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Steam Plant Operation,9780071418461
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Steam Plant Operation

by ; ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780071418461

ISBN10:
0071418466
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
11/9/2004
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Professional
List Price: $89.95

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Summary

For nearly 70 years, Steam Plant Operation has been the definitive reference for system design to installation, operational features, expert maintenance and repairs. A classic reference for understanding power plant design and operation, this book has assisted more operators to pass licensing exams than any other text. Packed with illustrations and fundamental descriptions, Steam Plant Operation keeps the engineer or plant operator current for the safe operation, expert guidance on design of various systems and help with every aspect of steam plant operation.

Author Biography

Everett B. Woodruff (Akron, OH) was a project engineer at A.M. Kinney, Inc., where he worked on the design of complete plants, operation and maintenance, performance tests, plant records, and survey reports.

Herbert B. Lammers (Akron, OH) was a consultant for a wide range of industries. His experience covered all phases of industrial plant engineering, including installation and operation and maintenance of steam power plant equipment.

Thomas F. Lammers (Akron, OH) was Senior Project Manager with Babcock and Wilcox, where he successfully managed projects in engineering, marketing and project management for more than 35 years.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Steam and Its Importance
1(34)
The Use of Steam
2(3)
The Steam-Plant Cycle
5(2)
The Power Plant
7(5)
Utility Boilers for Electric Power
12(8)
Coal-Fired Boilers
14(5)
Oil- and Gas-Fired Boilers
19(1)
Steam Considerations
19(1)
Boiler Feedwater
20(1)
Industrial and Small Power Plants
20(8)
Fluidized Bed Boilers
23(2)
Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Systems
25(3)
Power Plant Costs
28(3)
Summary
31(4)
Questions and Problems
31(4)
Boilers
35(104)
The Boiler
35(2)
Fundamentals of Steam Generation
37(3)
Boiling
37(1)
Circulation
38(2)
Steam-Water Separation
40(1)
Fire-Tube Boilers
40(6)
Water-Tube Boilers
46(10)
Steam-Water Separation
56(4)
Principles of Heat Transfer
60(1)
Superheaters
61(4)
Superheat Steam Temperature Control
65(2)
Attemperation
65(1)
Flue Gas Bypass
66(1)
Flue Gas Recirculation
66(1)
Heat-Recovery Equipment
67(8)
Furnace Design Considerations
75(1)
Furnace Construction
75(9)
Industrial and Utility Boilers
84(13)
Considerations for Coal Firing
97(3)
Spreader Stokers
98(1)
Pulverized-Coal Firing
98(1)
Stoker versus Pulverized-Coal Firing
99(1)
Pressurized versus Balanced-Draft Boiler Designs
100(1)
Fluidized Bed Boilers
101(19)
The Process
102(1)
Comparison with Pulverized-Coal and Stoker Firing
102(1)
Advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustion
103(1)
Descriptions of Fluidized Bed Boilers
104(14)
Emissions Control with Fluidized Bed Boilers
118(1)
Bed Material
119(1)
Heat Transfer
119(1)
Modern Coal-Fired Plants---Summary
120(1)
Process Steam and Its Application
121(1)
Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Systems
122(6)
Nuclear Steam Generation
128(11)
Questions and Problems
136(3)
Design and Construction of Boilers
139(36)
Materials Used in Boiler Construction
140(3)
Stresses in Tubes and Drums
143(5)
Drum Construction
148(2)
Welded Construction
150(5)
Structural Support Components
155(2)
Manholes, Handholes, and Fittings
157(1)
Boiler Assembly
158(2)
Heating Surface and Capacity
160(4)
Boiler Capacity Calculation
164(11)
Questions and Problems
171(4)
Combustion of Fuels
175(60)
The Combustion Process
175(4)
The Theory of Combustion
179(13)
The Air Supply
192(6)
Coal
198(16)
Fuel Oil
214(6)
Gas
220(2)
By-Product Fuels
222(3)
Control of the Combustion Process
225(10)
Questions and Problems
231(4)
Boiler Settings, Combustion Systems, and Auxiliary Equipment
235(116)
Boiler Settings
235(3)
Hand Firing
238(2)
Stokers
240(33)
Underfeed Stokers
241(10)
Overfeed Stokers
251(22)
Pulverized Coal
273(32)
Contact Mills
277(7)
Ball Mills
284(1)
Impact Mills
285(1)
Mill Feeders
286(2)
Gravimetric Feeders
288(2)
Burners
290(6)
Lighters
296(1)
Flame Safety System
296(2)
Operation
298(7)
Fuel Oil
305(13)
Steam- or Air-Atomizing Burners
309(1)
Pressure-Type Burners
310(2)
Oil Burning Characteristics
312(6)
Gas
318(4)
Oil- and Gas-Firing Safety Precautions
322(1)
Automatic Operation of Boilers
323(4)
Stacks
327(4)
Mechanical Draft: Fans
331(9)
Steam and Air Jets
340(1)
Flues and Ducts
341(1)
Ash Handling Systems
341(10)
Questions and Problems
345(6)
Boiler Accessories
351(68)
Water Columns
