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TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols,9780201633467
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TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780201633467

ISBN10:
0201633469
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/1994
Publisher(s):
Addison-Wesley Professional
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  • TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1 The Protocols
    TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1 The Protocols




Summary

For students writing applications that run over TCP/IP, or for those responsible for managing and maintaining a TCP/IP internet, this book's innovative approach helps readers at all levels to truly understand how TCP/IP really works. Rather than just describing the protocols from an abstract, standards-related point of view-describing what the standards say the protocol suite should do-TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1 actually shows the protocols in action. Stevens also recognizes that readers deal with multiple TCP/IP implementations on heterogeneous platforms. Therefore, the examples in this book show how current, popular TCP/IP implementations operate-SunOS 4.1.3, Solaris 2.2, System V Release 4, BSD/386, AIX 3.2.2, and 4.4 BSD-and they relate these real-world implementations to the RFC standards.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction
1(20)
Introduction
1(1)
Layering
1(5)
TCP/IP Layering
6(1)
Internet Addresses
7(2)
The Domain Name System
9(1)
Encapsulation
9(2)
Demultiplexing
11(1)
Client-Server Model
12(1)
Port Numbers
12(2)
Standardization Process
14(1)
RFCs
14(1)
Standard, Simple Services
15(1)
The Internet
16(1)
Implementations
16(1)
Application Programming Interfaces
17(1)
Test Network
18(1)
Summary
19(2)
Link Layer
21(12)
Introduction
21(1)
Ethernet and IEEE 802 Encapsulation
21(2)
Trailer Encapsulation
23(1)
SLIP: Serial Line IP
24(1)
Compressed SLIP
25(1)
PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol
26(2)
Loopback Interface
28(1)
MTU
29(1)
Path MTU
30(1)
Serial. Line Throughput Calculations
30(1)
Summary
31(2)
IP: Internet Protocol
33(20)
Introduction
33(1)
IP Header
34(3)
IP Routing
37(5)
Subnet Addressing
42(1)
Subnet Mask
43(2)
Special Case IP Addresses
45(1)
A Subnet Example
46(1)
ifconfig Command
47(2)
netstat Command
49(1)
IP Futures
49(1)
Summary
50(3)
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol
53(12)
Introduction
53(1)
An Example
54(2)
ARP Cache
56(1)
ARP Packet Format
56(1)
ARP Examples
57(3)
Proxy ARP
60(2)
Gratuitous ARP
62(1)
arp Command
63(1)
Summary
63(2)
RARP: Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
65(4)
Introduction
65(1)
RARP Packet Format
65(1)
RARP Examples
66(1)
RARP Server Design
67(1)
Summary
68(1)
ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol
69(16)
Introduction
69(1)
ICMP Message Types
70(2)
ICMP Address Mask Request and Reply
72(2)
ICMP Timestamp Request and Reply
74(3)
ICMP Port Unreachable Error
77(4)
4.4BSD Processing of ICMP Messages
81(2)
Summary
83(2)
Ping Program
85(12)
Introduction
85(1)
Ping Program
85(6)
IP Record Route Option
91(4)
IP Timestamp Option
95(1)
Summary
96(1)
Traceroute Program
97(14)
Introduction
97(1)
Traceroute Program Operation
97(2)
LAN Output
99(3)
WAN Output
102(2)
IP Source Routing Option
104(5)
Summary
109(2)
IP Routing
111(16)
Introduction
111(1)
Routing Principles
112(5)
ICMP Host and Network Unreachable Errors
117(2)
To Forward or Not to Forward
119(1)
ICMP Redirect Errors
119(4)
ICMP Router Discovery Messages
123(2)
Summary
125(2)
Dynamic Routing Protocols
127(16)
Introduction
127(1)
Dynamic Routing
127(1)
Unix Routing Daemons
128(1)
RIP: Routing Information Protocol
129(7)
RIP Version 2
136(1)
OSPF: Open Shortest Path First
137(1)
BGP: Border Gateway Protocol
138(2)
CIDR: Classless Interdomain Routing
140(1)
Summary
141(2)
UDP: User Datagram Protocol
143(26)
Introduction
143(1)
UDP Header
144(1)
UDP Checksum
144(3)
A Simple Example
147(1)
IP Fragmentation
148(3)
ICMP Unreachable Error (Fragmentation Required)
151(2)
Determining the Path MTU Using Traceroute
153(2)
Path MTU Discovery with UDP
155(2)
Interaction Between UDP and ARP
157(2)
Maximum UDP Datagram Size
159(1)
ICMP Source Quench Error
160(2)
UDP Server Design
162(5)
Summary
167(2)
Broadcasting and Multicasting
169(10)
Introduction
169(2)
Broadcasting
171(1)
Broadcasting Examples
172(3)
Multicasting
