Teacher-Made Assessments: How to Connect Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Learning

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-05-13
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis

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Assessment is not only a measure of student learning, but a means to student learning. Teacher-Made Assessments guides you in constructing and using your own classroom tests and rubrics to improve student achievement. A practical and accessible resource for classroom teachers, it will help you make assessment integral to both teaching and learning.

Table of Contents

About the Authorsp. v
Acknowledgementsp. vi
Why Should I Assess Student Learning in My Classroom?p. 1
Teaching, Learning...and Assessmentp. 1
How Do You Define Teaching?p. 1
Assessment and Learningp. 2
Assessment and Teaching: The Light Bulbp. 2
Curriculum, Instruction...and Assessmentp. 3
The Roles of Assessment in the Classroomp. 6
Assessment Matters: Improving Student Learningp. 10
Assessment and the Accountability Movementp. 10
Assessment as a Professional Competencyp. 16
The Purpose of this Book: Developing Teachers' Competency in Test-Makingp. 18
Overview of the Bookp. 21
What Makes a Good Test?p. 25
The Student Evaluation Standardsp. 26
Validity and Reliability: The Core Principles of Good Assessment Practicesp. 29
Validity and Reliability in Everyday Lifep. 30
Validity and Reliability of Teacher-Made Testsp. 33
Validityp. 34
Construct Validityp. 36
Content Validityp. 37
Criterion Validityp. 38
Consequential Validityp. 40
Tips for Gauging Validityp. 41
Reliabilityp. 41
Tips for Ensuring Reliabilityp. 45
What Does It Mean to Have a Valid and Reliable Test?p. 49
How Do I Create a Good Test?p. 55
Unpack the Standardsp. 57
Contentp. 58
Level of Cognitive Demandp. 60
Putting It Togetherp. 65
Create a Table of Specificationsp. 67
Unpacking the Standardsp. 67
Mapping Objectivesp. 69
Determining Emphasisp. 71
Clarify Why, When, and Where to Assess Students' Learningp. 73
Determine Types of Assessment Itemsp. 75
Determine the Number of Assessment Items, by Typep. 78
Write Test Items That Are Valid and Reliablep. 80
Assemble the Testp. 80
Make Sure That One Item Does Not Give Away the Answer to Another Itemp. 80
Provide Clear Directions for Each Portion of the Testp. 81
Place Individual Test Items on One Full Pagep. 81
Make Sure the Test Is Neat and Error Freep. 81
Provide Clear and Adequate Response Spacesp. 81
Provide Point Values for Older Studentsp. 81
Organize the Test by Item Type Formatp. 82
Construct a Scoring Key and/or Rubricp. 82
Administer the Testp. 83
Score the Test and Analyze the Resultsp. 84
Conclusion: A Note about the 10 Stepsp. 87
How Do I Create Good Select-Response Items?p. 91
Some Basic Rules for Writing Select-Response Itemsp. 92
True-False Itemsp. 94
Place Only One Idea in the True-False Statementp. 94
Make Sure the Statement Is Absolutely True or Absolutely Falsep. 95
Avoid Absolute Qualifiers Such as Always, Never, Sometimes, and Usuallyp. 96
Avoid Opinion Statementsp. 96
Avoid Using Negatives in the Statementp. 97
Matchingp. 98
Use Like Content in a Matching Setp. 100
Place Items to Be Matched on the Right With Descriptions on the Leftp. 101
Keep the List Shortp. 101
Provide an Uneven Number of Responses to Matchp. 101
Order Responses in a Logical Mannerp. 101
Multiple Choice Itemsp. 102
Item Stemp. 103
Make the Problem Clear to the Student in the Item Stemp. 104
State the Item Stem in the Positive Whenever Possiblep. 104
Make Sure the Item Stem Does Not Give Away the Correct Answerp. 106
Emphasize Qualifiers Such as Most Likely or Best in the Item Stemp. 107
Answer Choicesp. 108
