9781119953524

Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Innovative Technologies

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781119953524

  • ISBN10:

    1119953529

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-08-05
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Summary

Sustainable development is an area that has world-wide appeal, from developed industrialized countries to the developing world. Development of innovative technologies to achieve sustainability is being addressed by many European countries, the USA and also China and India. The need for chemical processes to be safe, compact, flexible, energy efficient, and environmentally benign and conducive to the rapid commercialization of new products poses new challenges for chemical engineers.
This book examines the newest technologies for sustainable development in chemical engineering, through careful analysis of the technical aspects, and discussion of the possible fields of industrial development.

The book is broad in its coverage, and is divided into four sections:

  • Energy Production, covering renewable energies, innovative solar technologies, cogeneration plants, and smart grids
  • Process Intensification, describing why it is important in the chemical and petrochemical industry, the engineering approach, and nanoparticles as a smart technology for bioremediation
  • Bio-based Platform Chemicals, including the production of bioethanol and biodiesel, bioplastics production and biodegradability, and biosurfactants
  • Soil and Water Remediation, covering water management and re-use, and soil remediation technologies

Throughout the book there are case studies and examples of industrial processes in practice. 

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

1. Sustainable Development Strategies: An Overview 1

Vincenzo Piemonte, Marcello De Falco, and Angelo Basile

1.1 Renewable Energies: State of the Art and Diffusion 1

1.2 Process Intensification 4

1.2.1 Process Intensifying Equipment 5

1.2.2 Process Intensifying Methods 6

1.3 Concept and Potentialities of Bio-based Platforms for Biomolecule Production 8

1.3.1 Biogas Platform 9

1.3.2 Sugar Platform 10

1.3.3 Vegetable Oil Platform 10

1.3.4 Algae Oil Platform 11

1.3.5 Lignin Platform 11

1.3.6 Opportunities and Growth Predictions 12

1.4 Soil and Water Remediation 13

1.4.1 Soil Remediation 18

1.4.2 Water Remediation 18

References 18

2. Innovative Solar Technology: CPS Plants for Combined Production of Hydrogen and Electricity 25

Marcello De Falco

2.1 Principles 25

2.2 Plant Configurations 28

2.2.1 Solar Membrane Reactor Steam Reforming 29

2.2.2 Solar Enriched Methane Production 31

2.3 Mathematical Models 33

2.3.1 Solar Enriched Methane Reactor Modelling 34

2.3.2 Membrane Reactor Modelling 36

2.3.3 WGS, Separation Units and the Electricity Production Model 38

2.4 Plant Simulations 39

2.4.1 EM Reactor 39

2.4.2 Membrane Reactor 41

2.4.3 Global Plant Simulations and Comparison 45

2.5 Conclusions 46

Nomenclature 47

References 48

3. Strategies for Increasing Electrical Energy Production from Intermittent Renewables 51

Alessandro Franco

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Penetration of Renewable Energies into the Electricity Market and Issues Related to Their Development: Some Interesting Cases 55

3.3 An Approach to Expansion of RES and Efficiency Policy in an Integrated Energy System 57

3.3.1 Optimization Problems 59

3.3.2 Operational Limits and Constraints 61

3.3.3 Software Tools for Analysis 62

3.4 Analysis of Possible Interesting Scenarios for Increasing Penetration of RES 62

3.4.1 Renewable Energy Expansion in a Reference Scenario 63

3.4.2 Increasing Thermoelectric Generation Flexibility 63

3.4.3 Effects of Introducing the Peak/Off-Peak Charge Tariff 64

3.4.4 Introducing Electric Traction in the Transport Sector: Connection between Electricity and Transport Systems 64

3.4.5 Increasing Industrial CHP Electricity Production 65

3.4.6 Developing the Concept of ‘Virtual Power Plants’ 66

3.5 Analysis of a Meaningful Case Study: The Italian Scenario 66

3.5.1 Renewable Energy Expansion in a Reference Scenario 68

3.5.2 Increasing Thermoelectric Generation Flexibility 69

3.5.3 Effects of Introducing a Peak/Off-Peak Charge Tariff 69

3.5.4 Introduction of a Connection between Electricity and Transport Systems: The Increase in Electric Cars 70

3.5.5 Increasing Industrial CHP Electricity Production 71

3.6 Analysis and Discussion 74

3.7 Conclusions 75

Nomenclature and Abbreviations 76

References 77

4. The Smart Grid as a Response to Spread the Concept of Distributed Generation 81

Yi Ding, Jacob Østergaard, Salvador Pineda Morente, and Qiuwei Wu

4.1 Introduction 81

4.2 Present Electric Power Generation Systems 82

4.3 A Future Electrical Power Generation System with a High Penetration of Distributed Generation and Renewable Energy Resources 83

