: Analyzing a Story Collaboratively

GUIDE TO READING

Analyzing Selections that Analyze Stories

Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.

Assess the genre’s basic features: A clear, arguable thesis; a well-supported argument; a clear, logical organization

Readings

*Iris Lee, Performing a Doctor’s Duty

*Isabella Wright, "For Heaven’s Sake!"

e-Pages: Sally Crane, Gazing into the Darkness [student essay]

e-Pages: David Ratinov, From Innocence to Insight: "Araby" as an Initiation Story [student essay]

Playing with Genre: Adaptations, Sequels, and Parodies

     *e-Pages [video]

GUIDE TO WRITING

The Writing Assignment

     Starting Points: Analyzing Stories

Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing

Find a story to write about.

Analyze the story.

     Ways In: Generating Ideas by Selecting an Element to Analyze and an Approach to Take

     Ways In: Generating Ideas by moving from Specific Details to General Ideas and Vice Versa

     Test Your Choice

Formulate a working thesis.

     Ways In: Asserting an Arguable Thesis

Provide support for your argument.

     Ways In: Integrating Evidence from the Story

To build on your support, consider doing outside research.

Create an outline that will organize your argument effectively.

Write the opening sentences.

Draft your analysis.

Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading

     A Critical Reading Guide

Improving the Draft: Revising, Designing, Editing, and Proofreading

Revise your draft.

     A Troubleshooting Guide

Think about design.

Edit and proofread your draft.

     Using Parallel Structure

     Using Ellipsis Marks Correctly

A WRITER AT WORK

Isabella Wright’s Invention Work

     Annotating

     Examining Patterns in the Story

     Listing Ideas

THINKING CRITICALLY

Reflecting on Your Writing

Thinking Critically about the Genre

AN ANTHOLOGY OF SHORT STORIES

Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour

James Joyce, Araby

William Carlos Williams, The Use of Force

*Jamaica Kincaid, Girl

*e-Pages: Jamaica Kincaid, Girl [audio]

*e-Pages: Adrian Tomine, Mandarin Accent [graphic story]

*e-Pages: Sandra Tsing Loh, My Father’s Chinese Wives

PART 2 CRITICAL THINKING STRATEGIES

11 A Catalog of Invention Strategies

Mapping

Clustering

Listing

Outlining

Writing

Freewriting

Cubing

Dialoguing

Dramatizing

Keeping a Journal

Looping

Questioning

Quick Drafting

12 A Catalog of Reading Strategies

Annotating

Martin Luther King Jr., An Annotated Sample from "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

Taking Inventory

Outlining

Paraphrasing

Summarizing

Synthesizing

Contextualizing

Exploring the Significance of Figurative Language

Looking for Patterns of Opposition

Reflecting on Challenges to Your Beliefs and Values

Evaluating the Logic of an Argument

Recognizing Emotional Manipulation

Judging the Writer’s Credibility

PART 3 WRITING STRATEGIES

13 Cueing the Reader

Orienting Statements

Thesis Statements

Forecasting Statements

Paragraphing

Paragraph Cues

Topic Sentence Strategies

Cohesive Devices

Pronoun Reference

Word Repetition

Synonyms

Sentence Structure Repetition

Collocation

Transitions

Logical Relationships

Temporal Relationships

Spatial Relationships

Headings and Subheadings

Heading Systems and Levels

Headings and Genres

Frequency and Placement of Headings

14 Narrating

Narrating Strategies

Calendar and Clock Time

Temporal Transitions

Verb Tense

Narrative Action

Dialogue

Narrating a Process

Explanatory Process Narratives

Instructional Process Narratives

Sentence Strategies for Narration

15 Describing

Naming

Detailing

Comparing

Using Sensory Description

The Sense of Sight

The Sense of Hearing

The Sense of Smell

The Sense of Touch

The Sense of Taste

Creating a Dominant Impression

Sentence Strategies for Description

16 Defining

Sentence Definitions

Extended Definitions

Historical Definitions

Stipulative Definitions

Sentence Strategies for Definition

17 Classifying

Organizing Classification

Illustrating Classification

Maintaining Clarity and Coherence

Sentence Strategies for Classification

18 Comparing and Contrasting

Two Ways of Comparing and Contrasting

Analogy

Sentence Strategies for Comparison and Contrast

19 Arguing

Asserting a Thesis

Arguable Assertions

Clear and Precise Wording

Appropriate Qualification

Giving Reasons and Support

Examples

Statistics

Authorities

Anecdotes

Textual Evidence

Responding to Alternative Viewpoints

Acknowledging Readers’ Concerns

Conceding Readers’ Concerns

Refuting Readers’ Objections

Logical Fallacies

Sentence Strategies for Argument

20 Analyzing Visuals

Criteria for Analyzing Visuals

A Sample Analysis

21 Designing Documents

The Impact of Document Design

Considering Context, Audience, and Purpose

Elements of Document Design

Font Style and Size

Headings and Body Text

Numbered and Bulleted Lists

Colors

White Space

Adding Visuals

Choose and design visuals with their final use in mind.

