9781319056629

The Structure of Argument

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781319056629

  • ISBN10:

    1319056628

  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2017-12-08
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

The Structure of Argument teaches students how to approach, develop, and defend arguments one element at a time. This concise but thorough text carefully scaffolds argument for students, explaining approaches to argumentation, critical reading, and argument analysis. The major components of argumentation—claims, support, assumptions, logic—are explained in depth, and a robust research section shows students how to find, incorporate, and build on existing arguments. The Ninth Edition has been updated with more sourced readings than ever before, including a section of debates on unsettled current topics, further reinforcing the importance of research and synthesis. With its value price tag, The Structure of Argument is an affordable, accessible resource for the argument classroom.



The Structure of Argument is available with LaunchPad Solo for Readers and Writers. By combining formative and summative assessments with opportunities to study, practice, and review specific skills, LaunchPad Solo for Readers and Writers provides instructors with a quick and flexible solution for targeting instruction on critical reading, the writing process, grammar, mechanics, style, and punctuation based on students’ unique needs. Students will gain confidence by working through sequenced units that guide them from concept to mastery. At home or in class, students learn at their own pace, with instruction tailored to individual learners.

Table of Contents

PART ONE Understanding Argument


1 Approaches to Argument


What Is Argument?


Aristotelian Rhetoric


Ethos


Logos


Pathos


Research Skill Using Databases


Ancient Rhetoric Today


Argument Essentials Aristotelian Rhetoric


READING ARGUMENT


Richard J. Davis, In Gun Control Debate, Logic Goes out the Window


The Shelter Pet Project, A Person Is the Best Thing to Happen to a Shelter Pet (advertisement)


Liza Long, I Am Adam Lanza’s Mother


*Stasis Theory


*The Stasis Questions


*READING ARGUMENT


*Stasis Theory Claims


Rogerian Argument


Argument Essentials Rogerian Argument


READING ARGUMENT


Julia Belluz and Steven J. Hoffman, Katie Couric and the Celebrity Medicine Syndrome


*Sarah Seltzer, Teaching Trigger Warnings: What Pundits Don’t Understand about the Year’s Most Controversial Higher-Ed Debate


Los Angeles Times Editorial Board, Warning: College Students, This Editorial May Upset You


The Toulmin Model


The Claim


The Support


The Assumption


Toulmin and the Syllogism


Argument Essentials The Toulmin Model


READING ARGUMENT


Robert J. Samuelson, In Health, We’re Not No. 1


Steven Reinberg, Embryo Selection May Help Prevent Some Inherited Disorders


Assignments for Understanding Approaches to Argument



2 Critical Reading of Written Arguments


Prereading


Strategies for Prereading


READING ARGUMENT


Carol Rose, On Pins and Needles Defending Artistic Expression


Amin Ahmad, I Belong Here


Reading for Content and Structure


Working with the Text


Strategies for Annotating a Text


READING ARGUMENT


Christopher Elliott, A Tale of Two Airlines


Summarizing


Research Skill Summarizing


Strategies for Writing Rhetorical Summaries


READING ARGUMENT


Mallory Simon, Gun Debate: Where Is the Middle Ground?


Stephanie Fairyington, The Gay Option


Evaluation


Strategies for Evaluating Arguments


Argument Essentials Examining Written Arguments


READING ARGUMENT


Bruce Schneier, The Internet Is a Surveillance State


Whitney Cramer, Giving Up Our Privacy: Is It Worth It? (student essay)


Assignments for Examining Written Arguments



3 Critical Reading of Multimodal Arguments


Visual Rhetoric


Photographs


READING ARGUMENT


Dave Martin, Looting (photograph)


Chris Graythen, Finding (photograph)


*Rick Loomis, Los Angeles Airport Police Remove the Camouflaged Gun Case That Caused the Evacuation (photograph)


*Charlie Riedel, Rio Olympics Refugees (photograph)


*Dinendra Haria, Hey Mister! Hands Off My Sister! (photograph)