4.4 Integration of DGs into Smart Grids for Balancing Power 86

4.5 The Bornholm System – A “Fast Track” for Smart Grids 91

4.6 Conclusions 92

References 93

5. Process Intensification in the Chemical Industry: A Review 95

Stefano Curcio

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Different Approaches to Process Intensification 96

5.3 Process Intensification as a Valuable Tool for the Chemical Industry 97

5.4 PI Exploitation in the Chemical Industry 100

5.4.1 Structured Packing for Mass Transfer 100

5.4.2 Static Mixers 100

5.4.3 Catalytic Foam Reactors 100

5.4.4 Monolithic Reactors 100

5.4.5 Microchannel Reactors 101

5.4.6 Non-Selective Membrane Reactors 101

5.4.7 Adsorptive Distillation 102

5.4.8 Heat-Integrated Distillation 102

5.4.9 Membrane Absorption/Stripping 102

5.4.10 Membrane Distillation 103

5.4.11 Membrane Crystallization 104

5.4.12 Distillation-Pervaporation 104

5.4.13 Membrane Reactors 104

5.4.14 Heat Exchanger Reactors 104

5.4.15 Simulated Moving Bed Reactors 105

5.4.16 Gas-Solid-Solid Trickle Flow Reactor 105

5.4.17 Reactive Extraction 106

5.4.18 Reactive Absorption 106

5.4.19 Reactive Distillation 106

5.4.20 Membrane-Assisted Reactive Distillation 106

5.4.21 Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactors 106

5.4.22 Pulsed Compression Reactor 107

5.4.23 Sonochemical Reactors 107

5.4.24 Ultrasound-Enhanced Crystallization 108

5.4.25 Electric Field-Enhanced Extraction 108

5.4.26 Induction and Ohmic Heating 108

5.4.27 Microwave Drying 109

5.4.28 Microwave-Enhanced Separation and Microwave Reactors 109

5.4.29 Photochemical Reactors 110

5.4.30 Oscillatory Baffled Reactor Technologies 111

5.4.31 Reverse Flow Reactor Operation 111

5.4.32 Pulse Combustion Drying 111

5.4.33 Supercritical Separation 112

5.5 Conclusions 113

References 113

6. Process Intensification in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industry 119

Angelo Basile, Adolfo Iulianelli, and Liguori Simona

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Process Intensification 120

6.2.1 Definition and Principles 120

6.2.2 Components 121

6.3 The Membrane Role 122

6.4 Membrane Reactor 124

6.4.1 Membrane Reactor and Process Intensification 126

6.4.2 Membrane Reactor Benefits 127

6.5 Applications of Membrane Reactors in the Petrochemical Industry 128

6.5.1 Dehydrogenation Reactions 129

6.5.2 Oxidative Coupling of Methane 134

6.5.3 Methane Steam Reforming 135

6.5.4 Water Gas Shift 137

6.6 Process Intensification in Chemical Industry 139

6.6.1 Reactive Distillation 139

6.6.2 Reactive Extraction 140

6.6.3 Reactive Adsorption 140

6.6.4 Hybrid Separation 141

6.7 Future Trends 141

6.8 Conclusion 142

Nomenclature 143

References 143

7. Production of Bio-Based Fuels: Bioethanol and Biodiesel 153

Sudip Chakraborty, Ranjana Das Mondal, Debolina Mukherjee, and Chiranjib Bhattacharjee

7.1 Introduction 153

7.1.1 Importance of Biofuel as a Renewable Energy Source 153

7.2 Production of Bioethanol 155

7.2.1 Bioethanol from Biomass: Production, Processes, and Limitations 156

7.2.2 Substrate 157

7.2.2.1 Bioethanol from Starchy Mass by Fermentation 157

7.2.2.2 Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass 160

7.2.2.3 Bioethanol from Microalgae and Seaweeds 163

7.2.3 Future Prospects for Bioethanol 164

7.3 Biodiesel and Renewable Diesels from Biomass 166

7.3.1 Potential of Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel Substitute 168

7.3.2 Vegetable Oil Ester Based Biodiesel 169

7.3.3 Several Approaches to Biodiesel Synthesis 170

7.3.4 Sustainability of Biofuel Use 171

7.3.4.1 Food versus Fuel 171

7.3.4.2 Water Usage 171

7.3.4.3 Environmental Issues 171

7.3.5 Future Prospects 171

7.4 Perspective 172

List of Acronyms 172

References 173

8. Inside the Bioplastics World: An Alternative to Petroleum-based Plastics 181

Vincenzo Piemonte

8.1 Bioplastic Concept 181

8.2 Bioplastic Production Processes 183

8.2.1 PLA Production Process 183

8.2.2 Starch-based Bioplastic Production Process 185

8.3 Bioplastic Environmental Impact: Strengths and Weaknesses 186

8.3.1 Life Cycle Assessment Methodology 186

8.3.2 The Ecoindicator 99 Methodology: An End-Point Approach 187

8.3.3 Case Study 1: PLA versus PET Bottles 189

8.3.4 Case Study 2: Mater-Bi versus PE Shoppers 191

8.3.5 Land Use Change (LUC) Emissions and Bioplastics 193

8.4 Conclusions 195

Acknowledgement 196

References 196

9. Biosurfactants 199

Martinotti Maria Giovanna, Allegrone Gianna, Cavallo Massimo, and Fracchia Letizia