Number, titles, and label visuals.

Cite visual sources.

Integrate the visual into the text.

Use Common Sense When Creating Visuals on a Computer

22 Writing in Business and Scientific Genres

Memos

Letters

E-mail

Résumés

Job-Application Letters

Lab Reports

Web Pages

PART 4 RESEARCH STRATEGIES

23 Planning a Research Project

Analyzing Your Rhetorical Situation and Setting a Schedule

Choosing a Topic and Getting an Overview.

Narrow Your Topic, and Draft Research Questions

Establish a Research Log

Create a Working Bibliography.

Annotate Your Working Bibliography

Take Notes on Your Sources

24 Finding Sources and Conducting Field Research

Searching Library Catalogs and Databases

Use appropriate search terms.

Narrow (or expand) your results.

Find books (and other sources) through your library’s catalog.

Find articles in periodicals using your library’s databases.

Find government documents and statistical information.

Find Websites and interactive sources.

Conducting Field Research

Conduct observational studies.

     Practicing the Genre: Collaborating on an Observational Study

Conduct interviews.

     Practicing the Genre: Interviewing a Classmate

Conduct surveys.

25 Evaluating Sources

Choosing Relevant Sources

Choosing Reliable Sources

Who wrote it?

When was it published?

Is the source scholarly, popular or for a trade group?

Who published it?

How is the source written?

What does the source say?

26 Using Sources to Support Your Ideas

Synthesizing Sources

Acknowledging Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism

What does and does not need to be acknowledged?

Avoid plagiarism by acknowledging sources and quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing carefully.

Using Information from Sources to Support Your Claims

Decide whether to quote, paraphrase, or summarize.

Copy quotations exactly or use italics, ellipses, and brackets to indicate changes.

Use in-text or block quotations.

Use punctuation to integrate quotations into your writing.

Paraphrase sources carefully.

Summaries should present the source’s main ideas in a balanced and readable way.

27 Citing and Documenting Sources in MLA Style

Citing Sources in the Text

     Directory to In-Text Citation Models

Creating a List of Works Cited

Student Research Project in MLA Style

28 Citing and Documenting Sources in APA Style

Citing Sources in the Text

     Directly to In-Text Citation Models

Creating a List of References

     Directory to Reference List Models

A Sample References List

PART 5 WRITING FOR ASSESSMENT

29 Essay Examinations

Preparing for an Exam

Taking the Exam

Read the exam carefully.

     Typical Essay Exam Questions

Plan your answer.

Write your answer.

     Model Answers

30 Writing Portfolios

The Purposes of a Writing Portfolio

Assembling a Portfolio for Your Composition Course

Select your work.

Reflect on your work and what you have learned.

Organize your portfolio.

PART 6 WRITING AND SPEAKING TO WIDER AUDIENCES

31 Multimedia Presentations

Preparing Your Presentation

Understand the kind of presentation you have been asked to give.

Assess your audience and purpose.

Determine how much information you can present in the allotted time.

Use cues to orient listeners.

Prepare effective and appropriate media.

Verify that you will have the correct equipment and supplies.

Rehearse your presentation.

Delivering Your Presentation

32 Working with Others

Working with Others on Your Individual Writing Projects

Working with Others on Joint Writing Projects

33 Writing in Your Community

Using Your Service Experience as Source Material

Find a topic.

Gather sources.

Writing about Your Service Experience

Writing for Your Service Organization

HANDBOOK

How to Use This Handbook

Handbook Contents

Look out for the top-25 errors in student papers.

Keep a record of your own errors

S Sentence Boundaries

Comma Splices

Fused Sentences

Sentence Fragments

G Grammatical Sentences

Pronoun Reference

Pronoun Agreement

Relative Pronouns

Pronoun Case

Verbs

Subject-Verb Agreement

Adjectives and Adverbs

E Effective Sentences

Missing Words

Shifts

Noun Agreement

Modifiers

Mixed Constructions

Integrated Quotations, Questions, and Thoughts

Parallelism

Coordination and Subordination

W Word Choice

Concise Sentences

Exact Words

Appropriate Words

P Punctuation

Commas

Unnecessary Commas

Semicolons

Colons

Dashes

Quotation Marks

Apostrophes

Parentheses

Brackets

Ellipsis Marks

Slashes

Periods

Question Marks

Exclamation Points

M Mechanics

Hyphens

Capitalization

Spacing

Numbers

Italics

Abbreviations

Spelling

T Troublespots for Multilingual Writers

Articles

Verbs

Prepositions

Omitted or Repeated Words

Adjective Order

Participles

R Review of Sentence Structure

Basic Sentence Structure

Basic Sentence Elements

GL Glossary of Frequently Misused Words

Index

Index for Multilingual Writers



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