Michael Krasowitz, Texting and Driving (photograph)


Print Advertisements


Argument Essentials Visual Rhetoric


READING ARGUMENT


World Wildlife Fund, Stop Climate Change before It Changes You (advertisement)


*Ad Council, It Only Takes a Moment to Make a Moment (advertisement)


Political Cartoons


READING ARGUMENT


*Peter Steiner, No Caption (cartoon)


*David Sipress, If One Political Party or the Other . . . (cartoon)


Graphics


READING ARGUMENT


theworld.org, Tobacco’s Shifting Burden (infographic)


Union of Concerned Scientists, Where Your Gas Money Goes (infographic)


Audiovisual Rhetoric


Television Commercials


READING ARGUMENT


Toyota, Let’s Go Places (advertisement)


Speeches and Debates


READING ARGUMENT


*Elizabeth Warren, Remarks at the Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States Senate, September 27, 2015


Broadcast News


Strategies for Critical Listening


READING ARGUMENT


CNN Correspondents, Coverage of Obama’s Announcement in Support of Gay Marriage


Argument Essentials Audiovisual Rhetoric


Online Environments


Networking Sites


Argument Essentials Online Environments


READING ARGUMENT


William Wharton, "Peaceful" Act of Compassion


Online News and Blogs


READING ARGUMENT


*Luke T. Harrington, Summer Shootings, Pokemon Go: Rebuilding Community in the Wake of Destruction (online blog)


Visual Lectures


Research Skill Evaluating Online Sources


Interactive Web Sites


READING ARGUMENT


*Ad Council, embracerefugees.org


Assignments for Examining Multimodal Arguments



4 Writing Argument Analysis


*Argument Essentials Writing Argument Analysis


Argument Essentials Writing the Claim


Planning the Structure


Argument Essentials Planning the Structure


Providing Support


Summarizing


Paraphrasing


Quoting


Argument Essentials Providing Support


Research Skill Incorporating Quotations into Your Text


Documenting Your Sources


Writer’s Guide Documenting Use of Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation


READING ARGUMENT


Michael Isikoff, The Snitch in Your Pocket


Ray Chong, Misuse of Cell-Phone Tracking (student essay)


DeRon Williamson, How Our Technology Is Used against Us (student essay)


Robert D. Stuart, Social Media: Establishing Criteria for Law Enforcement Use


*Healthcare Management, The Science Facts about Autism and Vaccines (infographic)


*James W. Ingram III, Electoral College Is Best Way to Choose U. S. President


Assignments for Responding to Arguments



*5 Writing Arguments


Organizing the Argument


Defending the Thesis


Refuting an Opposing View


READING ARGUMENT


Sharon Astyk and Aaron Newton, The Rich Get Richer, the Poor Go Hungry


Strategies for Refuting an Opposing View


Finding the Middle Ground


READING ARGUMENT


*Damon Linker, Finding the Moral, Sensible Middle Ground on Abortion


Strategies for Finding the Middle Ground


Presenting the Stock Issues


READING ARGUMENT


*John R. Koza, States Can Reform Electoral College--Here's How to Empower Popular Vote


Writing


Writing the Introduction


Writing the Conclusion


Argument Essentials Writing Arguments


Assignments for Writing Arguments



PART TWO Analyzing the Elements


6 Claims


Claims of Fact


Argument Essentials Claims of Fact


Research Skill Identifying Your Sources


READING ARGUMENT


Josh Levs, Loaded Language Poisons Gun Debate


Claims of Value


Aesthetics


Morality


Argument Essentials Claims of Value


READING ARGUMENT


*Samuel Chi, The NFL's Protest Crisis


*Justin Chang, Grace Shines Past the Emotional Manipulations of "The Light between Oceans"


Claims of Policy


Argument Essentials Claims of Policy


READING ARGUMENT


Elisha Dov Hack, College Life versus My Moral Code


Kiara Ventura, Your Toxic Beauty Regime


Writer’s Guide Stating Your Claim


Assignments for Claims: Making a Statement



7 Support


Writer’s Guide Using Support


Evidence


Factual Evidence


Images


*Tulsa Police Department, Police Shootings – Medical Help (photo)


Research Skill Evaluating Evidence


Argument Essentials Evidence


READING ARGUMENT


Sid Kirchheimer, Are Sports Fans Happier?