9.1 Introduction 199

9.2 State of the Art 200

9.2.1 Glycolipids 201

9.2.2 Lipopeptides 201

9.2.3 Fatty Acids, Neutral Lipids, and Phospholipids 204

9.2.4 Polymeric Biosurfactants 204

9.2.5 Particulate Biosurfactants 205

9.3 Production Technologies 205

9.3.1 Use of Renewable Substrates 205

9.3.2 Medium Optimization 209

9.3.3 Immobilization 211

9.4 Recovery of Biosurfactants 212

9.5 Application Fields 213

9.5.1 Environmental Applications 213

9.5.2 Biomedical Applications 217

9.5.2.1 Antimicrobial Activity 217

9.5.2.2 Anti-Adhesive Activity 218

9.5.3 Agricultural Applications 220

9.5.4 Biotechnological and Nanotechnological Applications 221

9.6 Future Prospects 225

References 225

10. Bioremediation of Water: A Sustainable Approach 241

Sudip Chakraborty, Jaya Sikder, Debolina Mukherjee, Mrinal Kanti Mandal, and D. Lawrence Arockiasamy

10.1 Introduction 241

10.2 State-of-the-Art: Recent Development 242

10.3 Water Management 247

10.4 Overview of Bioremediation in Wastewater Treatment and Ground Water Contamination 250

10.5 Membrane Separation in Bioremediation 252

10.6 Case Studies 256

10.6.1 Bioremediation of Heavy Metals 256

10.6.2 Bioremediation of Nitrate Pollution 258

10.6.3 Bioremediation in the Petroleum Industry 259

10.7 Conclusions 260

List of Acronyms 261

References 262

11. Effective Remediation of Contaminated Soils by Eco-Compatible Physical, Biological, and Chemical Practices 267

F. Sannino and A. Piccolo

11.1 Introduction 267

11.2 Biological Methods (Microorganisms, Plants, Compost, and Biochar) 269

11.2.1 Microorganisms 269

11.2.2 Plants 273

11.2.3 Plant-Microorganism Associations: Mycorrhizal Fungi 275

11.2.4 Compost and Biochar 276

11.3 Physicochemical Methods 277

11.3.1 Humic Substances as Natural Surfactants 278

11.4 Chemical Methods 280

11.4.1 Metal-Porphyrins 282

11.4.2 Nanocatalysts 284

11.5 Conclusions 286

List of Symbols and Acronyms 288

Acknowledgments 288

References 288

12. Nanoparticles as a Smart Technology for Remediation 297

Giuseppe Chidichimo, Daniela Cupelli, Giovanni De Filpo, Patrizia Formoso, and Fiore Pasquale Nicoletta

12.1 Introduction 297

12.2 Silica Nanoparticles for Wastewater Treatment 298

12.2.1 Silica Nanoparticles: An Overview 298

12.2.2 Preparation of Nanosilica 299

12.2.3 Removal of Dyes by Silica Nanoparticles 299

12.2.4 Removal of Metallic Pollutants by Silica Nanoparticles 303

12.3 Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications 305

12.3.1 Magnetic Nanoparticles: An Overview 305

12.3.2 Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles 306

12.3.2.1 Co-Precipitation 306

12.3.2.2 Thermal Decomposition 307

12.3.2.3 Hydrothermal Procedures 310

12.3.2.4 Microemulsions as Nanoreactors 311

12.3.2.5 Other Synthesis Methods 313

12.3.3 Characterization of Magnetic Nanoparticles 315

12.3.4 Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles 316

12.4 Titania Nanoparticles in Environmental Photo-Catalysis 317

12.4.1 Advanced Oxidation Processes 317

12.4.2 TiO2 Assisted Photo-Catalysis 320

12.4.2.1 TiO2 Assisted Photo-Catalysis of Phenol Compounds 321

12.4.2.2 TiO2 Assisted Photo-Catalysis of Dyes 322

12.4.2.3 Some Examples of TiO2 Assisted Photo-Catalysis 323

12.4.3 Developments in TiO2 Assisted Photo-Catalysis 324

12.5 Future Prospects: Is Nano Really Good for the Environment? 326

12.6 Conclusions 328

12.7 List of Abbreviations 328

References 329

Index 349

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