Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders Effective Instructional Practices

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-02-16
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effective Instructional Practices L. Juane Heflin and Donna Fiorino Alaimo Broadened public awareness of autism and other associated spectrum disorders, combined with continuing research, means that more students than ever before are being identified with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effective Instructional Practices provides a systematic approach to addressing research-based content and specific instructional strategies for beginning and experienced teachers. Readers will follow Ms. Harris, a novice educator working with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders, throughout the book as she develops her own skills in becoming an effective teacher. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effective Instructional Practices also addresses: Identifying and determining eligibility of students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Collaborating with families and professionals to develop effective programs that encourage communication and social competence. Developing instructional contexts to address the unique learning needs of students who have Autism Spectrum Disorders by differentiating instruction in the content areas, addressing challenges in non-academic activities, and carefully tailoring supplemental learning opportunities such as homework and summer school. Using Applied Behavior Analysis and developing Positive Behavior Support plans for instruction and addressing challenging behavior. To view the website that accompanies this text, please go to http://www.prenhall.com/heflin

Table of Contents

Identifying and Describing Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disordersp. 1
Learning with Ms. Harris: Life After Graduationp. 1
Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disordersp. 3
Communicationp. 3
Socializationp. 5
Interests and Activitiesp. 6
Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV-TRp. 8
Autistic Disorderp. 9
Learning with Ms. Harris: A Trip to McDonald'sp. 10
Asperger's Disorderp. 11
Learning with Ms. Harris: An English Compositionp. 13
Rett's Disorderp. 15
Childhood Disintegrative Disorderp. 15
Pervasive Developmental Disorders-Not Otherwise Specifiedp. 16
Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disordersp. 16
Early Indicators of Possible ASDp. 19
Learning with Ms. Harris: Returning the Callp. 21
Assessments for ASDp. 22
Additional Tests and Evaluationsp. 22
Differential Diagnosesp. 23
Determining Eligibility for Special Educationp. 34
Summary of ASD Factsp. 36
Conclusionp. 37
Discussion Questions and Activitiesp. 37
Referencesp. 38
Historical Perspectives and Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disordersp. 47
Learning with Ms. Harris: The Need to Learn Morep. 47
Autism Through Historyp. 48
Kanner's Use of the Term Autismp. 49
Asperger Describes a Similar Profilep. 50
Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disordersp. 51
Neurological Differencesp. 52
Structural Differencesp. 53
Brainstemp. 54
Limbic Systemp. 56
Cerebrump. 58
Cerebellump. 58
Neural Plasticityp. 60
Chemical Differences and Psychopharmacological Treatmentsp. 61
Functional Differencesp. 64
Role of Geneticsp. 67
Immune System Involvementp. 68
Impact of Environmental Toxinsp. 69
Learning with Ms. Harris: Sunday Night in Front of the Televisionp. 70
How Many People Have an ASD?p. 70
Conclusionp. 73
Discussion Questions and Activitiesp. 74
Referencesp. 76
Collaborating to Develop Effective Programsp. 85
Learning with Ms. Harris: One School System's Experiencep. 85
Understanding the Controversyp. 86
Differing Perspectivesp. 86
Interventions vs. Outcomesp. 87
Marketing Hypep. 87
Critical Analysis of Published Literaturep. 88
