SuperVision and Instructional Leadership A Developmental Approach with Video-Enhanced Pearson eText -- Access Card Package

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  • Edition: 9th
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  • Copyright: 2013-03-01
  • Publisher: Pearson
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This leading text's emphasis on school culture, teachers as adult learners, developmental leadership, democratic education, and collegial supervision has helped redefine the meaning of supervision and instructional leadership for both scholars and practitioners.  The Ninth Edition maintains its comprehensive approach to supervision and instructional leadership and presents new and engaging material throughout. Chapters on knowledge, interpersonal skills, technical skills, technical tasks, and cultural tasks for successful supervision and instructional leadership are included, and the authors emphasize the importance of collegiality, understanding adult learning and development, reflective inquiry, democracy, addressing diversity, the change process, and community building. This is a resource that students purchase, use in class, and reference throughout their careers as educational leaders. The Enhanced Pearson eText features embedded video.


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Author Biography

Carl Glickman is president of the Institute for Schools, Education, and Democracy and Professor Emeritus of Education at the University of Georgia. He began his career as a Teacher Corp intern in the rural south, and later was a principal of award-winning schools in New Hampshire. At the University of Georgia, he and colleagues founded the Georgia League of Professional Schools, a nationally validated network of high-functioning public schools dedicated to the principles of democratic education. He is the author or editor of 14 books on school leadership, educational renewal, and the moral imperative of education.


Stephen P. Gordon is a professor of Education and Community Leadership at Texas State University. He is author of the book Professional Development for School Improvement, co-author of the books The Basic Guide to Supervision and Instructional Leadership, and How to Help Beginning Teachers Succeed , and editor of the books Collaborative Action Research and Standards for Instructional Supervision: Enhancing Teaching and Learning. Dr. Gordon, the former director of the National Center for School Improvement, also was lead consultant for the ASCD video series Improving Instruction through Observation and Feedback.


Jovita M. Ross-Gordon is a professor of Adult, Professional and Community Education at Texas State University where she coordinates the MA in Adult Education. Dr. Ross-Gordon is the author, editor, or co-editor of several books including the 2010 Handbook of Adult and Continuing Education.  She has also published numerous chapters and articles on the teaching and learning of adults. She is currently a Co-Editor of both Adult Education Quarterly and New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, and has served in numerous leadership positions with professional organizations focusing on adult education.  

