Steam Turbines Design, Application, and Re-Rating

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-09-29
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
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The latest design and manufacturing details in mechanical drive steam turbinesSteam Turbinesshows how to select, improve, operate, and maintain high-quality mechanical drive steam turbines-with maximum efficiency and minimum downtime. This new Second Edition offers authoritative information on the operating characteristics, design features, reliability, and maintenance of all steam turbines. A complete sourcebook,Steam Turbinesdelivers the expertise required to capitalize on the latest steam turbine and intermediate transmission unit innovations--and improve a plant's efficiency, availability, and profitability.Steam Turbines, Second Editioncovers: Variable speed drives and intermediate gearing used for major process machinery and cogeneration drives-- with completely updated content Arrangement, material composition, and basic physical laws governing design of steam turbines How to select optimum configurations, controls, and components Options and ways to upgrade existing steam turbines

Author Biography

Heinz P. Bloch is a consulting engineer. Before retiring from Exxon in 1986 after over two decades of service, Mr. Bloch's professional career included long-term assignments as Exxon Chemical's Regional Machinery Specialist for the United States. He has also held machinery-oriented staff and line positions with Exxon affiliates in the United States, Italy, Spain, England, The Netherlands and Japan. He has conducted over 500 public and in-plant courses in the United States and at international locations.