175(3)
Summary
178(1)
IGMP: Internet Group Management Protocol
179(8)
Introduction
179(1)
IGMP Message
180(1)
IGMP Protocol
180(3)
An Example
183(3)
Summary
186(1)
DNS: The Domain Name System
187(22)
Introduction
187(1)
DNS Basics
188(3)
DNS Message Format
191(3)
A Simple Example
194(4)
Pointer Queries
198(3)
Resource Records
201(2)
Caching
203(3)
UDP or TCP
206(1)
Another Example
206(2)
Summary
208(1)
TFTP: Trivial File Transfer Protocol
209(6)
Introduction
209(1)
Protocol
209(2)
An Example
211(2)
Security
213(1)
Summary
213(2)
BOOTP: Bootstrap Protocol
215(8)
Introduction
215(1)
BOOTP Packet Format
215(3)
An Example
218(1)
BOOTP Server Design
219(1)
BOOTP Through a Router
220(1)
Vendor-Specific Information
221(1)
Summary
222(1)
TCP: Transmission Control Protocol
223(6)
Introduction
223(1)
TCP Services
223(2)
TCP Header
225(2)
Summary
227(2)
TCP Connection Establishment and Termination
229(34)
Introduction
229(1)
Connection Establishment and Termination
229(6)
Timeout of Connection Establishment
235(1)
Maximum Segment Size
236(2)
TCP Half-Close
238(2)
TCP State Transition Diagram
240(6)
Reset Segments
246(4)
Simultaneous Open
250(2)
Simultaneous Close
252(1)
TCP Options
253(1)
TCP Server Design
254(6)
Summary
260(3)
TCP Interactive Data Flow
263(12)
Introduction
263(1)
Interactive Input
263(2)
Delayed Acknowledgments
265(2)
Nagle Algorithm
267(7)
Window Size Advertisements
274(1)
Summary
274(1)
TCP Bulk Data Flow
275(22)
Introduction
275(1)
Normal Data Flow
275(5)
Sliding Windows
280(2)
Window Size
282(2)
PUSH Flag
284(1)
Slow Start
285(1)
Bulk Data Throughput
286(6)
Urgent Mode
292(4)
Summary
296(1)
TCP Timeout and Retransmission
297(26)
Introduction
297(1)
Simple Timeout and Retransmission Example
298(1)
Round-Trip Time Measurement
299(2)
An RTT Example
301(5)
Congestion Example
306(4)
Congestion Avoidance Algorithm
310(2)
Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery Algorithms
312(1)
Congestion Example (Continued)
313(3)
Per-Route Metrics
316(1)
ICMP Errors
317(3)
Repacketization
320(1)
Summary
321(2)
TCP Persist Timer
323(8)
Introduction
323(1)
An Example
323(2)
Silly Window Syndrome
325(5)
Summary
330(1)
TCP Keepalive Timer
331(8)
Introduction
331(1)
Description
332(1)
Keepalive Examples
333(4)
Summary
337(2)
TCP Futures and Performance
339(20)
Introduction
339(1)
Path MTU Discovery
340(4)
Long Fat Pipes
344(3)
Window Scale Option
347(2)
Timestamp Option
349(2)
PAWS: Protection Against Wrapped Sequence Numbers
351(1)
T/TCP: A TCP Extension for Transactions
351(3)
TCP Performance
354(2)
Summary
356(3)
SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol
359(30)
Introduction
359(1)
Protocol
360(3)
Structure of Management Information
363(1)
Object Identifiers
364(1)
Introduction to the Management Information Base
365(2)
Instance Identification
367(3)
Simple Examples
370(2)
Management Information Base (Continued)
372(10)
Additional Examples
382(3)
Traps
385(1)
ASN.1 and BER
386(1)
SNMP Version 2
387(1)
Summary
388(1)
Telnet and Rlogin: Remote Login
389(30)
Introduction
389(2)
Rlogin Protocol
391(5)
Rlogin Examples
396(5)
Telnet Protocol
401(5)
Telnet Examples
406(11)
Summary
417(2)
FTP: File Transfer Protocol
419(22)
Introduction
419(1)
FTP Protocol
419(7)
FTP Examples
426(13)
Summary
439(2)
SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
441(20)
Introduction
441(1)
SMTP Protocol
442(6)
SMTP Examples
448(4)
SMTP Futures
452(7)
Summary
459(2)
NFS: Network File System
461(20)
Introduction
461(1)
Sun Remote Procedure Call
461(4)
XDR: External Data Representation
465(1)
Port Mapper
465(2)
NFS Protocol
467(7)
NFS Examples
474(5)
NFS Version 3
479(1)
Summary
480(1)
Other TCP/IP Applications
481(10)
Introduction
481(1)
Finger Protocol
481(2)
Whois Protocol
483(1)
Archie, WAIS, Gopher, Veronica, and WWW
484(2)
X Window System
486(4)
Summary
490(1)
Appendix A. The tcpdump Program 491(8)
A.1 BSD Packet Filter
491(2)
A.2 SunOS Network Interface Tap
493(1)
A.3 SVR4 Data Link Provider Interface
494(1)
A.4 tcpdump Output
495(1)
A.5 Security Considerations
496(1)
A.6 Socket Debug Option
496(3)
Appendix B. Computer Clocks 499(4)
Appendix C. The sock Program 503(4)
Appendix D. Solutions to Selected Exercises 507(18)
Appendix E. Configurable Options 525(14)
E.1 BSD/386 Version 1.0
526(1)
E.2 SunOS 4.1.3
527(2)
E.3 System V Release 4
529(1)
E.4 Solaris 2.2
529(7)
E.5 AIX 3.2.2
536(1)
E.6 4.4BSD
537(2)
Appendix F. Source Code Availability 539(4)
Bibliography 543(12)
Index 555

