Steel-Reinforced Concrete Structures: Assessment and Repair of Corrosion

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-10-22
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Carrying a billion-dollar price tag, corrosion of reinforced concrete is the enemy of every country's investment in real estate. The widespread and long-term use of reinforced concrete makes its correct and proper examination, maintenance, and repair paramount. Steel-Reinforced Concrete Structures: Assessment and Repair of Corrosion explains the corrosion of reinforced concrete from a practical point of view, highlighting protective design and repair procedures.The book begins with a discussion of the corrosion phenomena, the effect of concrete properties on corrosion, and the precautions available in the construction stage to mitigate corrosion. It covers the theoretical and practical methods in evaluating the concrete structures and new, practical methods to protect steel reinforcement. The book also includes methods established in the last decade that provide new ways of protecting steel-reinforced bars and the traditional and advanced repairing methods. The author explains the importance of implementing an integrity management system to provide a comprehensive maintenance strategy and concludes with coverage of the traditional, time-tested, and advanced repair techniques. A special feature is a chapter focusing on the advance maintenance plan philosophy and risk-based maintenance for reinforced concrete structures.The author examines economic analysis procedures and the probability of structural failures to define structure risk assessment. He covers precautions and recommendations for protecting the reinforced concrete structures from corrosion based on codes and specifications. He uses case histories from all over the world to demonstrate the widespread application and range of advanced repair techniques and presents a practical guide to the maintenance of concrete structures. The book provides procedures for corrosion diagnosis and determining the appropriate methods for repair, as well as economic models for on-site decision making.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
The Authorp. xv
Introductionp. 1
Referencep. 3
Corrosion of Steel in Concretep. 5
Introductionp. 5
The Corrosion Processp. 7
Black Corrosionp. 9
Pit Formationp. 9
Bacterial Corrosionp. 10
Corrosion Ratep. 10
Summaryp. 13
Referencesp. 13
Causes of Corrosion and Concrete Deteriorationp. 15
Introductionp. 15
Carbonationp. 16
Spread of Carbonation inside Concretep. 19
Parrott's Determination of Carbonation Rates from Permeabilityp. 21
Chloride Attackp. 21
Chloride Movement inside Concretep. 22
Corrosion Ratesp. 23
Statistical Analysis for Initiation of Corrosion and Corrosion Ratep. 23
Effect of Age on Concrete Strengthp. 24
Statistical Analysis of Longtime Concrete Strengthp. 26
Code Recommendationsp. 26
Available Statistical Parameters for Concrete Strength Considering Agep. 27
Corrosion's Effect on Spalling of Concrete Coverp. 27
Referencesp. 32
Assessment Methods for Reinforced Concrete Structuresp. 33
Introductionp. 33
Preliminary Inspectionp. 34
Detailed Inspectionp. 34
Methods of Structure Assessmentp. 35
Visual Inspectionp. 36
Plastic Shrinkagep. 36
Settlementp. 37
Shrinkage from Dryingp. 37
Thermal Stressesp. 38
Chemical Reactionp. 39
Concrete Test Datap. 44
Core Testp. 44
Rebound Hammerp. 48
Ultrasonic Pulse Velocityp. 51
Load Test for Concrete Membersp. 56
Comparison between Different Testsp. 59
Sources of Concrete Failurep. 60
Example for Structure Evaluationp. 61
Example for Structure Assessmentp. 63
Test Methods for Corroded Steel in Concretep. 65
Manual Methodp. 65
