Taking Sides : Clashing Views on Psychological Issues

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  • Edition: 14th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-10-10
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin
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This fourteenth edition of TAKING SIDES: PSYCHOLOGICAL ISSUES presents current controversial issues in a debate-style format designed to stimulate student interest and develop critical thinking skills. Each issue is thoughtfully framed with an issue summary, an issue introduction, and a postscript. An instructor's manual with testing material is available for each volume. USING TAKING SIDES IN THE CLASSROOM is also an excellent instructor resource with practical suggestions on incorporating this effective approach in the classroom. Each TAKING SIDES reader features an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites and is supported by our student website,

Table of Contents

Preface v
Introduction xiv
Issue 1. Should Psychological Treatments Be Empirically Supported?
YES: Georgios K. Lampropoulos, from "A Reexamination of the Empirically Supported Treatments Critiques," Psychotherapy Research (Winter 2000)
NO: Arthur C. Bohart, from "Paradigm Clash: Empirically Supported Treatments Versus Empirically Supported Psychotherapy Practice," Psychotherapy Research (Winter 2000)
Psychologist Georgios K. Lampropoulos argues tnat the identification of scientifically proven, manualized treatments is the only way to provide safe and effective therapy to the public. Psychologist Arthur C. Bohart disagrees with Lampropoulos and explains that empirically supported treatments stifle the therapeutic process by limiting the ability of the therapist and client to generate their own solutions.
Issue 2. Should Animal Research in Psychology Be Eliminated?
YES: Peter Singer, from Animal Liberation (Ecco, 2002)
NO: R.G. Frey, from "Justifying Animal Experimentation: The Starting Point," in Ellen Frankel Paul and Jeffrey Paul, eds., Why Animal Experimentation Matters: The Use of Animals in Medical Research (Transaction, 2001)
Bioethicist Peter Singer asserts that to engage in animal research is to commit speciesism (similar to racism), often without any important research findings at all. Professor of philosophy R. G. Frey expresses support for the similarity that Singer and others note between animals and humans but ultimately argues that animals should be used for research because their quality of life is lower than that of most humans.
Issue 3. Classic Dialogue: Was Stanley Milgram's Study of Obedience Unethical?
YES: Diana Baumrind, from "Some Thoughts on Ethics of Research: After Reading Milgram's 'Behavioral Study of Obedience," American Psychologist (vol. 19, 1964)
NO: Stanley Milgram, from "Issues in the Study of Obedience: A Reply to Baumrind," American Psychologist (vol. 19, 1964)
Psychologist Diana Baumrind argues that Stanley Milgram's study of obedience did not meet ethical standards for research, because participants were subjected to a research design that caused undue psychological stress that was not resolved after the study. Social psychologist Stanley Milgram, in response to Baumrind s accusations, asserts that the study was well designed, the stress caused to participants could not have been anticipated, and the participants anguish dissipated after a thorough debriefing.
Issue 4. Are Humans Naturally Violent?
YES: Michael L. Wilson and Richard W. Wrangham, from "Intergroup Relations in Chimpanzees," Annual Review of Anthropology (2003)
NO: Robert W. Sussman, from "Exploring Our Basic Human Nature,' Anthro Notes (Fall 1997)
Field researcher Michael L. Wilson and biological anthropologist Richard Wrangham argue that humans are innately violent because their closest nonhuman relatives—chimpanzees—are themselves naturally violent and aggressive. Biological anthropologist Robert W. Sussman asserts that neither humans nor chimpanzees are inherently violent. Instead, he contends, culture and upbringing are significantly involved in the violence evident in both species.
Issue 5. Are Genetic Explanations of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Faulty?
YES: Jay Joseph, from "Not in Their Genes: A Critical View of the Genetics of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder," Developmental Review (December 2000)
NO: Stephen V. Faraone and Joseph Biederman, from "Nature, Nurture, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder," Developmental Review (December 2000)
After reviewing the literature on the genetic causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), clinical psychologist Jay Joseph concludes that such claims are unsupported and that psychosocial causes need further exploration. Clinical psychologists Stephen V. Faraone and Joseph Biederman reject Joseph's conclusions on the grounds that he makes errors in scientific logic and ignores much of the relevant research.
Issue 6. Does Giving Praise Harm Children?