Contradictory Conclusionsp. 88
Heterogeneous Populationp. 88
Developmental Disabilityp. 89
Additional Considerations When Interpreting Research Literaturep. 90
Positive Trajectoriesp. 90
Nonrandom Selection and Outcome Measuresp. 91
Placebo Effectp. 92
Consideration of Entire Familyp. 92
Differing Approaches for the Same Populationp. 93
Relationship-Based Approachesp. 94
Skills-Based Approachesp. 94
Physiologically Based Approachesp. 95
Combination Approachesp. 96
Guidelines for Use in Developing Effective Programsp. 96
Collaborative Development of Programsp. 99
Active Listeningp. 99
Soliciting Everyone's Ideasp. 100
Understanding and Respecting Others' Perspectivesp. 100
Communicating Clearlyp. 101
Emphasizing the Common Goalp. 101
Learning with Ms. Harris: Her First IEP Meetingp. 102
Conclusionp. 110
Discussion Questions and Activitiesp. 111
Referencesp. 111
Creating Contexts for Instructionp. 117
Learning with Ms. Harris: A Room of Her Ownp. 117
Arranging the Physical Environmentp. 118
Teaching Behaviors Associated with Environmentally Cued Expectationsp. 120
Establishing the Temporal Structurep. 122
Activity Lengthp. 123
Variation of Activitiesp. 123
Delineation of Activitiesp. 124
Teaching Starting and Stoppingp. 125
Transitionsp. 125
Visual and Concrete Systemsp. 127
Differences Between Types of Visualsp. 129
Systematic Instructionp. 130
Sensory Accommodationsp. 132
Engaging Activitiesp. 133
Opportunities to Make Choicesp. 133
Establishing Stimulus Controlp. 134
Primingp. 135
Conclusionp. 135
Discussion Questions and Activitiesp. 136
Referencesp. 136
Accommodating Sensory Issuesp. 141
Learning with Ms. Harris: Ms. Harris Is Puzzledp. 141
Sensory Differences in Autism Spectrum Disordersp. 142
Sensory Stimulip. 143
Sensory Systems and Behaviorp. 145
Olfactoryp. 145
Gustatoryp. 146
Tactilep. 146
Vestibularp. 147
Proprioceptivep. 148
Visionp. 149
Auditoryp. 150
Balancing Sensory Informationp. 150
Stereotypic and Ritualistic Behaviorp. 151
Biologic Need for Stimulationp. 152
Increasing Arousalp. 152
Reducing Stressp. 153
Stereotypies and Stims to Control the Environmentp. 154
Supporting Sensory Needsp. 154
Environmental Analysesp. 155
Shaping Behaviorp. 157
Learning with Ms. Harris: Ms. Harris Rubs Corduroyp. 158
A Cautionary Notep. 160
Conclusionp. 163
Discussion Questions and Activitiesp. 163
Referencesp. 164
Using Applied Behavior Analytic Instructional Strategiesp. 171
Learning with Ms. Harris: Ms. Nelson Finds a Curep. 171
Applied Behavior Analysis Definedp. 172
Applied and Effectivep. 173
Technologicalp. 174
Behavioralp. 176
Analytic and Conceptualp. 176
Generalityp. 179
Summary of Applied Behavior Analysisp. 180
Discrete Trial Trainingp. 181
Attentionp. 181
Presentation of Stimulusp. 182
Student Responsep. 183
Feedbackp. 184
Intertrial Intervalp. 187
Learning with Ms. Harris: Teaching Gabe to Label Picturesp. 187
Variationsp. 188
Pros and Cons of Discrete Trial Trainingp. 190
Summary of Discrete Trial Trainingp. 191
Other Effective ABA Interventionsp. 192
Learning with Ms. Harris: An Answer for Ms. Nelsonp. 193
Conclusionp. 193
Discussion Questions and Activitiesp. 193
Referencesp. 194
Programming for Challenging Behaviorp. 199
Learning with Ms. Harris: A Bad Dayp. 199
What Precipitates Challenging Behavior?p. 200
Functions of Behaviorp. 202
Determining Functions of Behaviorp. 204
Operationally Define the Problem Behaviorp. 204
Collect Data on the Behaviorp. 205
Analyze Data to Create a Relationship Statementp. 207
Functional Analysisp. 212
Positive Behavior Supportp. 213
Learning with Ms. Harris: A Lesson in Changing Behaviorp. 214
Developing Positive Behavior Support Plansp. 216
Consider Antecedent Modificationsp. 217
Learning with Ms. Harris: Using PRT with Craigp. 219
Teach Acceptable Behaviors That Serve the Same Function as the Misbehaviorp. 219
Learning with Ms. Harris: FCT for Donaldp. 221
Identify Consequences for Misbehavior and Develop Backup Plansp. 223
