Introduction | |
Statistics and the Life Sciences | |
Examples and Overview | |
Description of Populations and Samples | |
Introduction | |
Frequency Distributions: Techniques for Data | |
Frequency Distributions: Shapes and Examples | |
Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Center | |
Boxplots | |
Measures of Dispersion | |
Effect of Transformation of Variables (Optional) | |
Samples and Populations: Statistical Inference | |
Perspective | |
Random Sampling, Probability, and the Binomial Distribution | |
Probability and the Life Sciences | |
Random Sampling | |
Introduction to Probability | |
Probability Trees | |
Density Curves | |
The Binomial Distribution | |
Fitting a Binomial Distribution to Data (Optional) | |
The Normal Distribution | |
Introduction | |
The Normal Curves | |
Areas Under a Normal Curve | |
Assessing Normality | |
The Continuity Correction (Optional) | |
Perspective | |
Sampling Distributions | |
Basic Ideas | |
Dichotomous Observations | |
Quantitative Observations | |
Illustration of the Central Limit Theorem (Optional) | |
The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution (Optional) | |
Perspective | |
Confidence Intervals | |
Statistical Estimation | |
Standard Error of the Mean | |
Confidence Interval for u | |
Planning a Study to Estimate u | |
Conditions for Validity of Estimation Methods | |
Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion | |
Perspective and Summary | |
Comparison of Two Independent Samples | |
Introduction | |
Standard Error of (y1 - y2) | |
Confidence Interval for (u1 - u2) | |
Hypothesis Testing: The t-test | |
Further Discussion of the t-test | |
One-Tailed Tests | |
More on Interpretation of Statistical Significance | |
Planning for Adequate Power (Optional) | |
Student's t: Conditions and Summary | |
More on Principles of Testing Hypotheses | |
The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test | |
Perspective | |
Statistical Principles of Design | |
Introduction | |
Observational Studies | |
Experiments | |
Restricted Randomization: Blocking and Stratification | |
Levels of Replication | |
Sampling Concerns (Optional) | |
Perspective | |
Comparison of Two Paired Samples | |
Introduction | |
The Paired-Sample t-Test and Confidence Interval | |
The Paired Design | |
The Sign Test | |
Further Considerations in Paired Experiments | |
Perspective | |
Analysis of Categorical Data | |
Inference for Proportions: The Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test | |
The Chi-Square Test for the 2 X 2 Contingency Table | |
Independence and Association in a 2 X 2 Contingency Table | |
Fisher's Exact Test (Optional) | |
The r x k Contingency Table | |
Applicability of Methods | |
Confidence Interval for a Difference Between Proportions | |
Paired Data and 2 X 2 Tables (Optional) | |
Relative Risks and the Odds Ratio (Optional) | |
Summary of Chi-Square Tests | |
Comparing the Means of k Independent Samples | |
Introduction | |
The Basic Analysis of Variance | |
The Analysis of Variance Model (Optional) | |
The Global F Test | |
Applicability of Methods | |
Linear Combinations of Means (Optional) | |
Multiple Comparisons (Optional) | |
Perspective | |
Linear Regression and Correlation | |
Introduction | |
The Fitted Regression Line | |
Parametric Interpretation of Regression: The Linear Model | |
Statistical Inference Concerning B1 | |
Perspective | |
Summary of Formulas | |
A Summary of Inference Methods | |
Introduction | |
Data Analysis Samples | |
Appendices | |
Chapter Notes | |
Statistical Tables | |
Answers to Selected Exercises | |
Index | |
Index of Examples | |
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