Concrete Cover Measurementsp. 67
Half-Cell Potential Measurementsp. 69
Electrical Resistivity Measurementp. 71
Measurement of Carbonation Depthp. 74
Chloride Testsp. 74
Building Assessmentp. 75
Referencesp. 76
Codes and Specification Guidesp. 79
Introductionp. 79
Allowable Chloride Content in Concretep. 80
Concrete Cover Specificationsp. 81
British Standardsp. 82
American Codesp. 82
European Codep. 83
Specifications for Structures Exposed to Very Severe Conditionsp. 85
Egyptian Codep. 85
Executing Concrete Coverp. 87
Maximum Crack Widthp. 91
Recommended Reinforcement Details of Crack Controlp. 92
Design Precautions in Cases of Carbonationp. 93
Design Precautions for Chloride Effectsp. 95
Effect of the Diffusion Factor on Chloride Permeabilityp. 97
Effect of Chloride Concentration on Surfacep. 98
Effective Chloride Concentrationp. 99
Calculating Structure Lifetimep. 99
General Design Considerationsp. 101
Referencesp. 102
Controlling Corrosion in Steel Barsp. 105
Introductionp. 105
Carbonation Process Controlp. 106
Effect of Environmental Conditionsp. 106
Components of Concrete Mixp. 109
Curingp. 110
Chloride Controlp. 112
Weather Factors Affecting Corrosionp. 112
Composition of Concrete Mixp. 113
Curing for Chloride Attackp. 114
Execution of Curingp. 116
The Curing Process in ACIp. 119
British Standard for Curingp. 120
Protecting Special Structuresp. 121
Referencesp. 122
Methods for Protecting Steel Reinforcementsp. 123
Introductionp. 123
Corrosion Inhibitorsp. 124
Anodic Inhibitorsp. 124
Cathodic Inhibitorsp. 125
Epoxy Coating of Steel Reinforcementp. 126
Galvanized Steel Barsp. 127
Stainless Steelp. 129
Fiber Reinforcement Barsp. 130
Protecting the Concrete Surfacep. 131
Sealers and Membranesp. 132
Coating and Sealingp. 132
Pore Liningp. 133
Pore Blockingp. 133
Cathodic Protection by Surface Paintingp. 134
Cathodic Protection Systemp. 135
Cathodic Protectionp. 135
Cathodic Protection Components and Design Considerationp. 137
Source of Impressed Currentp. 138
Anode Systemp. 138
Conductive Layerp. 140
Precautions in Designing the Anodep. 140
Follow-Up Precautionp. 142
Comparison between Cathodic Protection and Other Types of Protectionp. 142
Cathodic Protection for Prestressed Concretep. 143
Bond Strength in Cathodic Protectionp. 144
Concrete with Silica Fumep. 146
Referencesp. 146
Repair of Reinforced Concrete Structuresp. 149
Introductionp. 149
Main Steps to Executing Repairp. 150
Structure Strengtheningp. 150
Removing Concrete Cracksp. 151
Manual Methodp. 152
Pneumatic Hammer Methodsp. 152
Water Jetp. 153
Grinding Machinep. 155
Clean Concrete Surfaces and Steel Reinforcementsp. 155
Concretep. 155
Clean Steel Reinforcement Barsp. 156
New Patch Concretep. 160
Polymer Mortarp. 160
Cement Mortarp. 161
Execution Methodsp. 161
Manual Methodp. 161
Grouted Preplaced Aggregatep. 162
Shotcretep. 163
Repair Stepsp. 165
New Methods for Strengthening Concrete Structuresp. 165
Using Steel Sectionsp. 166
Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP)p. 169
CFRPp. 170
Application On-sitep. 171
General Precautionsp. 172
Referencesp. 173
Risk-Based Maintenance Strategyp. 175
Introductionp. 175
Basic Rules of Cost Calculationp. 176
Present Value Methodp. 176
Repair Timep. 176
Capacity Loss in Reinforced Concrete Sectionsp. 178
Examplep. 180
Required Time to Start of Corrosionp. 181
Time Required to Start of Deteriorationp. 182
Cost Analysis for Different Protection Methodsp. 183
Repair and Inspection Strategy and Optimizationp. 185
Repairp. 186
Expected Total Costp. 186
Optimization Strategyp. 187
Maintenance Planp. 190
Assessment Processp. 190
Risk-Based Inspection Maintenance Planp. 193
Referencesp. 195
Indexp. 197
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