YES: Alfie Kohn, from "Five Reasons to Stop Saying Good Job! ," Young Children (September 2001)
NO: Phillip S. Strain and Gail E. Joseph, from "A Not So Good Job With 'Good Job': A Response to Kohn 2001," Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions (Winter 2004)
Popular author and lecturer Alfie Kohn lists five reasons why parents and educators should discontinue using praise to motivate children and offers several suggestions about how to more appropriately help children appreciate their own accomplishments. Professor of educational psychology Phillip S. Strain and assistant research professor Gail E. Joseph contend positive reinforcement is a time-tested and scientifically sound way to teach children the difference between good and bad behavior and to help them develop a healthy sense of self-worth.
Issue 7. Does a Mother's Employment Harm Her Children?
YES: Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Wen-Jui Han, and Jane Waldfogel, from "Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care," Child Development (July/August 2002)
NO: Thomas M. Vander Ven et al., from "Home Alone: The Impact of Maternal Employment on Delinquency," Social Problems (May 2001)
Child developmentalists Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Wen-Jui Han, and Jane Waldfogel assert that their findings show many types of negative effects from maternal employment on the later cognitive and educational outcomes of children. Professor of sociology and anthropology Thomas M. Vander Ven and his colleagues argue that their studies show that the qualities or quantities of a mother working have relatively little or no influence on the social, emotional, and behavioral functioning of her children.
Issue 8. Does the Divorce of Parents Harm Their Children?
YES: Judith S. Wallerstein and Julia M. Lewis, from "The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce: Report of a 25-Year Study," Psychoanalytic Psychology (Summer 2004)
NO: E. Mavis Hetherington and John Kelly, from For Better or For Worse: Divorce Reconsidered (W.W. Norton, 2002)
Clinical psychologist Judith S. Wallerstein and professor of psychology Julia Lewis argue their research indicates that the vast majority of children from divorced families are harmed in many subtle and obvious ways at various times and stages of their lives. Developmental psychologist E. Mavis Hetherington and writer John Kelly do not deny that divorce can have some harmful effects, especially in the short term, but they maintain that most of these children eventually become well adjusted.
Issue 9. Are Human Cognitive and Behavioral Activities Determined?
YES: John A. Bargh and Tanya L. Chartrand, from "The Unbearable Automaticity of Being," American Psychologist (July 1999)
NO: Amy Fisher Smith, from "Automaticity: The Free Will Determinism Debate Continued" (An Original Article Written for This Volume)
Psychologists John A. Bargh and Tanya L. Chartrand assert that people are controlled not by their purposeful choices and intentions but by the environment through automatic cognitive processes. In response, psychologist Amy Fisher Smith agrees that people do, in fact, have automatic behaviors but she believes these behaviors can be explained by mental processes akin to a free will.
Issue 10. Should Psychology Adopt a Theory of Multiple Intelligences?
YES: Howard Gardner, from "A Multiplicity of Intelligences," Scientific American Presents (Winter 1998)
NO: Linda S. Gottfredson, from "The General Intelligence Factor," Scientific American Presents (Winter 1998)
Psychologist Howard Gardner argues that humans are better understood as having eight or nine different kinds of intelligence rather than as having one general intelligence. Psychologist Linda S. Gottfredson contends that despite some popular assertions, a single factor for intelligence can be measured with IQ tests and is predictive of success in life.
Issue 11. Does ADHD Exist?
YES: Russell A. Barkley, from "International Consensus Statement on ADHD," Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review (June 2002)
NO: Sami Timimi, et al., from "A Critique of the International Consensus Statement on ADHD," Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review (March 2004)
Russell A. Barkley, a professor in the department of psychiatry and neurology, leads a team of researchers who claim that current scientific evidence, particularly evidence provided by heritability and neuroimaging studies, points unarguably toward ADHD's validity and existence. Another group of researchers, led by psychiatrist Sami Timimi, claims the current ADHD epidemic is the result of unrealistic expectations for today's children and the pharmaceutical companies' desire to sell more drugs.
Issue 12. Does Taking Antidepressants Lead to Suicide?
YES: David Healy and Chris Whitaker, from "Antidepressants and Suicide: Risk-Benefit Conundrums," Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience (September 2003)
NO: Yvon D. Lapierre, from "Suicidality With Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: Valid Claim?" Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience (September 2003)
Psychiatrist David Healy and statistician Chris Whitaker argue that psychological research reveals a significant number of suicidal acts by individuals taking antidepressants and, thus, recommend stricter controls on these drugs. In response, psychiatrist Yvon D. Lapierre maintains that the research on suicidality and antidepressants is unconvincing, recommending that conclusions from these findings should be severely limited.