Excerpts

Introduction This book describes the TCP/IP protocol suite, but from a different perspective than other texts on TCP/IP. Instead of just describing the protocols and what they do, we'll use a popular diagnostic tool to watch the protocols in action. Seeing how the protocols operate in varying circumstances provides a greater understanding of how they work and why certain design decisions were made. It also provides a look into the implementation of the protocols, without having to wade through thousands of lines of source code.When networking protocols were being developed in the 1960s through the 1980s, expensive, dedicated hardware was required to see the packets going "across the wire." Extreme familiarity with the protocols was also required to comprehend the packets displayed by the hardware. Functionality of the hardware analyzers was limited to that built in by the hardware designers.Today this has changed dramatically with the ability of the ubiquitous workstation to monitor a local area network Mogul 1990. Just attach a workstation to your network, run some publicly available software (described in Appendix A), and watch what goes by on the wire. While many people consider this a tool to be used fordiagnosingnetwork problems, it is also a powerful tool forunderstandinghow the network protocols operate, which is the goal of this book.This book is intended for anyone wishing to understand how the TCP/IP protocols operate: programmers writing network applications, system administrators responsible for maintaining computer systems and networks utilizing TCP/IP, and users who deal with TCP/IP applications on a daily basis. Organization of the Book We take a bottom-up approach to the TCP/IP protocol suite. After providing a basic introduction to TCP/IP in Chapter 1, we will start at the link layer in Chapter 2 and work our way up the protocol stack. This provides the required background for later chapters for readers who aren't familiar with TCP/IP or networking in general.This book also uses a functional approach instead of following a strict bottom-to-top order. For example, Chapter 3 describes the IP layer and the IP header. But there are numerous fields in the IP header that are best described in the context of an application that uses or is affected by a particular field. Fragmentation, for example, is best understood in terms of UDP (Chapter 11), the protocol often affected by it. The time-to-live field is fully described when we look at the Traceroute program in Chapter 8, because this field is the basis for the operation of the program. Similarly, many features of ICMP are described in the later chapters, in terms of how a particular ICMP message is used by a protocol or an application.We also don't want to save all the good stuff until the end, so we describe TCP/IP applications as soon as we have the foundation to understand them. Ping and Traceroute are described after IP and ICMP have been discussed. The applications built on UDP (multicasting, the DNS, TFTP, and BOOTP) are described after UDP has been examined. The TCP applications, however, along with network management, must be saved until the end, after we've thoroughly described TCP. This text focuses on how these applications use the TCP/IP protocols. We do not provide all the details on running these applications. Readers This book is self-contained and assumes no specific knowledge of networking or TCP/IP. Numerous references are provided for readers intereste


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