351(8)
Pressure Measurement
359(3)
Temperature Measurement
362(1)
Feedwater Regulators
362(7)
Safety Valves
369(13)
Blowdown Equipment
382(5)
Nonreturn Valves
387(3)
Steam Piping
390(1)
Sootblowers
391(8)
Valves
399(4)
Instruments and Automatic Control Systems
403(16)
Questions and Problems
416(3)
Operation and Maintenance of Boilers
419(58)
Boiler Startup
420(3)
Normal Operation
423(20)
Combustion Control
424(1)
Ash Handling
425(1)
Water Supply
426(13)
Boiler Efficiency
439(4)
Insulation and Lagging
443(1)
Operating Characteristics of Fluidized Bed Boilers
443(3)
Circulating Fluid Bed (CFB) Boilers
444(1)
Bubbling Fluid Bed (BFB) Boilers
445(1)
Abnormal Operation
446(4)
Idle Boilers
450(4)
Maintenance
454(8)
Boiler Internal Inspection
462(3)
Evaluating the Condition of a Boiler
465(3)
Making Repairs
468(2)
Inspection and Maintenance Requirements of Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs)
470(7)
Questions and Problems
472(5)
Pumps
477(56)
Pumps
478(1)
Injectors
479(2)
Duplex Pumps
481(8)
Power Pumps
489(3)
Vacuum Pumps
492(1)
Rotary Pumps
493(4)
Centrifugal Pumps
497(12)
Facts about Fluids and Pumping
509(3)
Factors Affecting Pump Operation
512(1)
Considerations for Pump Selection
513(1)
Pump Installation and Operation
514(3)
Pump Testing and Calculations
517(6)
Pump Maintenance
523(10)
Questions and Problems
530(3)
Steam Turbines, Condensers, and Cooling Towers
533(78)
Steam Turbines
533(20)
Turbine Types and Applications
539(7)
Turbine Stage Design
546(1)
Major Components of a Turbine
547(6)
Turbine Design and Construction
553(29)
Thrust Bearing
563(2)
Packing
565(2)
Governors
567(6)
Lubrication
573(1)
Turbine Control
574(3)
Erection of the Steam Turbine
577(2)
Relief Valves and Rupture Disks for Turbines
579(2)
Turbine Piping
581(1)
Electric Generators
582(3)
Condensers
585(8)
Surface Condensers
586(3)
Air-Cooled Condensers
589(1)
Condenser Materials and Construction
590(3)
Cooling Towers
593(10)
Types of Cooling Towers
594(8)
Design Considerations
602(1)
Materials of Construction
603(1)
Condenser Auxiliaries
603(8)
Questions and Problems
607(4)
Operating and Maintaining Steam Turbines, Condensers, Cooling Towers, and Auxiliaries
611(36)
Turbines
611(17)
Turbine Operation
617(4)
Turbine Maintenance
621(6)
Turbine Performance
627(1)
Condensers
628(5)
Surface Condenser Operation
628(2)
Surface Condenser Maintenance
630(2)
Air-Cooled Steam Condenser Operation
632(1)
Cooling Towers
633(6)
Operation of Cooling Towers
635(4)
Maintenance of Cooling Towers
639(1)
Auxiliaries
639(8)
Traveling Screens
639(2)
Pumps
641(1)
Steam-Jet Ejectors and Vacuum Pumps
642(1)
Vacuum Gauges
642(1)
Questions and Problems
643(4)
Auxiliary Steam-Plant Equipment
647(62)
Condensate System
649(1)
Feedwater Heaters
650(18)
Closed Feedwater Heaters
651(3)
Open Feedwater Heaters (Deaerators)
654(13)
Operation and Maintenance of Feedwater Heaters
667(1)
Condensate Polishing Systems
668(2)
Raw Water Treatment
670(7)
Ion-Exchange Water Conditioners
671(4)
Evaporators
675(2)
Boiler Blowdown
677(3)
Piping System
680(9)
Steam Traps
689(6)
Pipeline Separators and Strainers
695(3)
Lubricants and Lubricating Devices
698(11)
Questions and Problems
705(4)
Environmental Control Systems
709(46)
Introduction
709(1)
Environmental Considerations
709(1)
Sources of Plant Emissions
710(2)
Available Technologies for the Control of Emissions
712(3)
SO2 Control
712(1)
NOx Control
713(1)
Particulate Control
714(1)
Regulatory Requirements
715(1)
Particulate and Sulfur Dioxide Removal Requirements
716(4)
Particulate Removal
716(2)
Sulfur Dioxide Removal
718(1)
Industrial Boilers
719(1)
Equipment for Particulate Emission Control
720(15)
Mechanical Collectors
720(2)
Electrostatic Precipitators
722(7)
Bag Filterhouses
729(6)
Equipment for Sulfur Dioxide Scrubber Systems
735(16)
Wet Scrubbers
736(5)
Dry Scrubbers
741(10)
Systems for Control of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
751(4)
Questions and Problems
752(3)
Waste-to-Energy Plants
755(48)
Introduction
755(4)
Waste Disposal---A Worldwide Problem
759(2)
Potential Energy from MSW
761(1)
Landfills
762(1)
Solid Waste Composition
763(4)
Types of Energy-Recovery Technologies
767(1)
Mass Burning
768(10)
Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Burning
778(6)
Operation and Maintenance of Refuse Boilers
784(4)
Recycling
788(4)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Recycling
789(2)
Economics and Quality Products from Recycling
791(1)
Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs)
792(7)
Waste-to-Energy Plants and Recycling
799(4)
Questions and Problems
800(3)
Appendix A Unit Conversions 803(6)
Appendix B Geometric Formulas 809(2)
Appendix C Steam Tables and Charts 811(14)
Appendix D Answers to Problems 825(4)
Glossary 829(10)
Index 839


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