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An Introduction to the Research Process | |
an Introduction to The Research Process | |
Overview | |
The Research Process | |
Concepts and Variables | |
Levels of measurement | |
Hypothesis-Testing | |
Evidence-Based Practice | |
Research Designs | |
Multiple Choice Questions | |
Computer-Assisted Analysis | |
Overview of the Three Statistical Packages | |
Introduction to SPSS | |
Setting out Your Variable for within - and between - Group Designs. | |
Introduction to R | |
Introduction to SAS | |
Summary | |
Descriptive Statistics | |
Descriptive Statistics | |
Numerical Descriptive Statistics | |
Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency | |
Measures of Variation or Dispersion | |
Deviations from the Mean | |
Numerical Descriptives in SPSS | |
Frequencies | |
Graphical Statistics | |
Bar Charts | |
Line Graphs | |
Incorporating Variability into Graphs | |
Generating Graphs with Standard Deviations in SPSS | |
Graphs Showing Dispersion - Frequency Histogram | |
Box-Plots | |
Multiple Choice Questions | |
The Basis of Statistical Testing | |
Overview | |
Introduction | |
Samples and Populations | |
Distributions | |
Statistical Significance | |
Criticisms of NHST | |
Summary | |
MCQs | |
Epidemiology | |
Overview | |
Introduction | |
Estimating the Prevalence of Disease | |
Difficulties in Estimating Prevalence | |
Beyond Prevalence: Identifying Risk Factors for Disease | |
Risk Ratios | |
The Odds-Ratio | |
Establishing Causality | |
Case-Control Studies | |
Cohort Studies | |
Experimental Designs | |
Summary | |
Multiple Choice Questions | |
Introduction to Data Screening and Cleaning | |
Overview | |
Introduction | |
Minimising Problems at the Design Stage | |
Entering Data into Databases/Statistical Packages | |
Accuracy | |
Using Descriptive Statistics to Help Identify Errors | |
Missing Data | |
Spotting Missing Data | |
Normality | |
Reporting Data Screening and Cleaning Procedures | |
Summary | |
Multiple Choice Questions | |
Differences Between Two Groups | |
Overview | |
Introduction | |
Conceptual Description of the T-Tests | |
Generalising to the Population | |
Cohen's d | |
Paired-T Test in SPSS | |
Non-Parametric Tests | |
Mann-Whitney: for Independent Groups | |
Mann Whitney test in SPSS | |
Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test: For Repeated Measures | |
Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test in SPSS | |
Adjusting for Multiple Tests | |
Summary | |
Multiple Choice questions | |
Differences Between Three or More Conditions | |
Overview | |
Introduction | |
Conceptual Description of the (Parametric) ANOVA | |
One-Way ANOVA | |
One-way ANOVA in SPSS | |
ANOVA Models for Repeated-Measures Designs | |
Repeated Measures ANOVA in SPSS | |
Non-parametric Equivalents | |
The Kruskal-Wallis Test | |
Kruskal-Wallis and the Median Test in SPSS | |
The Median Test | |
Friedman's ANOVA for Repeated Measures | |
Friedman's ANOVA in SPSS | |
Summary | |
Multiple Choice Questions | |
Testing Associations Between Categorical Variables | |
Overview | |
Introduction | |
Rationale of Contingency Table Analysis | |
Running the Analysis in SPSS | |
Measuring Effect Size in Contingency Table Analysis | |
Larger Contingency Tables | |
Contingency Table Analysis Assumptions | |
The X2 Goodness of Fit Test | |
Running the X2 Goodness of Fit Test Using SPSS | |
Summary | |
Multiple Choice Questions | |
Measuring Agreement: Correlational Techniques | |
Overview | |
Introduction | |
Bivariate Relationships | |
Perfect Correlations | |
Calculating the Correlation Pearson's R Using SPSS. | |
How to obtain scatterplots | |
Variance Explanation of R | |
Partial Correlations | |
Spearman's Rho | |
Other uses for Correlational Techniques | |
Reliability of Measures | |
Internal Consistency | |
Inter Rater Reliability | |
Validity | |
Percentage Agreement | |
Cohen's Kappa | |
Summary | |
Multiple Choice Questions | |
Linear Regression | |
Overview | |
Introduction | |
Linear Regression in SPSS | |
Assumptions underlying linear regression | |
Dealing with Outliers | |
What happens if the Correlation Between X and Y is Near Zero? | |
Using Regression to Predict Missing Data in SPSS | |
Summary | |
Multiple Choice Questions | |
Standard Multiple Regression | |
Overview | |
Introduction | |
Multiple Regression in SPSS | |
Variables in the Equation | |
The Regression Equation | |
Predicting an Individual's Score | |
Hypothesis Testing | |
Other Types of Multiple Regression | |
Hierarchical Multiple Regression | |
Summary | |
Multiple Choice Questions | |
Logistic Regression | |
Overview | |
Introduction | |
The Conceptual Basis of Logistic Regression | |
Logistic Regression with Multiple Predictor Variables | |
Logistic Regression with Categorical Predictors | |
Categorical Predictors with Three or More Levels | |
Summary | |
Multiple Choice Questions | |
Interventions and Analysis of Change | |
Overview | |
Interventions | |
How do we Know Whether Interventions are Effective? | |
Randomised Control Trials (RCTs) | |
Designing an Rct: Consort | |
The Consort Flow Chart | |
Important Features of an Rct | |
Blinding | |
Analysis of RCTs | |
Running an Ancova in SPSS | |
McNemar's Test of Change | |
Running McNemar's Test in SPSS | |
The Sign Test | |
Running the Sign Test using SPSS | |
Intention to Treat Analysis | |
Crossover Designs | |
Single Case Designs (N= 1) | |
Generating Single Case Design Graphs Using SPSS | |
Summary | |
MCQs | |
Survival Analysis: an Introduction | |
Overview | |
Introduction | |
Survival Curves | |
The Kaplan-Meier Survival Function | |
Kaplan-Meier Survival Analyses in SPSS | |
Comparing Two Survival Curves - the Mantel-Cox test | |
Mantel-Cox using SPSS | |
Hazard | |
Hazard Curves | |
Hazard Functions in SPSS | |
Summary | |
Multiple Choice Questions | |
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