Issue 13. Is Drug Addiction a Choice?
YES: Jeffrey A. Schaler, from Addiction Is a Choice (Open Court, 2000)
NO: Alice M. Young, from "Addictive Drugs and the Brain," National Forum (Fall 1999)
Psychotherapist Jeffrey A. Schaler contends that drug addiction is not a disease in the physical sense because that would indicate that addicts have no control or choice over their addictive behaviors, which is not true. Professor of psychology Alice M. Young describes how addiction to a number of drugs may begin with voluntary usage but end up after repeated use with a physiological tolerance and dependency that is not within one's control or choice.
Issue 14. Should Psychologists Be Able to Prescribe Medicine?
YES: Patrick H. DeLeon and Debra Una Dunivin, from "The Tide Rises," Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice (Fall 2002)
NO: Steven C. Hayes and Grace Chang, from "Invasion of the Body Snatchers: Prescription Privileges, Professional Schools, and the Drive to Create a New Behavioral Health Profession," Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice (Fall 2002)
Psychologists Patrick H. DeLeon and Debra Lina Dunivin assert that granting prescription authority to psychologists will improve the quality of psychological care because they will be able to treat both the body and the mind of patients. Psychologists Steven C. Hayes and Grace Chang fear that prescription authority will fundamentally change psychologists from being experts in human relations to experts in medicine, which we already have.
Issue 15. Is Treating Homosexuality Ethical?
YES: Warren Throckmorton, from "Efforts to Modify Sexual Orientation: A Review of Outcome Literature and Ethical Issues," Journal of Mental Health Counseling (October 1998)
NO: Barry A. Schreier, from "Of Shoes, and Ships, and Sealing Wax: The Faulty and Specious Assumptions of Sexual Reorientation Therapies," Journal of Mental Health Counseling (October 1998)
Warren Throckmorton, director of college counseling and an associate professor of psychology at Grove City College, maintains that efforts to assist homosexually oriented individuals to modify their patterns of sexual arousal have been effective and can be conducted in an ethical manner. Barry A. Schreier, coordinator of training and a psychologist at the Counseling and Psychological Services of Purdue University, counters that homosexuality is not an illness, so there is no need to treat it.
Issue 16. Do Video Games Lead to Violence?
YES: Douglas A. Gentile and Craig A. Anderson, from "Violent Video Games: The Newest Media Violence Hazard," in Douglas A. Gentile, ed., Media Violence and Children: A Complete Guide for Parents and Professionals (Praeger, 2003)
NO: Cheryl K. Olson, from "Media Violence Research and Youth Violence Data: Why Do They Conflict?" Academic Psychiatry (Summer 2004)
Developmental psychologist Douglas A. Gentile and department of psychology chair Craig A. Anderson assert that violent video games cause several physiological and psychological changes in children that lead to aggressive and violent behavior. Cheryl K. Olson, a professor of psychiatry, contends that further research is needed because there is so little current evidence of a substantial connection between exposure to violent video games and serious real-life violence.
Issue 17. Does the Internet Have Psychological Benefits?
YES: James E. Katz and Philip Aspden, from "A Nation of Strangers?" Communications of the ACM (December 1997)
NO: Robert Kraut et al., from "Internet Paradox: A Social Technology That Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well-Being?" American Psychologist (September 1998)
Research scientist James E. Katz and Philip Aspden, executive director of the Center for Research on the Information Society, contend that the Internet has positive effects on the lives of its users. They also maintain that the Internet creates more opportunities for people to foster relationships with people, regardless of their location. Robert Kraut, a professor of social psychology and human computer interaction, and his colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University question how beneficial Internet use really is. They argue that Internet use reduces the number and quality of interpersonal relationships that one has.
Issue 18. Is Pornography Harmful?
YES: Diana E.H. Russell, from Dangerous Relationships: Pornography, Misogyny, and Rape (Sage, 1998)
NO: Michael C. Seto, Alexandra Maric, and Howard E. Barbaree, from "The Role of Pornography in the Etiology of Sexual Aggression," Aggression and Violent Behavior (January-February 2001)
Sociology professor Diana E.H. Russell argues that pornography is profoundly harmful because it predisposes men to want to rape women and undermines social inhibitions against acting out rape fantasies. Michael C. Seto, Alexandra Maric, and Howard E. Barbaree, of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, contend that evidence for a causal link between pornography use and sexual offense remains equivocal.
Contributors 361(8)
Index 369

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