Kristen Weinacker, Safer? Tastier? More Nutritious? The Dubious Merits of Organic Foods (student essay)


Siddhartha Mukherjee, I’m Sorry, Steve Jobs: We Could Have Saved You


Appeals to Needs and Values


Appeals to Needs


Appeals to Values


Research Skill Evaluating Appeals to Needs and Values


Argument Essentials Appeals to Needs and Values


READING ARGUMENT


Ronald M. Green, Building Baby from the Genes Up


Jeremy Markel, Marketing to "Tweens" Objectifies Women


Assignments for Support: Backing Up a Claim



8 Assumptions


General Principles


Widely Held Assumptions


Recognizing and Analyzing Assumptions


Unstated Assumptions


Strategies for Recognizing Assumptions


READING ARGUMENT


Terry Eastland, Don’t Stop Frisking


Research Skill Finding and Narrowing a Research Topic


READING ARGUMENT


Michael Levin, The Case for Torture


Robert A. Sirico, An Unjust Sacrifice


Assignments for Assumptions



PART THREE Using the Elements



9 Definition: Clarifying Key Terms


The Purposes of Definition


Argument Essentials Purposes of Definition


READING ARGUMENT


*Sunnivie Brydum, The True Meaning of "Cisgender"


Guy-Uriel Charles, Stop Calling Quake Victims Looters


Defining the Terms in Your Argument


The Limitations of Dictionary Definitions


Stipulation and Negation: Stating What a Term Is and Is Not


Defining Vague and Ambiguous Terms


Research Skill Using Encyclopedias


Definition by Example


Argument Essentials Defining the Terms in Your Argument


Writing Extended Definitions


Writer’s Guide Writing a Definition Essay


READING ARGUMENT


Brian Whitaker, The Definition of Terrorism


Ishmeal Bradley, Conscientious Objection in Medicine: A Moral Dilemma


Assignments for Definition: Clarifying Key Terms



10 Language: Using Words with Care


The Power of Words


READING ARGUMENT


Stihl, Consumer Confidence (advertisement)


Connotation


READING ARGUMENT


Frank Deford, Why Keep Athletes Eligible but Uneducated?


Steven Best, Dispatches from a Police State: Animal Rights in the Crosshairs of State Repression


Slanting


Research Skill Evaluating Language in Sources


Figurative Language


READING ARGUMENT


M. D. Anderson, Arming Teachers: A Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Idea


Concrete and Abstract Language


Shortcuts


Clichés


Slogans


Writer’s Guide Choosing Your Words Carefully


Argument Essentials Evaluating Language


READING ARGUMENT


Jennifer Grossman, Food for Thought (and for Credit)


*Barack Obama, Remarks by the President at Memorial Service for Fallen Dallas Police Officers


Assignments for Language: Using Words with Care



11 Logic: Understanding Reasoning


Induction


Argument Essentials Induction


READING ARGUMENT


Jared Diamond, Will Big Business Save the Earth?


Deduction


Argument Essentials Deduction


READING ARGUMENT


David von Drehle, It’s All about Him


Hillary Clinton, Excerpt from Remarks at the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Women and the Economy Summit


Research Skill Identifying Reliable Authorities


Common Fallacies


Hasty Generalization


Faulty Use of Authority


Post Hoc or Doubtful Cause


False Analogy


Ad Hominem


False Dilemma


Slippery Slope


Begging the Question


Straw Man


Red Herring


Two Wrongs Make a Right


Non Sequitur


Ad Populum


Appeal to Tradition


Strategies for Uncovering Logical Fallacies


READING ARGUMENT


Christopher Caldwell, Drivers Get Rolled


*Elizabeth Lee Vliet,"Gender Neutral" Bathrooms Are Dangerous


Assignments for Logic: Understanding Reasoning



PART FOUR Researching and Crafting Arguments



12 Planning and Research


Finding an Appropriate Topic


Invention Strategies


Evaluating Possible Topics


WRITER’S GUIDE Effective Research Paper Topics


Initiating Research


Keeping Research on Track


Writer’s Guide Keeping Your Research on Track


Research Skill What Is Common Knowledge?