Dr. Murari P. Singh is Consulting Engineer / Probabilistic Lifing Leader of GE Oil And Gas for all products in Chief Engineers' Office. Murari has been involved in the design, development and analysis of industrial turbomachinery for more than thirty years with Turbodyne Corporation, Dresser Industries, Dresser-Rand Company and, most recently, with Safe Technical Solutions Inc., where he served as Director of Engineering Technology. Dr. Singh has extensive knowledge and experience with fatigue and fracture mechanics, stress and vibration of structures, reliability, life analysis, and probabilistic analysis. His practical application experience includes a variety of rotating equipment including warm gas and FCC expanders, steam turbines, and centrifugal compressors. He developed the widely used SAFE diagram for reliability evaluation of turbine blades. Dr. Singh has authored more than 35 technical papers on topics relating to turbomachinery.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Introductionp. 1
Why Mechanical Drive Steam Turbines Are Appliedp. 1
Overview of Steam Turbine Fundamentalsp. 2
Steam turbine staging can varyp. 5
Modern impulse designp. 5
Single-valve vs. multivalve constructionp. 5
Steam balance considerationsp. 9
Overview of Steam Turbine Types and Controlsp. 9
Straight noncondensingp. 14
Automatic extraction noncondensingp. 15
Automatic extraction condensingp. 15
Basic steam control considerationsp. 18
Automatic extraction condensing controlsp. 21
Geared and direct-drive typesp. 21
Modular design conceptsp. 23
Turbine Casing and Major Stationary Componentsp. 29
Casing Designp. 29
Steam Admission Sectionsp. 33
Steam Turbine Diaphragms and Labyrinth Packingp. 36
Bearings for Mechanical Drive Turbinesp. 51
Journal Bearings for Industrial Turbomachineryp. 51
Fixed-geometry journal bearing stabilityp. 52
Tilting-pad journal bearingsp. 56
Advanced tilting-pad journal bearingsp. 61
Lubrication-starved tilting-pad bearingsp. 65
Key Design Parametersp. 68
Thrust Bearings for Turbomachineryp. 69
Active Magnetic Bearingsp. 75
Rotors for Impulse Turbinesp. 81
Long-Term Operating Experiencep. 81
Pitch Diameter and Speedp. 82
Steam Temperaturep. 83
Built-Up Constructionp. 84
Solid Constructionp. 89
Shaft Endsp. 90
Turbine Rotor Balance Methodsp. 91
At-speed rotor balancingp. 92
Balance Tolerancep. 94
Rotors for Reaction Turbinesp. 95
Solid Rotorsp. 95
Materials for Solid Rotorsp. 99
Welded Rotor Designp. 100
Welded Rotor Materialsp. 105
Turbine Blade Design Overviewp. 109
Blade Materialsp. 111
Blade Root Attachmentsp. 111
Types of Airfoils and Blading Capabilitiesp. 113
Guide Blades for Reaction Turbinesp. 114
Low-Pressure Final Stage Bladingp. 120
Turbine Auxiliariesp. 125
Lube Systemsp. 125
Barring or Turning Gearsp. 128
Trip-Throttle or Main Stop Valvesp. 129
Overspeed Trip Devicesp. 132
Gland Seal Systemsp. 135
Lube Oil Purifiersp. 135
Governors and Control Systemsp. 137
Generalp. 137
Governor System Terminologyp. 140
Speed regulationp. 140
Speed variationp. 141
Dead bandp. 141
Stabilityp. 141
Speed risep. 141
NEMA Classificationsp. 143
Valvesp. 144
Single-valve turbinesp. 144
Multivalve turbinesp. 145
PG Governorsp. 145
Electronic Governorsp. 148
Governor Systemsp. 150
Generalp. 150
Extraction controlp. 150
Couplings and Coupling Considerationsp. 157
Power Transmissionp. 157
Shaft Alignmentp. 160
Maintenancep. 162
Influence on the Critical Speedsp. 162
Differential Expansionsp. 162
Axial Thrustsp. 163
Limits of Applicationp. 163
Rotor Dynamics Technologyp. 165
Rotor Modelp. 165
Dynamic Stiffnessp. 166
Effects of Damping on Critical Speed Predictionp. 169
Bearing-Related Developmentsp. 170
Refinementsp. 172
Bearing Support Considerationsp. 173
Foundationsp. 174
Impedancep. 174
Partial Arc Forcesp. 178
Design Procedurep. 179
Rotor Responsep. 180
Instability Mechanismsp. 180
Subsynchronous Vibrationp. 180
Service Examplesp. 183
Labyrinth and Cover Seal Forcesp. 185
Rotor Stability Criteriap. 187
Experimental Verificationp. 187
Campbell, Goodman, and SAFE Diagrams for Steam Turbine Bladesp. 189
Goodman Diagramp. 189
Goodman-Soderberg Diagramp. 190
Campbell Diagramp. 191
Exciting frequenciesp. 195
SAFE Diagram-Evaluation Tool for Packeted Bladed Disk Assemblyp. 197
Definition of resonancep. 198
Mode shapep. 198
Fluctuating forcesp. 200
SAFE Diagram for Bladed Disk Assemblyp. 203
Mode Shapes of a Packeted Bladed Diskp. 209
Interference Diagram Beyond N/2 Limitp. 211
Explaining Published Data by the Use of Dresser-Rand's SAFE Diagramp. 214
Summaryp. 217
Reaction vs. Impulse Type Steam Turbinesp. 219
Introductionp. 219
Impulse and Reaction Turbines Comparedp. 220
Efficiencyp. 220
Designp. 223
Rotorp. 223
Bladingp. 224
Erosionp. 230
Axial Thrustp. 232
Maintenancep. 233
Design Features of Modern Reaction Turbinesp. 233
Deposit Formation and Turbine Water Washingp. 235
Transmission Elements for High-Speed Turbomachineryp. 243
Spur Gear Unitsp. 243
Epicyclic Gearsp. 245
Clutchesp. 246
Hydroviscous Drivesp. 253
Hydrodynamic Converters and Geared Variable-Speed Turbo Couplingsp. 257
Function of the multistage variable-speed drivep. 261
Design and operating detailsp. 261
Working oil and lube oil circuitsp. 264
Lubricating systemp. 264
Lubricant oil containment on gear and vriable-speed unitsp. 265
Shortcut Graphical Methods of Turbine Selectionp. 267
Mollier Chart Instructionsp. 267
Estimating Steam Ratesp. 271
Quick Reference Information to Estimate Steam Rates of Multivalve, Multistage Steam Turbinesp. 303
Elliott Shortcut Selection Method for Multivalve, Multistage Steam Turbinesp. 309
Approximate Steam Ratesp. 309
Stage Performance Determinationp. 313
Extraction Turbine Performancep. 320
Rerates, Upgrades, and Modificationsp. 329
Performance and Efficiency Upgradep. 331
Brush seals and labyrinth sealsp. 332
Wavy face dry sealsp. 336
Bucketsp. 348
Reliability Upgradep. 352
Electronic controlsp. 352
Monitoring systemsp. 356
Life Extensionp. 356
Modification and Reapplicationp. 358
Casingp. 359
Flange sizingp. 360
Nozzle ring capacityp. 362
Steam path analysisp. 362
Rotor blade loadingp. 363
Thrust bearing loadingp. 363
Governor valve capacityp. 364
Rotorp. 364
Shaft end reliability assessmentp. 364
Speed range changesp. 366
Auxiliary equipment reviewp. 366
Oil mist lubrication for general-purpose steam turbinesp. 367
Problem solvingp. 376
Summaryp. 376
Glossaryp. 377
Units of Measurementp. 385
Bibliography and List of Contributorsp. 399
Indexp. 407
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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