Make Sure the Answer Choices Are Plausiblep. 108
Make Sure Answer Choices Are Parallel in Grammar and Lengthp. 109
Avoid Using All of the Above or None of the Abovep. 110
Place Answer Choices in a Logical Orderp. 111
Avoid Clues in the Answer Choices That Give Away the Correct Responsep. 111
Make Sure the Correct Response Is the Only Correct Responsep. 112
A Final Consideration: Biasp. 112
Some Principles for Tapping Higher Cognitive Levels of Learning through Multiple Choice Itemsp. 114
Refine Your Understanding of Content and Cognitive Levelsp. 116
Introduce Noveltyp. 117
Focus on Complex Contentp. 119
Use an Extended Promptp. 120
Engage With Stimulus Materialp. 122
Developing Valid and Reliable Select-Response Items: A Science and an Artp. 124
How Do I Create Good Supply-Response Items?p. 127
Some Basic Rules for Writing Supply-Response Itemsp. 127
Fill-in-the-Blank or Completion Itemsp. 128
Position Blanks at the End of the Statementp. 128
Limit the Number of Blanksp. 129
Keep All Blank Spaces the Same Lengthp. 130
Short Answer Itemsp. 130
Make the Question and the Nature of the Response Clear to the Studentp. 131
Develop a Scoring Rubric to Accompany Each Short Answer Itemp. 132
Provide Adequate Space for the Responsep. 133
Essaysp. 133
Make the Question and the Nature of the Response Clear to the Studentp. 134
Avoid Options Within the Questionp. 135
Develop a Scoring Rubric to Accompany Each Essay Itemp. 137
A Final Consideration: Biasp. 139
Principles for Tapping Higher Cognitive Levels of Learning Through Short Answer and Essay Itemsp. 140
Refine Your Understanding of Content and Level of Cognitive Demandp. 140
Introduce Noveltyp. 141
Focus on Complex Contentp. 143
Use an Extended Promptp. 144
Provide Stimulus Materialp. 145
Developing Rubrics for Scoring Short Answer and Essay Itemsp. 146
Types of Scoring Rubricsp. 146
Checklistp. 147
Holistic Rubricp. 147
Analytical Rubricp. 148
Guidelines for Developing a Scoring Rubricp. 150
Tips for Applying a Rubricp. 152
Score Responses Anonymouslyp. 152
Review Scored Responses for Consistency in Scoringp. 152
Have Someone Else Score Student Responses Using the Scoring Rubricp. 153
Score Each Item With Rubric for All Students Before Moving onto the Next Itemp. 153
Developing Valid and Reliable Supply-Response Items: A Deliberate Approachp. 154
Providing Feedback from Tests to Support Student Learningp. 157
Gradingp. 159
How Should Classroom Tests Be Graded?p. 159
How Can Test Results Be Used to Support Student Learning?p. 162
Formative Feedbackp. 164
Does Formative Feedback Support Student Learning?p. 164
What Are the Characteristics of Good Formative Feedback?p. 165
How Can I Provide Formative Feedback to Students?p. 168
Summing Up What We Know About Providing Feedbackp. 173
Fostering Students' Abilities to Self-Assess: The Tacit Outcomes of Feedbackp. 174
How Can I Constructively Influence Professional Practice in My School?p. 179
Assessment as a Professional Competencyp. 179
Teachers Must Be Effective Creators of Assessmentsp. 180
Teachers Must Be Intelligent Consumers of Assessmentsp. 181
Teachers Must Be Effective Communicators About Assessmentsp. 182
Teacher Leadership: Constructively Influencing the Professional Practice of Othersp. 185
Lead by Examplep. 185
Collaborate With Other Teachersp. 185
Advocate for Professional Development in the Area of Assessmentp. 186
Constructively Develop and Critically Review Assessments Used by School Districtsp. 187
Inform Policy Regarding the Use of Assessment in the Classroomp. 188
Summing Up Teacher Leadership of Assessmentp. 189
Glossary of Termsp. 191
Appendix: The Student Evaluation Standardsp. 195
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