Sketching a Preliminary Outline


Types of Sources


Research Skill Popular vs. Scholarly Articles


Finding Sources


Databases


Encyclopedias


Statistical Resources


Government Resources


Web-Based Sources


Multimodal Sources


Evaluating Sources


Evaluating Sources for Relevance


Evaluating Sources for Reliability


Research Skill Evaluating Web-Based Sources


Research Skill Evaluating Multimodal Sources


Argument Essentials Evaluating Sources


READING ARGUMENT


United States Department of Agriculture, Child Nutrition Programs


Taking Notes


Note Taking and Prewriting


Working with Your Outline


Managing and Documenting Sources


Argument Essentials Taking Notes


READING ARGUMENT


The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Childhood Obesity: The Challenge


Los Angeles Times Editorial Board, To Curb School Lunch Waste, Ease the Fruit and Vegetable Rules



13 Drafting, Revising, and Presenting Arguments


Reviewing Your Research


Research Skill Reviewing Your Research


*Avoiding Plagiarism


*Argument Essentials Avoiding Plagiarism


*Using Sentence Forms to Write about Arguments


*Argument Essentials Using Sentence Forms


Building an Effective Argument


Revising


Argument Essentials Checklist for Effective Arguments


Oral Arguments


The Audience


Credibility


Organization


Language


Support


Presentation Aids


READING ARGUMENT


Anna Maria Chávez, Address to the National Council Session/52nd Convention of the Girl Scouts of the USA


Kathleen Sebelius, Remarks to Georgetown University’s Public Policy Institute



14 Documenting Sources


MLA In-Text Citations


MLA Works Cited Entries


Directory of MLA Works Cited Entries


Print Sources


The Elements of Citation Book (MLA)


Electronic Sources


The Elements of Citation Article from a Web Site (MLA)


Other Sources


The Elements of Citation Article from a Database (MLA)


MLA-Style Annotated Bibliography


MLA Paper Format


MLA-Style Sample Research Paper


Kathleen Hedden, Competitive Foods and the Obesity Epidemic (student essay)


APA In-Text Citations


APA List of References


Directory of APA Reference Entries


Print Sources


The Elements of Citation Book (APA)


Electronic Sources


The Elements of Citation Article from a Website (APA)


The Elements of Citation Article from a Database (APA)


Other Sources


APA-Style Sample Research Paper


Angela Mathers, The Controversy over Women in Combat (student essay)



PART FIVE Debating the Issues



*15 Rating Your Professors: Do Course Evaluations Matter?


*Rebecca Schuman, Needs Improvement


 *Stephen Burt, Why Not Get Rid of Student Evaluations?



*16 Trigger Warnings: Do College Students Need to be Protected?


*American Association Of University Professors, On Trigger Warnings


*Aaron R. Hanlon, The Trigger Warning Myth



*17 Gender-Neutral Bathrooms: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?


*Delia Melody, The Crucial Problem We're Forgetting in the Trans Bathroom Debate


*Socawlege.Com, The Case Against Fully Shifting to Gender-Neutral Bathrooms


18 Gender Stereotypes: Is the "Princess" Phenomenon Detrimental to Girls’ Self-Image?


*Calah Alexander, The Dangers of the Princess Culture


Crystal Liechty, In Defense of Princess Culture



19 Economics and College Sports: Should College Athletes Be Paid?


Paul Marx, Athlete’s New Day


Warren Hartenstine, College Athletes Should Not Be Paid



?


Glossary


INDEX OF SUBJECTS


INDEX OF AUTHORS AND TITLES


Rewards Program

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