Plan for Generalizationp. 224
Learning with Ms. Harris: Collaborative Problem Solvingp. 225
Conclusionp. 226
Discussion Questions and Activitiesp. 227
Referencesp. 228
Encouraging Communication and Verbal Behaviorp. 233
Learning with Ms. Harris: Differences Between Talking and Communicatingp. 233
Early Communication Developmentp. 234
Eye Gazep. 234
Babblingp. 235
Gesturesp. 235
Basics for Language Developmentp. 236
Motor Imitationp. 236
Joint Attentionp. 237
Object Playp. 237
Language Acquisitionp. 238
Components of Languagep. 239
Levels of Communicationp. 240
Echolaliap. 240
Additional Considerations with Asperger Syndromep. 242
Communication Breakdowns & Repair Strategiesp. 242
Assessment of Communication Skillsp. 245
Encouraging Verbal Behaviorp. 245
Learning with Ms. Harris: Insight into Echolaliap. 245
Discrete Trial Training (DTT)p. 247
Functional Communication Training (FCT)p. 247
Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)p. 247
Sign Languagep. 249
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)p. 251
Learning with Ms. Harris: Milo Requests Cheese Ballsp. 254
Natural Language Paradigm (NLP)p. 254
Joint Action Routines (JARs)p. 255
Learning with Ms. Harris: JARs/NLP for Milop. 257
Incidental Teachingp. 257
Conclusionp. 260
Discussion Questions and Activitiesp. 261
Referencesp. 261
Enhancing Socialization and Social Competencep. 271
Learning with Ms. Harris: Craig Joins In-Badlyp. 271
Social Differences in ASDp. 272
Social Competencep. 274
Social Skills Trainingp. 275
Assessmentp. 275
Acquisition, Performance, and Generalizationp. 277
Strategies to Enhance Socialization and Social Competencep. 278
Peer-Mediated Instruction and Interventionsp. 279
Adult-Mediated Instruction and Interventionsp. 280
Facilitating Play Behaviorp. 280
Direct Teaching of Social Skillsp. 281
Social Storiesp. 283
Comic Strip Conversationsp. 285
Concept Masteryp. 287
Social Autopsiesp. 288
Strategies for Enhancing Friendshipsp. 290
Stay, Play, & Talkp. 290
Additional Considerations for Developing Friendshipsp. 291
Conclusionp. 292
Discussion Questions and Activitiesp. 293
Referencesp. 294
Promoting Academic Skill Acquisitionp. 301
Learning with Ms. Harris: Success in General Education Settingsp. 301
Determining Academic Objectivesp. 302
Differentiated Instructionp. 303
Facilitating Listeningp. 305
Enhancing Motivation to Learnp. 306
Incorporating Assistive Technologyp. 307
Using Computer-Assisted Instructionp. 308
Summary of Differentiated Instructionp. 308
Core Content Areasp. 309
Written Expressionp. 309
Readingp. 312
Learning with Ms. Harris: Laura and the Media Specialistp. 316
Spellingp. 317
Mathematicsp. 318
Learning with Ms. Harris: Collaborating for Success in General Education Settingsp. 320
Conclusionp. 321
Discussion Questions and Activitiesp. 322
Referencesp. 322
Organizing Instructional Opportunities in Nonacademic Environmentsp. 327
Learning with Ms. Harris: Kinta's Version of Jumping Jacksp. 327
Considerations for Success in Nonacademic Environmentsp. 328
Physical Educationp. 329
Lunchp. 330
Driver's Educationp. 331
Extracurricular Activitiesp. 331
Other Instructional Considerationsp. 331
Learning with Ms. Harris: Running Out of Time!p. 332
Opportunities to Respondp. 332
Groupingp. 333
Peer Tutoringp. 333
Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)p. 334
Cooperative Learningp. 336
Use of Paraprofessionalsp. 337
Facilitating Engagement through Self-Managementp. 338
Learning with Ms. Harris: An Expansion of Self-Managementp. 338
Supplemental Learningp. 341
Learning with Ms. Harris: Homework Woesp. 341
Homeworkp. 342
Homework Strategiesp. 342
Homework Proceduresp. 343
Summer Schoolp. 345
Conclusionp. 345
Discussion Questions and Activitiesp. 346
Referencesp. 346
Epilogue: What Ms. Harris Learnedp. 351
Name Indexp. 355
Subject Indexp. 365
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