Table of Contents



About the Authors xiii

Preface xv



Introduction 1

1 SuperVision for Successful Schools 3

SuperVision: A New Name for a New Paradigm 7

Supervisory Glue as a Metaphor for Success 9

Who Is Responsible for Supervision? 9

Supervision and Moral Purpose 12

Organization of This Book 13

Reflective Exercise 15



Knowledge 17

2 The Norm: Why Traditional Schools

Are as They Are 19

The Work Environment or Culture of Schools 20

The Legacy of the One-Room Schoolhouse 21

Cultures within Cultures 30

Blaming the Victim and Structural Strain 31

Reflective Exercise 32


3 The Dynamic School 33

Shared Leadership, Collegiality, and Collaboration 34

A Cause beyond Oneself 35

Professional Development 36

Positive Learning Climate 37

Authentic Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment 38

Democracy 39

Inquiry 40

Cultural Responsiveness 41

Partnerships and Networks 42

Reflective Exercise 47


4 Adult and Teacher Development within

the Context of the School 48

Adults as Learners 49

Adult and Teacher Development 59

Development: Ebb and Flow 76

Reflective Exercise 78


5 Reflections on Educational Beliefs, Teaching,

and Supervision 79

Instructional Goals and Effective Teaching 81

Expert Teachers 82

Beliefs about Education 84

Supervisory Beliefs 85

Supervisory Platform as Related to Educational Philosophy 87

Checking Your Own Supervisory Beliefs 91

What Does Your Belief Mean in Terms of Supervisor

and Teacher Responsibility? 91

Reflective Exercise 96



Interpersonal Skills 97

6 Supervisory Behavior Continuum:

Know Thyself 99

Outcomes of Conference 102

Valid Assessment of Self 103

Johari Window 104

Cognitive Dissonance 106

Comparing Self-Perceptions

with Others’ Perceptions 107

Comparing Self-Perceptions to Recorded Behaviors 109

360-Degree Feedback 110

Reflective Exercise 111


7 Directive Control Behaviors 113

A History of Overreliance on Control 116

Issues in Directive Control 118

When to Use Directive Control Behaviors 118

Moving from Directive Control toward Directive Informational Behaviors 119

Reflective Exercise 120


8 Directive Informational Behaviors 121

Comparing Directive Control and Directive Informational Statements 123

Issues in the Directive Informational Approach 126

When to Use Directive Informational Behaviors 127

Moving from Directive Informational toward Collaborative Behaviors 127

Reflective Exercise 128


9 Collaborative Behaviors 130

Issues in Collaborative Supervision 135

When to Use Collaborative Behaviors 136

Moving from Collaborative toward Nondirective Behaviors 136

Reflective Exercise 137


10 Nondirective Behaviors 139

Initiating Nondirective Supervision 144

Nondirective, Not Laissez-Faire, Supervision 145

Issues with Nondirective Supervision 146

When to Use Nondirective Behaviors 147

Nondirective Supervision, Teacher Collaboration 148

Reflective Exercise 149


11 Developmental Supervision 150

Phase 1: Choosing the Best Approach 151

Phase 2: Applying the Chosen Approach 155

Phase 3: Fostering Teacher Development 156

Not Algorithms, but Guideposts for Decisions 158

Case Studies on Developmental Supervision 158

Reflective Exercise 168



Technical Skills 169

12 Assessing and Planning Skills 171

Personal Plans 172

Assessing Time 173

Changing Time Allocations: Planning 176

Assessing and Planning within the Organization 180

Ways of Assessing Need 181

Analyzing Organizational Needs 185

Planning 189

Cautions Concerning Planning 195

Reflective Exercise 196


13 Observing Skills 197

Formative Observation Instruments Are Not Summative

Evaluation Instruments 200

Ways of Describing 200

Quantitative Observations 200

Qualitative Observations 209

Tailored Observation Systems 213

Types and Purposes of Observation 216

Technology-Enhanced Observation 217

Collaborative Walkthroughs 219

Cautions Concerning Observations 220

Reflective Exercise 221


14 Evaluation Skills 222

The Intersection of Instructional Supervision and Program Evaluation 223

Judgments 224

Key Decisions in the Program Evaluation Process 225

Overall Instructional Program Evaluation 227

Program Evaluation and Teacher Empowerment 232

Teacher Evaluation 234

Teacher Self-Evaluation 239

Reflective Exercise 240



Technical Tasks of Supervision 243

15 Direct Assistance to Teachers 245

Clinical Supervision 246

Comparing Clinical Supervision with Teacher Summative Evaluation 250

Integrating Clinical Supervision and Developmental Supervision 251

Peer Coaching 252

Other Forms of Direct Assistance 255

Beyond Technical Assistance: Improving Classroom Culture 257

Reflective Exercise 257


16 Group Development 258

Dimensions of an Effective Group 260

Group Member Roles 261

Applying Developmental Supervision to Groups 266

Dealing with Dysfunctional Members 268

Resolving Conflict 269

Preparing for Group Meetings 273

Establishing Ground Rules 274

Collaborative Groups and School Improvement 275

Dialogue: An Alternative Group Process 278

Reflective Exercise 279


17 Professional Development 281

Characteristics of Successful Professional Development Programs 283

Integrating Schoolwide, Group, and Individual Professional Development 284

Alternative Professional Development Formats 285

Examples of Effective Professional Development Programs 287

Stages of Professional Development 290

Evaluating Professional Development Programs 291

Teachers as Objects or Agents in Professional Development 294

Reflective Exercise 297


18 Curriculum Development 297

Sources of Curriculum Development 298

Legislated Learning 299

Curriculum Development as a Vehicle for Enhancing Collective Thinking

about Instruction 301

What Should Be the Purpose of the Curriculum? 302

What Should Be the Content of the Curriculum? 302

How Should the Curriculum Be Organized? 304

In What Format Should the Curriculum Be Written? 305

Curriculum Format as Reflective of Choice Given to Teachers 309

Relationship of Curriculum Purpose, Content, Organization, and Format 310

Levels of Teacher Involvement in Curriculum Development 311

Integrating Curriculum Format with Developers and Levels of Development 312

Matching Curriculum Development with Teacher Development 313

The Curriculum and Cultural Diversity 315

Reflective Exercise 320


19 Action Research: The School as the

Center of Inquiry 321

How Is Action Research Conducted? 323

A Developmental Approach to Action Research 324

Decisions about Action Research 325

Action Research: Vehicle for a Cause beyond Oneself 327

Characteristics of Successful Action Research 328

Example of Action Research 330

Expanding Boundaries: Alternative Approaches to Action Research 331

Shared Governance for Action Research 333

Premises 334

Suggestions for Assisting Action Research 338

Conclusion: Focus, Structure, and Time for Development 339

Reflective Exercise 339



Cultural Tasks of SuperVision 341

20 Facilitating Change 343

Chaos Theory 345

Postmodern Theory 349

Education Change Theory 352

Change at the Individual Level 359

Changing the Conditions of Teaching 359

Reflective Exercise 363


21 Addressing Diversity 365

Achievement Gaps among Economic, Racial, and Ethnic Groups 367

A Societal or a School Problem? 368

Cultural Clashes 370

Culturally Responsive Teaching 374

Culturally Responsive Schools 377

Gender Equity 382

Equity for Sexual Minorities 384

Overarching Patterns 387

Connecting the Technical Tasks of Supervision

to Cultural Responsiveness 388

Reflective Exercise 388


22 Building Community 390

Democratic Community 392

Moral Community 395

Professional Learning Community 398

Community of Inquiry 400

Engagement with the Larger Community 402

Five Attributes, One Community 405

Conclusion 406

Reflective Exercise 407


Appendix A: Educational Philosophy? Q Sort* 409

Appendix B: Review of Interpersonal Behavior in Four

Supervisory Approaches 415

References 417

Name Index 439

Subject Index

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